|Publication number||US2680630 A|
|Publication date||Jun 8, 1954|
|Filing date||Apr 16, 1949|
|Priority date||Apr 16, 1949|
|Publication number||US 2680630 A, US 2680630A, US-A-2680630, US2680630 A, US2680630A|
|Inventors||Morris R Machol|
|Original Assignee||Machol Edge Index Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (13), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 8, 1954 MACHOL 2,680,630
READY REFERENCE INDEX FOR BOOKS, ETC
Filed April 16 1949 III III
INVENTOR. MORRIS RMAcHoL A TTOP/VEKF Patented June 8, 1954 READY REFERENCE INDEX FOR BOOKS, ETC.
Morris R. Macho], New York, N. Y., assignor to Machol Edge Index, Inc., New York, N. Y., a
corporation of New York Application April 16, 1949, Serial No. 87,969
3 Claims. 1
My invention relates to providing permanent code or symbol markings visible when a book is closed to designate as an index the multiple divisions or section or groups of pages of each separate subject matter in the book. In many multi-subject books having a large number of pages, such as alphabetically classified subjects, the pages containing names beginning with each letter should for clarity and convenience be clearly discernible before opening the book, and therefore distinguishable on viewing the closed edges of the leaves. Or when fanning the pages of the book the distinctive symbol markings on the edges of one or more pages or each section or group will be readily discernible lined up horizontally with the corresponding symbol on the index page. Such books may be directories, dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc., or books having tabulated matter such as logarithm, tables of functions having numerical subject matter in sections, and others, particularly when the number of pages varies for different subject classifications.
My improvements include the printing on pages of a book at the same time that the normal con text printing of the book material occurs, of certain markings in certain positions which upon binding and trimming the pages of the book re.- sults in code or symbol marking clearly visible and differentiated at the page or leaf edges of Q the fanned or closed book. My invention also contemplates so fashioning and arranging these simultaneously printed markings on successive pages, in a manner that when the leaves are assembled and trimmed to uniformly finish, the
leaf edges, my markings will appear withcertainty on the cut edges of the pages accurately positioned and permanently located as a readily visible and distinguishable section or group component of an index. p r
In the case of a telephone directory, names beginning with the same letter may occur on only a few or on many pages. For example, I, V, X, Y, Z may need only from one to four pages, and A, B, C, M and S may cover sixty to one hundred or more pages. So the stack or group of leaf edges will vary in thickness with each letter, and the ready distinguishing of leaf edge markings indicating the pages for some letter-names may not always be clear to some eyes. For these pages I provide certain variations in fashioning the marking as hereinafter set forth. I
In the practice of my invention a plurality or stack of leaves or pages for each group of names having the same initial letter are so marked in- 7 tion.
beginning with letter B;
'edge that the index designations bleed to the edge of each leaf and appear on the closed book on the page edges, no matter how the leaves aretrimmed, of all of the similarly printed leaves and preferably with the same printing ink to form a clear readily visible mark or code symbol from the first to the last page having names with that initial letter. Furthermore, by having the like mark or symbol adjacent each letter in a column of letters of a masterlist on the adjacent margin of a cover or flyleaf or other readily located page of the book, an immediate clear indication of the corresponding reference letter and index symbol is facilitated and assured.
A major and important advantage of my invention is that it adds practically nothing to the cost of producing the book. I
I am aware that attempts have been made to index book edges by cutting into them recesses such'as finger holds, and applying a letter label, adding greatly to cost. Also I am aware that it has been suggested to variously imprint near the edges of different leaves different sizes or forms of marking, or with different colors, but such imprints upon trimming of the assembled sheets cannot form a letter or identifiable marking visible on closing the book as the stack or batch of pages for each letter is always different. Also prior suggestions of marking the first page where a letter name subject begins have the disadvantage that the'closed book can at best show only a single leaf edge line, of dubious visibility, and defeating the object of readily selecting the whole group of letter leaves sought. In all prior suggestions substantial added cost is involved, and attempts at composition striving to secure registration of markings to show on the closed book defeat an essential purpose of any such attempts at indexing. 'Such prior attempts, also involve marks that become obliterated, are difficult to 'read, and wear or tear off.
One embodiment of my invention is illustrated in the. accompanying drawings in which;
Fig. 1 shows the face or cover page in flat, with closed pages in perspective, ofa voluminous book withalphabetically arranged sections of subject matter, in a preferred embodiment of my inven- Fig. 2 shows. a fragmentary corner of a page having subject names beginnin With A;
Fig. 3: shows a fragmentary corner and marginal portion of' a page having subject names Fig. 4 shows a like part of a page having subject names beginning with C;
Fig. 5 shows a fragment with top and considerable margin of a page having subject names beginning with letter H;
Fig. 6 shows a fragment with part top and margin of a page having subject names beginning with letter I;
Fig. 6a. shows a fragment of the margin of another page underlying a page with names beginning with I;
Fig. 6b shows a fragment of the margin of another underlying page with names beginning with I.
