US 2681168 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June l5, 1954 s. c. MGMILLloN 2,681,168` ENvELoPE CONTAINING A FRAGILE CAPSULE Filed July 9, 1949 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 June 15, `1954 s c. MGMILLloN 2,681,1'68
ENVELOPE CONTAINING A FRAGILE CAPSULE Filed July 9, 1949 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 gji Patented June 15, 1954 ENVELOPE CONTAINING A FRAGILE CAPSULE Shelby Clydel McMillian, Detroit, Mich., assigvnor. to R. P. Scherer Corporation, Detroit, Micl1.,.a`
corporation of Michigan Application July 9, 1949, Serial No. 103,920v
This invention relates to containers comprising asingle fragile capsule made up of a material insoluble in water together' with a flexible envelopeenclosing said capsule and providedl with a single dispensing aperture or with a plurality of closely grouped dispensing apertures.
In the case of ordinary gelatin capsules, the material making up the Walls is Water-soluble so that theY capsule contents are released by simply dissolving the capsules in water. The capsules areeither swallowed whole, as when a pharmaceutical composition is contained therein, or else: are placed in an aqueous liquid with whichv the capsule contents are to be admixed. The capsules are made strong enough to Withstand digital pressure on handling; so that there is no. chance ofu ther fingers being stained or soiled with material contained Within the capsules. There is, of course, no possibility of using the capsules for dispensing the capsule contents or a part thereof at a predetermined location, at a predetermined place, and without having the capsule contents then admixed with an aqueous liquid containing dissolved gelatin.
Applicant is the coinventor with Blasey T. Palermo ofv a gelatin capsule adapted to contain liquid or gelatinous or viscous or granular material and characterized, at least under predetermined humidity conditions, by any desired predetermined breaking strength for instance from 200 to 1000 ormore grams, and, preferably,
about` 500 grams (the indicated weight being' that required for breakage Whenapplied normally` to the plane of sealing' of the capsule), as'
disclosed in our copending application Serial No'. 79,908, filed March 5, 1949, now Patent No. 2,578,943, dated' December 18, 1951, and entitled Fragile Gelatin Capsule and Method of Making the Same. Reference is made toi said copen'ding @duplicationl for details. For the purpose ofthe present invention, the following facts concerning the capsules of said copending application. are of importance. First, the method of said` copending application involves a treatment of gelatin capsules with a formaldehyde ticular place or spot. The capsule contents tend to squirt or to be otherwise.` forcibly ejected for' some distance when the capsules are broken. Finally, fragments of the capsule walls still remain associatedwith` atleast part of the capsules contents.
For the reasonsV indicated in thel preceding paragraph the fragilel capsules of ourv copending application have heretofore been principally employed in the' following manner; rlhe fragilecapsules are enclosed Within a flexible container along'with material with which the capsule content is ultimately to be admixed'. At the time the mixing is to be effected, pressure is applied through the exible container wall to break the capsule and to cause the capsule contents then to be admixedY with the other material within the container. It has been proposed to separate the fragile capsule from the main space Within the container by a reticulate or multi-apertured sheet having margins attached to the inside of the container, for the purpose of preventing fragments of broken capsules from being admixed with the material Within the container along with the capsule contents. But then the material within the container tends to now into or to become displaced' into the pocket dened ,between the inside of the container and said sheet' which originally received the fragile capsule. The result is not only that the capsule fragments become admixed with the part of the material within the container, but this part, being confined within said pocket can not easily or practically be recovered and therefore is often Wasted. In any event, it is diiiicult, impractical or impossible to utilize said fragile capsules so as to dispense the capsule contents completely at any particular locality without having the capsule contents admixed with other material, including fragments of: broken capsules.
It is therefore an important object' of the present invention to providel a container comprising a single fragile capsulemade up of water insoluble material together with a flexible envelope enclosing such capsule and` provided with a single dispensing` aperture or with a plurality of dispensing apertures grouped together over a limited area, saidcontainer being adapted for manual grasping over imperforate areas for dispensing the whole,
capsule content at a definitespot, the container forming an individual unit altogether apart and separate' from any material with which its contents eventually may be admixed so that any such material can be completely recovered after such admixture.
Another important object of the present invention is to provide a container comprising a single fragile capsule made up of water insoluble materia] together with a flexible envelope enclosing said capsule and provided with a single dispensing aperture or with a plurality of dispensing apertures, said container being adapted for dispensing the whole capsule contents without admixture of other or foreign material, in particular, fragments of broken capsules.
