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Publication numberUS2681110 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 15, 1954
Filing dateMar 5, 1954
Priority dateMar 5, 1954
Publication numberUS 2681110 A, US 2681110A, US-A-2681110, US2681110 A, US2681110A
InventorsHarrison Harry W
Original AssigneeHarrison Harry W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Well tool
US 2681110 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

H. w. HARRlsoN wm. Toor.

June I5, 1954 Original Filed July 25, 1951 2 Sheets-Sheet l Il .f

ATTORNEY June 15, 1954 H'. w. HARRISON' 21,681,110

WELL ToorJ original Filed July 26, 1951 2 snee'ts-snet 2 .www W ATTORNEY UNITED STATES WELL TOOL Harry W. Harrison, Houston, Tex.

TENT OFFICE Continuation of application Serial No. 238,636,

July 26, 1951, which is a continuation of application Serial No. 661,928, April 13, 1946. This application March 5, 1954, Serial No. 414,286

9 Claims. (Cl. 166-55) This invention relates to a Well tool, and more Fig. 1 is an elevational View partly in section particularly to a tool that is capable of being showing the upper portion of a tool embodying lowered into a cased Well bore for actuation to the invention and includes the packer and the byperforate the casing, to admit formation fluids pass assembly therefor; to the interior thereof, and to effectively obtain t Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectional View taken on a sample of the admitted fluids. line 2--E in Fig. 5;

This application is a -continuation of my prior Fig. 3 is a sectional View taken on line 3 3 application iiled July 26, 1951, bearing `Serial in Fia 1; No. 238,636, now abandoned, for an invention in Fig. i iS a detail irl SeetiOIl Showing e modified Well Tool, which is in turn a continuation of lo construction for providing a releasable connecmy prior application, Serial No. 661,928 for an iiOIl Within the Sampling valve assembly; invention in Well T001 med April 13, 1946, now Fie- 5 is en elevational View partly in section abandoned. The present application is entitled to Showing' the Slip assembly and the Valve and illip the pement of the nung date of April 13, 194e mechanism fer edmit'nsasample and comprises for all common subject matter. lo a continuation of Fig. 12

The primary object of the invention is to pro- FigS- 6 e-Ild 7 efe eleVetiOllel VieWS partly in vide e, well tool that is Simp1e beth in construesection showing successive portions of the gun tion and operation and that is extremely effective DelfOTetel COmDiSing the lOWe pOrtOll 0f the in accomplishing results for which it is intended. 1300i? Another object is to provide a well 15001 0f novel 20 Fig. 8 is an enlarged sectional detail of the leak construction in which the component parts are DIOO J'Cli et ille upper emi 0f Jelle pelfOIeiOI; so constructed and arranged that it is extremely Fg- 9 iS e llfizeliilel Sectiemel View ialel O11 compact and hence may be readily transported line 9 9 in Fig 6, and Showing the Ilo-back to and from the leggi-,ien Where used mechanism which holds the perforator against A further object is to provide a Well tool that Totaion When OpeieiiiOIl theieef iS effeeiled; includes a gun performer, e, Segregatjng packer Fig. 10 is an enlarged detail in section showand e, valve assembly, 3,11 Operame through a ing one of the guns comprising elements of the tubing string to selectively eiTect desired operinventionations. A tool embodying the invention is generally The tool of the invention is so constructed Shown et i as ell'leeted i0 e tubing 01 Operating that all necessary operations can be carried out String 2, SllCl'l li001 'eellpi'leirlg e Valve and Beeke? by manipulacion of Jhe Operai-,ing suing section 3 at its upper end, a slip section 4, a valve Still another object is to provide a Well tool and Wip mecha-msm 5, and the gurl DerOratOl having a through mandrel capable of manipulaii Suspended therebeneeiih. tion to ectuete the gun perform-,ing meehemelfny An important feature of the invention resides te sei; a packer Within the Wen, and te Open and in the construction which includes a composite @105e e, uid Sampling valve through mandrel lil including a valve coupling S11-,111 mother Object is te provide a gun peril threadedly interconnected through a coupling forator which is actuated by the relative rotate the tubing string 2. This mandrel extends tion and axial movement 0f parte thereof, the 40 downwardly through the valve and packer section mechanism including a no-back assembly where- 3 and the Slip assembly li and terminates in the by the gun assembly is held stationary while the valve member i ef the valve and trip mechanism actuating mechanism is placed in operation 5- The Valve Coupling il iS threaded internally through rotation of the operating string and the at l2 for attachment of the chore i3 thereto so through mandrel. that entrance of a sample to the operating Still another Object is te provide a, gun per.. string 2 is regulated. This choke may also serve forator including a gun unit 0f novel construeas a bottom hole choke in event conditions wartion and capable of effectively performing the Temi Permitting the iOOl 170 remain in the Well desired perforating operation. so that the Well can be flowed therethrough.

