US 2680992 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 15, 1954 M, HERBNN 2,680,992
AP'PARATUS FOR SLICING @RGANIC TISSUE Filed Aug. 5, 195o Wmo. ma;
Patented June 15, 1954 APPARATUS FOR SLICENG ORGANIC TISSUE Maurice Herbain,
Paris, France, assigner to Usines Chimiques des Laboratoires Francais,
Paris, France, a body corporate of France Application August 5, 1950, Serial No. 177,896
Claims priority, application France August 8, 1949 e Claims.
This invention relates to an apparatus for hand-slicing organic tissue.
When studying, for instance, the respiration of organic tissue, usually a number of small slices of said tissue must be prepared which must be of uniform and substantially equal thickness. Hand-cutting these slices by means of a razor does not give satisfactory results due to the irregular size and thickness of the slices obtained and to the slowness of this operation.
One object of the present invention consists in providing means and ways of overcoming these disadvantages and didiculties, said means and ways comprising a special construction or a microtome.
rl"he drawings illustrate a preferred embodiment of this invention without however, limiting the same to said preferred embodiment.
Fig. l shows a longitudinal section through the microtome and, especially through the support and the two members adapted to hold the`tissue to be sliced, and through the cutting blade and its frame mounting; Fig. 2 is a plan view of said support; Fig. 3 represents in section, the support shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 4 is a plan view of the cuting blade and its frame mounting, illustrated in Fig. 1; Fig. 5 is a plan view of another cutting means; Fig. 6 is a cross-section through Fig. 5 along the line lli-B.
According to the illustrated embodiment of the present invention, the apparatus comprises a U- shaped support l the two parallel legs being tted with two cylindrical sleeves t and Il, provided with coaxial bores therethrough, the bore 5 being threaded internally. A hollow cylinder 2, part of its length being threaded externally, is fitted in screw threaded relation with the bore 6. The nut I3 locks said cylinder 2 in any desired position. The inner surface of said cylinder 2 is provided with longitudinal grooves serving to hold and guide the tissue therein. The free end of cylinder 2 is threaded internally and carries a plunger, a portion of which is threaded to provide a screw 'i cooperating with the cylinder 2. The forward cylindrical portion 8 of said plunger has a smooth sliding t with the internal portion of the cylinder 2, whereby the plunger may be adjusted to form a chamber 26. The head of the plunger is knurled and carries a resilient spring nger 3, said linger resting upon the outer surface of cylinder 2. The free end of said cylinder member 2 is provided on its circumference with longitudinal grooves (not shown), spaced at equal distances from each other, and cooperating with said finger 9 to arrest and lock said finger and the screw 'E to an adjusted position.
The member 3, which carries in recess 28 in its front face, the severed tissue specimen, is arranged for quick removal from the device in order that said specimen may be readily made available for examination by other instruments. The recess is preferably circular and has a depth equal to the thickness of the desired tissue speciman. To permit such ready removal of the specimen supporting member 3, its supporting sleeve l l is formed with a slight taper or conical configuration, as a resilient clamp. To provide the necessary resiliency in the member H, it is formed with a series of slots It (see Figs. 1 and 2), and is externally threaded as illustrated in Fig. 3. The band lll, which is provided with screw threads cooperating with corresponding screw threads on the specimen carrying member E and the lock nut It, is slidably arranged in the sleeve l! (see Fig. 1) The threaded clamp ring i2 engages the threaded tapered portion of the sleeve ll and consequently, when the ring E2 is screwed toward the left, it exerts clamping pressure on the members i0, 3 and i4, as it travels up the screwed threaded taper, thereby clamping the specimen supporting member 3 in its adjusted position. When the ring l2 is rotated down the taper of the threaded portion of the sleeve Il, the members Hi, 3 and hl are released from clamping action and may be removed as a unit from the device by a combined turning and sliding motion.
The specimen supporting member 3 carries on its rear face a lug forming a seat :for a wrench, whereby the member 3 may be adjusted to determine the width of the cutting slot 2l'. The member 3 is secured in position by means of lock nut i4, which is provided at its rear face with a slot providing a seat for a screwdriver.