Another important object of the present invention is to provide methods for making containers of the type indicated.
Other and further objects and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following description and appended claims as illustrated by the accompanying drawings showing, by way of examples, containers according to the present invention and methods for making the same. More particularly:
Figure 1 is a plan view of a container according to the present invention;
Figure 2 is a central horizontal cross sectional view of the container of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a plan View, with parts broken away, of the container of Figures 1 and 2 in an intermediate stage of manufacture;
Figure 4 is a plan view of a second container according to the present invention;
Figure 5 is a side elevation of the container of Figure 4;
Figure 6 is a cross sectional View taken along the line 6 6 of Figure 5;
Figure 7 is a fragmentary central vertical cross sectional view through a device for manufacturing the container of Figures 4 through 6, showing also the various parts of the container assembled together in an intermediate stage of the manufacture of said container;
Figure 8 is a plan View taken along the line 8--6 of Figure 7, the device being shown empty;
Figure 9 is a plan View of a third container according to the present invention;
Figure 10 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line l 0-i0 of Figure 9;
Figure 11 is a plan view of the container of Figures 9 and 10 in an intermediate stage of manufacture;
Figure 12 is a plan View of a fourth container according to the present invention;
Figure 13 is a central horizontal cross sectional view of the container of Figure 12;
Figure 14 is a plan view, with parts broken away, of the container of Figures 12 and 13 in an intermediate stage of manufacture;
Figure 15 is a plan view of a fifth container according to the present invention;
Figure 16 is a central horizontal cross sectional view of the container of Figure 15;
Figure 17 is a cross sectional View taken along the line II-l'! of Figure 15;
Figure 18 is a. plan view of the article of Figures 15 through 17 in an initial stage of manufacture;
Figure 19 is a cross sectional view taken along the line |9--I9 of Figure 18;
Figure 20 is a horizontal cross sectional view similar to Figure 16 of the container of Figures 15 through 17 in an intermediate stage of manufacture;
Figure 21 is a side elevation of a sixth container according to the present invention;
Figure 22 is a cross sectional view taken along the line 22-22 of Figure 21;
Figure 23 is a central vertical cross sectional lil view through a device for the manufacture of the container of Figures 21 and 22;
Figure 24 is a plan view of a seventh container according to the present invention;
Figure 25 is a central horizontal cross sectional view of the container of Figure 24;
Figure 26 is a plan view of an eighth container according to the present invention;
Figure 27 is a central horizontal cross sectional View cf the container of Figure 26;
Figure 28 is a plan view, with parts broken away, of the flexible envelope of the container of Figures 26 and 27 before the insertion of a fragile capsule to form the container of Figures 26 and 27;
Figure 29 is a plan View of a ninth container according to the present invention; and
Figure 30 is a central cross sectional horizontal View of the container of Figure 29.
rl'he fragile capsules shown in the drawings in combination with flexible envelopes may be prepared by the method including, as an initial step. a gelatin capsule making and filling operation carried out, for instance, according to the method of the patent to Robert P. Scherer, No. 1,970,- 396, dated August 14, 1934. The filled capsules are subsequently treated with formaldehyde.
By way of example, filled capsules may conveniently be prepared from a composition consisting essentially of 27.0% (by weight) of gelatin, 47.5% of glycerin and 25.5% of water. 'I'he lled capsules are thereafter tumbled with an emulsion of aqueous formaldehyde in oil; then tumbled with Sponges to remove excess emulsion; and finally dried. More particularly, 20,000 capsules of 61/2 minim capacity may be tumbled for 20 minutes with 200 grams of an emulsion containing 50% of formaldehyde of 37% strength, 30% of light mineral oil USP and 20% of anhydrous lanolln. In general, the emulsion should contain from 20% to 65%, and preferably about 50% of aqueous formaldehyde of at least 10% strength and preferably of at least 35% strength. The ratio of gelatin to glycerin in the capsule walls should range between 0.5 to 1.5. The time of tumbling as Well as the amount of emulsion should be suincient to insure uniform action of the formaldehyde solution on the capsules.
While specific reference has been made herein to gelatin capsules of reduced strength prepared by treatment with formaldehyde and subsequent drying, it should be understood that other fragile gelatin capsules or capsules made of other materials may also be used, in particular, when the material making up the capsule walls is more or less insoluble in water. In other words, any fragile capsules insoluble in water may be employed for the purposes of the present invention regardless of the chemical composition of the capsules.