In Fig. 1 the cover or fly page I has two columns of master letters, 3 and 4, half of the alphabet being on each column. And if desired for more legible viewing to vertically space or separate master letters such letters having only a few pages of names can be combined, as I with J, P with Q, and X, Y and Z. For such modification the marking index lines on these pages can be of progressively different, preferably of diminishing width.
The perspective view of the book leaf edges 2 shows the bled line edges of A pages at M each equidistant from the top of the page and the same distance therefrom as the single mark 5 on the cover adjacent the letter A. Also the mark 29 half way across the edges of the closed book opposite the single mark 5 and the same distance from the top of the page designates the adjacent letter N.
Similarly two readily visible line marks 6 are opposite the letters B and O on the cover page, and on the page edges opposite them appear the two double line symbols 5 for B pages and 2! for 0 pages, each formed by bleeding of lines printed on the margins of the pages bearing corresponding subject matter.
And similarly three line marks are horizontally in line opposite letters C and P on the index page, and the alining page edge visible symbols comprising three marks l6 indicate C pages and the three marks 22 indicate P pages.
I then repeat the symbols comprising one, two and three marks respectively, successively down the master letter column and horizontally opposite thereto print page edge marks in correspondin groups of one, two or three. For some books I may use only one and two mark symbols, and repeat them, but adjacent letters have different number of lines.
As the number of pages for each letter is different, in current large city telephone books, varying from one page to more than 60 or 90, so that the accumulation of leaf edge marks will vary in length as shown on the perspective bookedge view.
If desired I may have a broad bleed line on each of the first few pages where a letter occupies only a few leaves, and then print bleed lines of successively narrower width on a number of following underlying leaves, so that the combined marks on contiguous edges will appear as a pyramid or wedge with only the broad end visible on the beginning page of the designated letter section to enable ready selection of the beginning of the subject matter.
In Fig. 2 is shown the single mark [4 on a page Ma havin names beginning with A, which line is similarly positioned on succeeding A pages, printed when the regular contents of these pages are printed, and bled in the margin to the edge of the sheet, thereby forming a code mark or symbol equidistant from the top front of each A leaf with the distance of mark 5 from the top of the master column.
In Fig. 3 the double lines constituting the symbol 15 are the same distance from the top of each B letter page 511 as lines 6 on the cover are from the top of the master column.
In Fig. 4 the triple lines forming the symbol E5 on fragment lea designating (3 pages are separated vertically from the double lines designating B pages or the single line designating D pages.
Fig. 5 shows a fragment Ila of a letter I-I page bearing a symbol consisting of two marks well separated far below the double line symbols designating B and E pages.
Fig. 6 shows the triple line symbol on fragment 3a. of letter I pages, far from the three line marks for C or P, but as letters beginning with I occupy very few pages I may print narrower lines as shown in Fig. 6a and Fig 612 on several following pages such as fragment 13b and I30, each set of marks 13d, l3e and It being bled to the sheet edge, even though not on I pages, so that in the closed book the accumulated sheet edges clearly appear but as a wedge or pyramid at 13g as shown on edge 2 of Fig. 1 in perspective with the head of such caret registering with the first leaves of the I pages, so permitting ready reference to the beginning of the group of pages with I names.
In Fig. 1 the triple lines forming the symbol designating the S pages are separated vertically from the double lines designating R pages or the single lines designating T pages. The possible confusion of marks opposite these three letters is eliminated by my usingrespectively 2, 3 and 1 lines as against using a single mark.
The mark lines on leaves which bleed to the edge of the paper of pages carrying them and the mark lines adjacent the master letter columns are preferably of like width, and wide enough for easy readability or visibility, such as about one sixteenth of an inch, as I find such size ives distinct marks on leaf edges when a reference book, as a large phone directory, is fanned or closed.
If the use of all letters of the alphabet cramps the master column some may be combined and all more clearly spaced. Or if, as indicated in Fig. 1, I separate the alphabet into two vertical columns of letters it provides twice the vertical separation between adjacent letters. Then though two letters have the same symbol on the edges of the respective subject pages they are widely separated across the book page edges and are clearly distinguishable.
So if desired I may in some cases use both broad and narrow lines at the same level, such as combining P and Q on the master column and making broad marks on pages of P names and narrow marks on Q name pages.