The foregoing objects are the primary objects The lower end of the valve coupling ii has a of the invention, which together with other ob- VeiVe Suffeee i4 thereon. This Surface is enjects and advantages will be more fully apparent gageable With the Seat l5 theiebelw 170 ClOSe the from the following description considered in conn Passage i5 through the Deckel" assembly 3 and nection with the accompanying drawings in about the mandrel l0. This assembly comprises which: a collar 2B Which is peripherally slotted at 2i and which is connected by means of coupling 22 to the seat member 5 and to nipple 23 in turn connected to ring 24. Slidably fitting within the ring 2li is annulus 3! slotted at 3G to facilitate passage of fluids upwardly about the mandrel Hl. The annulus 3@ is attached to the packer sleeve 25 which is surrounded by packer rings 26 proximate its upper end. These packer rings may be separated as desired, by spacers 2l, and the telescopic structure just described is such as to permit relative axial movement between the ring 2d and the sleeve 25.

A ring 28 beneath the lowermost acker ring 26 rests upon a shoulder 29 on the sleeve 25, and it thus becomes possible upon relative axial movement of the rings 24 and 23 to expand the packer rings into sealing engagement with a surrounding casing in which the tool is being used.

Attention is directed to the fact that the collar 2li has an inwardly extending flange 9 at its upper end engageable with ring i3 secured to the valve coupling ii of the mandrel EQ. This serves to positively lift the collar 2% and associated elements when the mandrel it is lifted.

Prcximate the lower end of the packer sleeve 25 are tapered stepped peripheral areas 3l and 32 (Fig. 5) which are complementary to inner faces 33 and 3ft on slips 35 which extend through openings 35 in the cage El slidably surrounding the lower end of the packer sleeve fio. There a releasable connection between the cage il and the sleeve t5, suoli connection comprising an inn Verted .l-slot into which projects the head of an anchor pin di threadedly secured to the sleeve 25.

Drag springs i2 are secured to the cage 3l intermediate the slips 35. The upper end of each spring is attached to the ring 38 which is slidable upon the member 25 below the by-pass slots 3g therein.

The lower end of the sleeve 25 is connected to the housing i5 which extends downwardly about the mandrel it* and terminates in a skirt portion l surrounding the admission valve l. Near the upper end of the housing l5 an enlargement 5i? in the bore thereof forms a bowl to receive segments 5l which, as shown in Fig. 5, are threaded for engagement with complemental threads on valve member i and have tapered surfaces 52 complementary to the interior of the bowl. These segments are guided for upward linear movement only along the inner walls of the bowl by means of guide screws 53 threadedly secured thereto and passing through slots 51's in the housing.

Axially extending bores in the walls of the housing slidably receive the heads of pins which are resiliently held downwardly by compression springs 5l secured in place by caps 58 at the upper ends thereof. This arrangement normally holds the segments 5i upon the shoulder e2, but enables a functioning of the device as will be more fully described.

Within the skirt le of the housing iii is an annular gland ring 5e surrounding the valve member l', there being one or more seal rings Se interposed between the ring and the member both above and below the ports 6i in the latter. The gland ring 59 is constantly urged downwardly by means of spring 63 to normally hold the complementary shoulders @9 into engagement, and obviously at such time the passage 5i is maintained closed.