In the drawings7 the frag-ile capsules have been shown as filled with flowable material, for instance, a solution of a dye in an oil. Nevertheless, the capsules may be filled with otherliquids, jellies, viscous preparations or the like, such as medicinal or cosmetic pastes, salves, creams or solutions or other liquids or granular or powdery material.
Referring now to Figures 1 and 2 of the draW- ings, the reference numeral Hl indicates generally a container according to the present invention comprising an inner fragile gelatin capsule I 2, filled with an oil solution I4 of a dye and surrounded by an outer spaced envelope I6 formed with a constricted apertured neck I8 defining a dispensing aperture 2B. The capsule l2)y may be made of gelatin and treated as described herein.- after to render the capsule breakable under a pressure of from 200 to 1000 grams, preferably from. 200 to 500 grams. The outer envelope It may be made of transparent or at least translucent flexible plastic material. When the container le is grasped manually and subjected to digital pressure, the fragile capsule i2 will be broken, and the contents thereof may be expelled from the outer envelope I6 through the dispensing aperture 2Q by squeezing or, if the contents are not too viscous, by gravity flow. The capsule contents can readily be dispensed at any desired locality. The aperture 20 can be made small enough to retain most or all the fragments formed when the fragile capsule is broken.
A number of containers such as that shown in Figures 1 and 2 can be stored together and, if the internal capacity of the outer envelope IG is large enough and/or if the discharge aperture 2li is small enough so that on accidental breakage of the fragile capsule l2 the contents of the capsule will befretained within envelope l5, then the remaining containers will not be soiled or stained due to the accidental breakage of one single container.
Figure 3 illustrates one method of manufacturing the container of Figures l and 2. For this purpose, the fragile capsule l2 may be placed inside an open ended flexible tube 16a having a constrioted neck lea dening a dispensing aperture 29a. The other end of the tube ita may then be closed oiT by adhesive 56h applied over the terminal margins of the tube lila.
Figures 4 through 6 illustrate a second contaner according to the present invention indicated` generally by the reference numeral 24 and comprising an inner globular fragile gelatin capsule 2t. filled with a solution 28 of a dye in oil. The capsule 2B is enclosed within an outer spaced envelope made up of two halves 3) and 32 having abutting margins 3Go and 32d projecting radially to define a circumferential flange. A dispensing aperture 34 is formed in this flange.
The container of Figures 4. through 6 may be prepared by apparatus shown in Figures '7 and 8 as including a table 36 formed with one or more. circular apertures 38. An upper piston ill)k and a lower piston l2 are slidable within the aperture 38. The face of the lower piston 4.2 is formedwith. an outer annular plane surface 42a extending' about the whole periphery, except for a recessed portion 62h. Within the surfaces 42. and 42h, the lower piston is arcuately recessed, as atv 4.20. The face of the upper piston 40. is formed with an annular plane surface :lila ex.- tending along the whole periphery of the piston and surrounding an arcuately recessed portion 4Gb. The two surfaces-lila and 2o are adapted to register with each other except over the area 42h. Thus, thev lower piston 42 may be disposed Within the aperture 38 at the levelindicated in Figure 7 and the lower envelope half 32 of plastic material may be placed in the aperture followed by a capsule 26 and the upper envelope half 3D. of plastic material. The upper piston it may then be forcibly brought down into the cavity 38 to compress the edges of the two envelope halves 3B and 32 between the surfaces lita and 42a. If these edges or margins have an adhesive applied thereto or are then in plastic condition, for instance, due to heating or the application of an appropriate solvent, the edges will then be sealed together, as indicated at 32h in Figure 6, except over the area 42h, to form the container shown in Figuers 4 through 6. After such sealing has been completed, the upper piston 4t may be raised to the position shown in Figure 7 and the finished container may be ejected from the aperture 38 by raising the lower piston 42.