The specimen cutting blade is carried by a frame 5, which is made up of two side members It and il, and a cross member connecting the same. One of the frames is provided with a recess !8 into which the blade d is positioned to lie substantially iiush with the inside suriace of the recess frame. The two frames are connected by the hinges l5 and are locked together by a suitable lock i9. The blade is shown in dotted lines in Fig. l lying in a recess in the right-hand frame member. The blade 1l is preferably of the razor blade type. The frame 5 is arranged to reciprocate, completing a severing action with each downward stroke. The frame members i E and I7 are accurately guided in the slot 2li. The unit comprising the members in, l and 3 are adjustable to narrow the cutting slot 21 to substantially the thickness of the blade and consequently,
when the blade descends and engages the tissue, its iront face will lie against the face of the specimen supporting member 3, and its rear face slidably engages the rim of the cylinder 2.
A modiiication of the blade mounting is shown in Figs. and 6. The mounting consists of a metal plate 2|! provided with a rectangular cutout 2 l, bordered by two parallel guides into which the ends of the blade 22 fit snugly. A shoulder 23 extends over the entire length of the upper part of the mounting and limits the movement of the frame Within the slot 24.
The microtome as described above is operated as follows:
In order to place a piece of tissue into the chamber 26, the member 3 is removed. A warm iiuid capable oi gelatininzing and solidifying at room temperature is introduced into said chamber, said fluid being of such a nature that it does not aiect the tissue to be sliced. A suitable fiuid of this type is, for instance, an aqueous solution of 5% agar-agar. t can readily be liquefied by heating in a boiling water bath. Before lling it into chamber 28, it is preferably cooled to e0 degrees C. Thereafter, the piece of tissue to be sliced, is placed in the chamber. Upon cooling, the solidified fluid secures the tissue in the chamber. The member 3 is then replaced and the piece oi tissue is iirmly pressed against said member 3 by turning on the lug '5. The pressure exerted thereby upon the tissue must be regulated carefully and precisely, inasmuch as the thickness of the sample obtained on cutting the tissue depends upon said pressure, as well as upon the thickness of the blade and the depth of the recess in member 3. As soon as said pressure is properly adjusted, the blade is inserted between the two faces of the slot 2l. The blade frame is then operated by hand with a backward and forward motion, and slight pressure while it is being guided by the frame mounting between the faces of the slot 2li, and the blade is passing through the slot 2l.
The severed slice of the tissue is removed by loosening the ring i2 and withdrawing the members 3, l0 and i4 as a unit. The sample is removed from the recess in member 3, or from the cutting blade il, should it stick thereto. Thereafter, the members 3, lil and le are replaced, and the device is ready to sever a second slice from the tissue remaining in the chamber 26. The operator then advances the cylindrical portion of the plunger 8 by rotating the head of the plunger, thereby advancing the plunger by the interengagement of the threaded parts i and 2. When the tissue has been projected into the member 3, the severing action is repeated. The recovery of the slice is made by the repeated removal of the members 3, IB and i4. If a third slice is required, the same operations are performed.
When using, for instance, a cutting blade of 8.3 mm. thickness and 'a member 3 in the center of which there is provided a recess of 0.3 mm. depth, a sample is obtained having a thickness of about 0.4 mm.
If difficulties are encountered on loosening the sample from the member 3, it should be immersed into a suitable physiological liquid. This has to be done in any case in order to remove the congealable iiuid with which the sample is impregnated.
It is advisable to rmly attach the apparatus to a main support by means of a clamping device which holds, for instance, the U-shaped support I at its sides.
Of Course. many changes and variations in the arrangement of the various parts of this instrument, the means for carrying out the invention, and the like may be made by those skilled in the art in accordance with the principles set forth herein and in the claims annexed hereto. It is, for instance, possible to construct certain elements of a microtome according to this invention in a way entirely diierent from the example given, without departing from the principles of this invention. For instance, the longitudinal grooves inside of chamber 26 may be much more pronounced whereby the advantage is achieved that the tissue is kept in place without the use of a solidifying and adhesive fluid.
A microtome according to this invention may be used for cutting off slices from any kind of organic tissue and similar material, provided said material offers only slight resistance to cutting and is of sufficient cohesiveness to yield thin slices.