An alternate form of the connection between the mandrel l and the housing 45 as just described is shown in Fig. 4 wherein the segments 4 5l are not threaded, but instead are provided with an interiorly cut away portion Si? whereby the segments provide an annulus t6 at their lower ends for co-action with the spring ring 53 which fits within the groove 58 in the upper end of the valve member l. Y v

In order to disconnect the mandrel i3 from the housing 45 and associated elements as shown in Fig. 5, the mandrel i9 may be rotated, preferably in a clockwise direction as viewed from above, so that the mandrel is unthreaded downwardly. As soon as the connection is released the mandrel is, of course, free to move downwardly relative to the remainder of the device and such downward movement will cause the gland ring 59 to move downwardly with the valve, assisted by the force exerted by the spring 63, until the stop or collar Sil at the lower end of the housing is engaged by the gland ring. Further relative movement between the parts will cause the valve member 'l to move outwardly from within the gland ring whereupon the passage 5i in the valve is uncovered, and a sample of iuid is permitted to enter the mandrel, it being intended that such sample shall be flowed to the surface or withdrawable for examination when the tool is removed from the well.

When it is desired to close the passage el and to enti-ap the fluid sample within the mandrel and the operating string thereabove, the mandrel is moved in the opposite direction. Such movement will cause the teeth upon the mandrel and the segmented nut 5i to contact whereupon the segments of the nut will rise against the tension of the springs El a suflicient distance that the threads will over-ride and interengage without the necessity of producing relative rotation between the mandrel and the remainder of the assembly.

The operation of the alternate construction shown in Fig. 4 is comparable to that just described. As distinguishing, however, it is to be noted that, once the slip assembly is set, a downward thrust upon the mandrel il will cause the spring ring 5l to contract and therefore pass within the annulus 65 whereby the connection is released. Downward movement of the mandrel i0 will effect valving operations in the manner just described. When it is desired to close the passage 6l and thereby to entrap a sample within the mandrel it, the mandrel is moved in the opposite direction whereupon the ring 5'! engages the annulus 66 on the segments iii The segments will then rise within the bowl 5? against the tension of the springs El until the ring el enters the space e5 above the annnlus t5 whereby the interconnection of the mandrel with the remainder of the device is again effected.

The composite through mandrel Eil which includes the admission valve member 'i is connected to the upper end of the gun perfcrator S by means of the stem 'l5 which is hollow and encloses a pressure bomb lil supported by the springs 'l1 and i8, there being passages i9 in the stem to provide for the entrance of huid whereby pressures at the level of the device will be properly indicated by the bomb l5. The springs 'il and 'I8 are instrumental in protecting the bomb against forces arising from impacts and which would otherwise give spurious readings of the pressure bomb.

A swivel connection 30' between the lower end of the mandrel and the upper end of the gun perforator is shown in Fig. 6. The portion lill is rotatable relative to the portion |32'.

The gun perforator 6 comprises a body 80 that is attached to the ring head 8| by means of threads 82, the member 83 of the firing head having a shoulder 84 thereon (Fig. 8) grooved at 86 to receive an annular seal ring 85 of deformable but non-compressible material such as rubber and the like. The groove 86 has an inwardly tapering wall 81 into which the ring 05 is slightly deformed. If fluids tend to enter the gun along the juncture of the body 80 and the member 83, the pressure exerted upon the ring 85 will cause it to distort wedgingly into the tapered area whereby a rm seal between the members is effected.

A special coupling 90 comprising an element of the no-back assembly 89 is attached to the upper end of member 83 and has an inward ilange 9| at its upper end to overlie a complementary flange 92 on the swivel head 93 which is in turn attached to the stem 15. This coupling has recesses 915|, shown as three in number, (Fig. 9) to receive dogs 95 pivotally mounted at 96 eccentrically of the assembly. These dogs have teeth 91 on their outer surfaces and are constantly urged outwardly, by means of springs 98, into engagement with a surrounding casing 99 within which the tool is used. It seems apparent that the no-back assembly 89 is so constructed that it will permit rotation of the entire gun assembly in a counterclockwise direction as viewed in Fig. 9, but will restrain the gun against rotation in the opposite direction.