While a number of commercially available plastic materials may be used in the processes illustrated in Figures 3 and 8, particularly good results have been obtained with vinyl resins, with cellulose derivatives, such as cellulose acetate, celluiose oxybutyrate, ethyl cellulose and the like, with acrylic resins, with polyethylene resins, with rubber hydrochloride and with paper or brous material impregnated with thcrmosetting resin-forming material. The preferred materials include moded polyvinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride-acetate resins. The composition used to modify said polyvinyl resins include resinous plasticizers, such as nitrile type synthetic rubbers (copolymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile), polyester resins (permanently soft and thermoplastic saturated resins made from polyhydric alcohols and unsaturated organic acetates) and chemical plasticizers such as dioctyl phthalate, dicapryl phthalate, dibenzyl sebacate and dibutyl sebacate. Other preferred materials are polyethylene resins either unmodiiied or modiiied, as by incorporation of resinous plasticizers such as polyisobutylene or microcrystalline waxes, for conferring on the resins suitable adhesive and heat sealing characteristics.
Figures 9 and 10 show a third container according to the present invention indicated generally by the reference numeral 56 and including an inner capsule 52 containing a solution 5t of a dyestufl in oil. An outer envelope 5t adheres to the inner capsule except over one end portion 52a of the latter. When this container is subjected to sumcient manual pressure to break the inner capsule 52, any resulting fragments will still adhere tothe outer envelope 56.
The container of Figures 9 and 10 may be prepared, as illustrated in Figure l1, by dipping the capsule 52 in a suitable viscous film-forming liquid. For instance, the capsule 52 may be grasped at. its two ends and then dipped into the filmforming liquid', the two ends b2c and 52h being covered by the nger tips so that only the intermediate portion of the capsule will be covered by a 'film-forming layer 55o. Thereafter, one end 52?) of the capsule may be dipped into the lmforming liquidV to cover this one end, leaving the end 52a uncovered. While a number of nlmforming materials may be employed in such a dippingv method, particularly good results have been obtained by using gels made up with celluloseV derivatives, particularly ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetobutyrate.
Figuers l2 and 13v show a fourth container according to the present invention generally indicated by the reference numeral di? and including an inner fragile capsule 62 iilled with a solution 6110i a dyestuff'in oil. The capsule G2 is enclosed within an outer tubular envelope 56 having one end completely sealed oil as at tito; and another end sealed off at Sb, but open at 63o. As shown in Figure le, the container of Figures l2 and 13 maybe prepared by enclosing a capsule 62 with-- in a tube dtd open at both ends, and thereafter sealing off the two ends of the tube (only one endv being completely sealed), as by heat and pressure, or by using an appropriate solvent or adhesiyetoform thecontainer of Figures-l2 and 13. For this purpose, any plastic material capable of bonding or sealing in the manner indicated may be used. Particularly good results have been obtained With vinyl resins and with polyethylene resins.
A lifth article according to the present invention is shown in Figures l through 17, and is there generally indicated by the reference numeral 10. This container includes an inner fragile capsule l2 filled with solution lil of a dyestuff in oil. The capsule is enclosed Within an outer envelope 'le of generally tubular shape made up of a sheet having margins overlapping at 'Vl and having its ends sealed together, as indicated at lli, except over an area Sd serving as a dispensing aperture. Figures 18 through 20 show a method for manufacturing the container of Figures through Il. More particularly, a strip 'lia of plastic material is formed into troughshape and the capsule 'I 2 placed therein, as shown in Figures 18 and 19. Next, the free edges of the strip ld arc overlapped, in the manner shown at Il in Figure 17, bonding between the contacting surfaces being effected, as by means of a suitable adhesive or solvent. ln the next step, the tubularly folded band 15o. is cut transversely along the lines 'is to yield the article shown in Figure 20, and finally, the ends or" the cut-off tubularly folded band 'lea are sealed, as by the use of heat and pressure, a solvent or an adhesive, except over a limited area at one end, forming the finished containerA shown in Figures l5 through 17. Suitable materials for forming the outer envelope include rubber hydrochloride, polyethylene resins, acrylic resins, vinyl. elastomers and cellulose derivatives such as cellulose acetate and ethyl cellulose.
A sixth container according to the present invention is shown in Figures 2l and and there indicated generally by the reference numeral Eil. This container includes an inner globular cap-- sule 82 lled with a solution Sil of a dyestuff in oil. An outer envelope 36 adheres to the capsule 32 with the exception of a small area 82a. This article lnay suitably be cast in a device such as that shown in Figure 23 and including a lower mold half S13 and an upper mold half Sli together defining a globular molding cavity. The capsule 82 is placed upon a pedestal 38a projecting into the mold cavity from the mold part 88.