In some cases I may print the column of subject identifyin letters or marks on the margins of the subject pages, with or without adjacent symbols corresponding to the symbols on the page edges.
Variations may be made, such asin arrangement of the master column guide, to suit the size of book or character of subject divisions involved. In some uses of my invention more than a series of three single double and triple marks may be used as symbols, or only two variations in marking, for the groups of differing numbers of pages for each adjacent subject division.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A book with groups of pages of different subject matter having an index page with a vertical column of subject designations printed thereon, a symbol printed on and bled to the free edge of said index page in horizontal alinement with each subject designation, the portion of each symbol immediately adjacent to the free edge of the page comprising one or more lines substantially normal to said page edge, each such symbol comprising a different number of such lines from the immediately adjacent symbol, together with corresponding symbols respectively printed on and bled to the page edge of at least one of the pages of each indexed subject matter to be readily visible thereon when the pages are bent and each of which symbols lines up horizontally with an identical symbol in horizontal alinement with the corresponding subject designation on said index page.
2. A book having groups of pages of indexed subject matter and an index page with a vertical column of subject designations printed near its outer edge identifying said subject matter together with a vertical series of distinguishing symbols printed therewith on the outer edge of said index page, said symbols being in horizontal alinement each with a separate subject designation and each adjacent symbol consisting essentially of non-identical numbers of parallel lines, and corresponding symbols respectively printed on and bled to the page edge of at least one of the pages of each indexed subject matter to be readily visible thereon when the pages are bent and which respectively register horizontally with an identical symbol in alinement with the corresponding subject designation on said index page.
3. A book having groups of pages of indexed subject matter and an index page with a vertical column of subject designations printed near its outer edge identifying said subject matter together with a vertical series of distinguishing symbols printed therewith on the outer edge of said index page, said symbols being in horizontal alinement each with a separate subject designation and each symbol diiiering from the immediately adjacent symbol above and below in the amount of vertical space occupied by it on the edge of the page, and corresponding symbols respectively printed on and bled to the page edge of at least one of the pages of each indexed subject matter to be readily visible thereon when the pages are bent and which respectively register horizontally with an identical symbol in alinement with the corresponding subject designation on said index page.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 813,748 Smith Feb. 27, 1906 1,132,222 Smith Mar. 16, 1915 1,866,968 Ellison July 12, 1932 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 1,801 Great Britain 1877 77,119 Switzerland Aug. 1, 1918
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US813748 *||Jun 27, 1904||Feb 27, 1906||Louis R Smith||Book-index.|
|US1132222 *||Nov 16, 1911||Mar 16, 1915||Book-index.|
|US1866968 *||Jan 10, 1930||Jul 12, 1932||Frank H Ellison||Indexed book|
|CH77119A *||Title not available|
|GB187701801A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4813710 *||Nov 3, 1986||Mar 21, 1989||Weilgart Alexander W||Dictionary index|
|US4854202 *||Dec 21, 1987||Aug 8, 1989||Donald R. McNab||Apparatus for providing beveled edge pads|
|US4927178 *||Oct 18, 1988||May 22, 1990||Elieser Schechter||Indexed reference book|
|US4949999 *||May 23, 1988||Aug 21, 1990||Ke Hui Cui||Book indexing system|
|US4951569 *||Apr 21, 1989||Aug 28, 1990||Donald R. McNab||Method and apparatus for providing beveled edge pads|
|US5169175 *||Oct 17, 1990||Dec 8, 1992||Jerkunica Marinko M||Page viewer|
|US5306048 *||Mar 10, 1993||Apr 26, 1994||Se Joon Park||Atlas provided with colored indexes|
|US5517777 *||Oct 25, 1994||May 21, 1996||Gagnon, Jr.; Thomas A.||Playing cards with edge carried indicia|
|US5624138 *||Oct 8, 1994||Apr 29, 1997||Park; Sae J.||Dictionary provided with letter indexes|
|US6048114 *||Feb 7, 1996||Apr 11, 2000||De Troz; Vincent||Method of printing on the edge of a book|
|US20080053327 *||Sep 1, 2006||Mar 6, 2008||Weilacher Richard L||Identifying sheets within stacks using edge marking|
|DE3930276C1 *||Sep 11, 1989||May 8, 1991||Diehl Gmbh & Co, 8500 Nuernberg, De||Technical data hand-book - has coloured identification markers extending over edges of pages|
|WO1982003699A1 *||Apr 26, 1982||Oct 28, 1982||Kaye Stanton||Title edge apparatus for serially produced collated copy|
|U.S. Classification||283/38, D19/33|