If the string 2, and hence the mandrel i and the stein 15, is rotated in a clockwise direction while the gun t is restrained against rotation, as

just explained, the thimble |00 is driven therewith by the drive pin |0| having its inner end extending into the slot |02 in the thimble. This causes the thimble to move downwardly within the threaded sleeve |03 secured to the coupling 90 by screws |04. When the lower end of the thimble engages trip fingers |05 it wedges these lingers inwardly whereby they are dislodged from the ledge |06 on the ring |01 secured in the upper end of the member 83. This releases the cocked trip assembly whereby the pin |08, to which the ngers |05 are pivotally attached, is forced downwardly under the influence of the spring i0. In turn the firing pin assembly I is forced into engagement with the primer or primers i2 from which there proceeds a pressure wave which travels downwardly through the choke ||3 and thence through the passage ||4 to and about the various gun units H5.

Continued rotation of the thimble |00 by means a of the mandrel and drive pin |0| jams the thimble against surface |33 and shears pin |0|. This causes a denite change in the amount of energy required to rotate the string at the top of the well bore which indicates that the ring pin has been released.

The gun body 80 is provided with a plurality of transversely extending bores (Fig. 10) oriented in a desired manner about the gun body. Each of these bores is enlarged and threaded as shown at |2| to receive complementary threads on the barrel |22. The head |23 on the barrel has a tapered nether surface |24 to cooperate with the tapered surface |25 at the mouth of the bore |20 to receive a seal ring |26.

The inner and smaller portion of the bore receives extension |21 of the barrel which is of such diameter as to provide an annular space |20 serving the dual function of transmitting the pressure wave between successive portions of the Cil passage ||4 and also transmitting such wave to the explosive charge |30. Burning of the explosive charge effects discharge of the projectile. |3| and the seal plug |32 from within the bore |33 of the gun barrel. The progressive firing of the gun is, of course, instrumental in producing desired perforations in a surrounding casing.

The gun body is provided with a pin |35 at its lower end for the attachment of the plug |36. A seal |31 at the juncture of these elements is constructed and serves the same purpose as the structure shown in Fig. 8 and heretofore described.

Attention is directed to the fact that the plug |36 may be removed, and by virtue of the construction above described, an additional gun seci tion or sections may be attached and in this mane ner a gun of any desired length may be provided.

The plug |30 is of special construction in that the lower portion thereof is configured peripherally, as by dovetails |31', to hold a cast ring |38 of a soft material, such as lead or other suitable material, thereon. This construction serves as a centering element for the lower end of the tool and the ring |38 thereon, being of a soft material, will readily score when the tool is moved within a casing and thus indicate the existence of burrs or other projections on the wall of the casing, and yet permit passage of the tool. Passages |39 in the plug serve as by-passes for liquid during movement of the tool.

The operation of the tool is believed apparent from the foregoing description. By way of summary of operational steps and the description of the tool, it will be assumed that the successive sections as shown in Figs. l, 5, 6 and '1 are assembled with the respective parts thereof in the relative positions shown in the drawings. The tool is then connected to an operating string 2 and is lowered to the level in a well at which it is desired to use the tool.

The easing 99 (Fig. 9) is conventionally cemented within a bore hole in which the tool of the invention is to be used. However, in some inr1 stances the cement does not effectively seal about the casing and if this condition exists testing for leakage prior to perforating should be made.

To this end the preferred initial operational steps comprise rotation of the operating string in a counter-clockwise direction sufficiently to release anchor pin 5| (Fig. 5) from the horizontal portion of the J-slot 40 whereupon the entire device, except the cage 31 and the slips 35, is lowered and the slips are forced outwardly into engagement with the casing 99. Then the operating string 2 and the mandrel I0 are rotated in a clockwise direction to release the threaded connection between the segments 5| and the valve member 1. The string is then lowered whereby, sequentially, the valve surface |11 engages seat i5 to close the passage l0 and pressure is applied to expand the rings 25 and form a seal with the casing. Substantially simultaneously the gland ring 59 engages stop collar B4 whereupon the gland ring stops and the valve member 1 moves downward to uncover ports BI. If the casing 99 is not tightly sealed within the well bore, fluids will enter the ports 6| and rise in the operating string 2, thus indicating an undesirable condition requiring re-cementing. The gun 6 may be fired for squeeze cementing or other cementing operations may be utilized.

If, and when, the casing 99 is properly set within the well bore as indicated by test as above described, the operating string 2 is lifted to effect a reconnect between segments or 5|' and the mandrel assembly I0. The loperating string is then rotated in a right hand or clockwise direction whereby the entire through mandrel asse i-- bly is rotated relative to the packer and slip assembly. The gun 6 is restrained from rotation by the no-back assembly 89 and hence rotation of the operating string eects downward movement or" the thimble le!) to actuate the ring mechanism whereby the projectiles 13| are discharged from the guns to eiect the perforating operation.