The cutting blade 4 may be provided at its cutting edge with a bevel on one side only or with a double bevel, one on each side of its cutting edge. The type of blade with but a single bevel cuts close to the Wall of the member 3 and the slice thus obtained will have a thickness approximately 0.30 mm. viz: equal substantially to the depth of the recess 28. A blade with a double bevel cutting edge cuts generally midway of the slot 21 and tends to produce a slice slightly thicker than that produced by the single bevel type oi blade. The difference however, is negligible for practical purposes. It is preferred to use the type of blade with/a two bevel cutting edge. Whether with a single bevel or a double bevel, the smooth frictional t of the blade, in the cutting slot 2T, is obtained by adjusting the members 6 and 3.
A 5% gel of gelose, for solidifying the tissue, has been found to be satisfactory.
l. In an apparatus for slicing organic tissue and like material, oilering only slight resistance to cutting, a U-shaped support, the legs of said support forming between them a slot, sleeves carried by the legs of said support, said sleeves being provided with coaxial bores, tissue holding members carried by said sleeves, one of said members being adapted to carry the tissue to be severed, and the othermember being adapted to carry the severed tissue, said tissue holding members being provided with opposed recesses, the member carrying the tissue to be sliced being internally threaded at its outer end, a threaded plunger cooperating with said outer end, a portion of said plunger extending into the recess of the tissue carrying member, said tissue carrying member and said plunger having a relatively smooth sliding lit, the recess of the tissue carrying member having longitudinal grooves in its inner Wall, the other sleeve having a series of slots providing a resilient clamp, the outer surface of the said other sleeve being slightly tapered, a band having sliding relation within said sleeve and being removable theretrom, an internally threaded clamping ring interengaging the threaded portion of said other sleeve, said ring when traveling up said taper, compressing said clamp, the severed tissue carrying member and said band being correspondingly threaded, said severed tissue carrying member being adjustable in respect of the slot in said U-shaped support, the recess of said severed tissue carrying member having a depth substantially equal to the thickness of the slice to be cut 5. from the tissue, and means to lock the severed tissue carrying member to its adjusted position, a frame, a cutting blade carried by the frame, said frame and cutting blade being adapted to reciprocate in said slot.
2. In an apparatus for slicing organic tissue and like material, a tissue carrying member, a slice carrying member, said members being aligned in substantially the same path, a seat in the forward end of the carrying member to support the tissue to be sliced a recess in the slice carrying member, said recess having a predetermined depth, means to project one of said members relatively to the other and to insert the free end of said tissue under pressure into said recess, a slot between the inner faces of said tissue carrying member and said slice carrying member, a frame carrying a slice severing knife, said frame tting into and sliding in said slot and being accurately guided by the Walls of said slot during sliding movement of said frame, means on the f-rame for securing the knife thereto and permitting its removal.
3. In an apparatus for slicing organic tissue and like material offering only slight resistance to cutting, a support, a tissue carrying member, a severed tissue carrying member, both of said members being carried by said support, said members being aligned in a common path on said support with their tissue carrying portions facing, said members having relative movement on said support toward and away from one another, a slot in said support, the faces of said members in advanced position Ventering said slot,
means carrying a severing device said means 35 tting into said slot and sliding in said slot to kguide the severing device to slice a specimen from the end of the tissue.
4. In an apparatus for slicing organic tissue and like material oiering only slight resistance to cutting, a U-shaped support, the legs of said support forming between them a slot, a tissue carrying member mounted on one of said legs, means to progressively move the said member toward said slot, a seat in the forward face of said member for tissue to be severed, a severed tissue carrying member mounted on the other leg, a seat in said severed tissue member for the severed tissue, means to adjust said last men tioned member toward and away from said slot, the said seats facing each other, means carrying a severing device, said means iitting into said slot and sliding therein to guide the severing device to slice a specimen from said tissue.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 515,174 Slee Feb. 20, 1894 1,580,932 Thomas et al Apr. 13, 1926 1,580,933 Thomas et al Apr. 13, 1926 1,747,461 Vaughan Feb. 18, 1930 1,797,694 Ott Mar. 24, 1931 2,162,122 Resch June 13, 1939 2,292,973 Richards Aug. 11, 1942 2,482,853 Ladd Sept. 27, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 558,817 France June 2, 1923