The entire tool is then preferably lifted a few feet whereupon the operating string is lowered, but the slip assembly l remains stationary by virtue of the friction between the springs 42 and the surrounding casing.

The operating string E is then rotated in a clockwise or right hand direction to release the connection between the segments 5| and the valve member l as Shown in Fig. 5 or downward pressure by the operating string will release the connection shown in Fig. 4. Continued lowering causes the valve surface is to engage the seat |51, and substantially simultaneous therewith, the gland ring 59 engages stop collar 64 whereby movement of the former is terminated and the valve moves from therein and ports 6| are uncovered. A fluid sample thus enters the perforations in the casing below the packer assembly and rises within the mandrel IEB and the string 2.

In order to entrap the sample the mandrel lil is lifted and the segments 5| when engaged by the valve member l will rise and lift the pins 55 against the tension of the springs 57 until there is sufficient clearance for interengagement of the segments l or 5i and the valve member l. Continued upward movement of the operating string will cause the ring 8 to engage flange 9 and eiect lifting action upon the packer and slip assembly whereby the slips are released and the entire tool may thus be withdrawn from the well. At the same time, of course, the valve surface lli is lifted from the seat i5 whereby there is provided a free passage about the packer assembly so that the tool can be withdrawn without the production of a swabbing action by the assembly.

Broadly, the invention comprehends a well tool which may be lowered into 4a cased well bore for actuation to perforate the surrounding casing and to obtain a sample of the iuids admitted thereby or to flow the well through the operating string upon which the tool is lowered.

N hat is claimed is:

1. A well tool comprising, an operating string, a through mandrel secured thereto, a packer and slip assembly surrounding said mandrel, a perforating gun, a swivel connection between the lower end of said mandrel and the upper end of the gun, whereby the gun is swivelly suspended on the lower end of said mandrel, gun actuating means operable by relative rotation of the mandrel and gun, and a no-back assembly on the gun operable to restrain the gun against rotation when the operating string is rotated.

2. A well tool comprising, an operating string, a through mandrel secured thereto, a packer and slip assembly surrounding said mandrel, a perforating gun swivelly suspended on the lower end of said mandrel, gun actuating vmeans operable by relative rotation of the mandrel and gun, and a no-back assembly on the gun including at least one dog eccentrically mounted on the gun and movable outwardly to engage a surrounding cas- 8 ing and restrain the gun against rotation in one direction.

3. A well tool comprising, a hollow mandrel, a packer and slip assembly surrounding the mandrel and operable thereby to form a seal with the surrounding wall of a casing in which the tool is used, said mandrel including a valve member at its lower end, said valve member having a passage leading from the exterior to the interior of the mandrel, means normally closing said passage, a perforating gun suspended from the mandrel, means operable by the mandrel for actuating the gun, and means operable by the mandrel after the gun has been actuated to operate said rst mentioned means and open said passage.

4. A well tool including a hollow mandrel, a packer assembly surrounding the mandrel, means for anchoring said assembly, said mandrel including a valve member at its lower end having at least one passage from the exterior to the interior of the mandrel, a housing attached to said anchor means and extending about said valve member, a releasable connection between said mandrel and housing, a gland ring slidably surrounding the valve member and forming a closure for said passage, a stop on said housing engageable by the gland ring when the mandrel and valve are lowered to arrest movement Yof the gland ring and open the passage.

5. A well tool including a hollow mandrel, a packer assembly surrounding the mandrel, means for anchoring said assembly, said mandrel including a valve member at its lower end having at least one passage from the exterior to the interior of the mandrel, a housing attached to said anchor means and extending about said valve member, a bowl formed within said housing, means within said bowl releasably engaging said mandrel, and means surrounding said valve member and normally forming a closure for said passage but movable to open the passage when said means within the bowl is released.

6. A. well tool including a hollow mandrel, a

. packer assembly surrounding the mandrel, means for anchoring said assembly, said mandrel including a valve member at its lower end having at least one passage from the exterior to the interior of the mandrel, a housing attached to said anchor means and extending about said valve member, a bowl formed within said housing and having tapered side walls, there being a threaded area on said mandrel within said housing, a segmented nut within said bowl engageable with said threaded area to form a connection between the housing and mandrel, and means normally closing said passage but movable by the housing when the connection is released to open the passage and admit fluid t0 the interior of the mandrel.

7. In an oil well tool the combination comprising, a tubing string including a hollow mandrel at its lower end, means for forming a packoff between the mandrel and a surrounding casing, a valve structure normally closing the lower end of the tubing string and mandrel, a gun perforator suspended from said mandrel, means operable by rotation of the string for actuating the gun, said rst mentioned means being thereafter operable by the tubing string to form a pack-ofi, and additional means thereafter operable to admit a fluid sample through said valve to the interior of the mandrel and to entrap said sample by opening and closing the valve structure.

8. A gun perforator for lowering into a cased well bore on an operating string to perforate the casing in the well bore comprising, a gun body, a swivel connection for accommodating relative rotational movement between said body and the operating string, a no-back assembly on the gun operable to restrain the gun against rotation when the operating string is rotated in one direction, a cocked pin in said body, means to releasably retain said pin in cocked position, spring means urging said pin toward firing position, and additional means to release said pin retaining means, said last mentioned means comprising a thimble movably enagged with the operating string and threaded in said body and movable longitudinally of said body to engage and release said pin retaining means upon rotation of said string in one direction while said no-baek assembly restrains said gun body against rotation.

9. A gun perforator for lowering into a cased well bore on an operating string to perforate the casing in the well bore comprising, a gun body, a swivel connection for accommodating relative rotational movement between said body and the operating string, a no-baok assembly on the gun operable to restrain the gun against rotation when the operating string is rotated in one direction, a ring pin mounted longitudinally of 10 said body, means to releasably retain said pin in cocked position, spring means to urge said pin toward ring position, and additional means to release said pin retaining means, said last mentioned means comprising a thimble movably engaged with the operating string and threaded in said body and movable longitudinally of said body to engage and release said pin retaining means upon rotation of said string in one direction while said rio-back assembly restrains said gun body against rotation.

References Cited in the le Of this patent UNTED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,234,943 Asbury July 31, 1917 1,484,304 Hall Feb. 19, 1924 2,124,172 Wildes July 19, 1938 2,169,559 Halliburton Aug. 15, 1939 2,186,323 Brown Jan. 9, 1940 2,305,139 Collins Dec. 15, 1942 2,307,360 Collins Jan. 5, 1943 2,327,340 Couch Aug. 24, 1943 2,388,938 Smylie Nov. 13, 1945 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 37,697 Germany Nov. 20, 1886

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2906339 *Mar 30, 1954Sep 29, 1959Griffin Wilber HMethod and apparatus for completing wells
US3189094 *Jan 3, 1963Jun 15, 1965Halliburton CoFiring apparatus for gun perforators
US4576233 *Sep 28, 1982Mar 18, 1986Geo Vann, Inc.Method of backsurging a well
US4883123 *Nov 23, 1988Nov 28, 1989Halliburton CompanyAbove packer perforate, test and sample tool and method of use
US4915171 *Nov 23, 1988Apr 10, 1990Halliburton CompanyAbove packer perforate test and sample tool and method of use
US5603379 *Jan 22, 1996Feb 18, 1997Halliburton CompanyBi-directional explosive transfer apparatus and method
US5622223 *Sep 1, 1995Apr 22, 1997Haliburton CompanyApparatus and method for retrieving formation fluid samples utilizing differential pressure measurements
US5741962 *Apr 5, 1996Apr 21, 1998Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.Apparatus and method for analyzing a retrieving formation fluid utilizing acoustic measurements
US5934374 *Aug 1, 1996Aug 10, 1999Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.Formation tester with improved sample collection system
US6276452 *Nov 5, 1999Aug 21, 2001Baker Hughes IncorporatedApparatus for removal of milling debris
Classifications
U.S. Classification175/4, 166/128, 89/27.11, 166/264, 175/4.58, 175/4.52, 166/55.1, 166/145, 166/130
International ClassificationE21B43/116, E21B43/11
Cooperative ClassificationE21B43/116
European ClassificationE21B43/116