Liquid material 86a capable of solidiiying for forming the outer envelope is poured into the mold cavity through a top apertur-e Qa in the uppermold half QQ. Suitable materials for such casting around the capsule include cellulose derivative jellies and microcrystalline waxes plasticized with resins such as polyisobutylene.
In Figures 24 and 25 there is shown a seventh container according to the present invention generally designated by the reference numeral |80. This article includes an inner capsule |02 filled with a solution |04 of dyestuif in oil and an envelope |655 adhering to the capsule |532 except over a small terminal area IilZa. The capsule |62 with its adhering envelope llll is enclosed Within an outer spaced envelope |68 having a dispensing aperture Illlla at one end. The container of Figures 24 and 25 may be made by first preparing the container of Figures 9 and 1() and thereafter enclosing the resulting container Within an outer spaced envelope in a manner similar to the method of preparation of the container of Figures l2 and 13. In the case of the container of Figures 24 and 25, the dispensing aperture Ia can be made relatively large without any 8 danger of capsule fragments being discharged therethrough, for the capsule fragments are retained by the adherent envelope |06.
An eighth container according to the present invention is shown in Figures 26 and 27 and there generally indicated by the reference numeral I IU. The container includes an inner fragile capsule II2 lled with a solution IIA of a dyestuff in oil. An outer resilient envelope IIS adheres to the capsule ||2. The envelope IIS has a constricted neck IIS apertured to define a dispensing conduit |20. The container of Figures 26 and 27 may be prepared by rst providing a tubular member Illia op-en at one end and having at the other end a constricted neck defining a dispensing aperture I2ila. Further, one side of the tubular member IliiclI is slotted longitudinally, as at lIb, This slot extends from the open end all the Way or almost all the Way to the neck IIB. The interior of the tube I I 5a may be coated with adhesive, as indicated at Ilc, as are also the Walls of the slot llb and the opposed marginal surfaces of the open end of the member Illia. The capsule I I2 may then be inserted within the member lla, and the envelope IIa is finally sealed off by adhesion between the opposed Walls of the slot IlGb and the opposed marginal surfaces of the member I llico at the open end thereof.
Figures, 29 and 30 show a ninth container acccrding to the piesent invention generally indicated by the reference numeral |30 and including an inner fragile capsule |32 filled with a solution i3d of a dyestuff in oil. rEhe capsule |32 is enclosed within an outer tubular envelope |36 having one end completely sealed oi as at |3611 and another end sealed off at |351) but pierced by three narrow generally parallel discharge apertures Iiic. The container of Figures 29 and 30 may be prepared similarly to the container of Figures l2 and 13, except that the end area 53th is initially sealed off completely and is thereafter pierced in three locations, as by a needle, to form the discharge apertures Ic. The latter are quite narrow and therefore the fragments of the capsule |32 are retained within the envelope |35 after breakage of the capsule |22. Further, the apertures |360 being grouped closely together at one end of the container |30 and being generally parallel, the contents of the capsule |32 can be dispensed from the container ISG at any desired location.
Numerous materials suitable for the preparation of both the fragile capsules and the outer envelopes are available to those skilled in the art. The chemical composition of these various materials is immaterial, since the suitability of any given material is determined largely by its physical properties, such as breaking strength (in the case of the inner capsule), and pliability or flexibility (in the case of the outer envelope). Likewise, numerous methods for preparing the Lrticles of this invention are available to those skilled in the art besides those specifically disclosed hereinabove. For instance, it is possible completely to enclose an inner capsule within an outer flexible envelope that may or may not adhere to the inner capsule and may or may not be spaced from the inner capsule. After the inner capsule has been completely enclosed Within the outer envelope, a suitable dispensing aperture may be formed in the outer envelope as by slitting or perforating the envelope. Or, a small area of the capsule to be enclosed may be covered with a mask, the capsule thereafter being coated and the mask being nally removed to provide a dispensing aperture for the resulting envelope.
Many details of structure, composition and procedure can be varied within a wide range Without departing from the principles of this inn vention and it is therefore not my purpose to limit this application otherwise than necessitated by the scope of the appended claims.
l. A container for dispensing a fluid material at a predetermined location without admixture with foreign material, said container comprising a fragile capsule having walls rupturable at any point thereof and lled with said fluid material and two sheets of Iiexible material disposed one on each side of said capsule and having their opposed margins bonded together eX- cept over a small area delining a single permanently open dispensing aperture, portions of said opposed margins including said small area defining a radial flange for said container, said container having said material as its sole iuid content and forming a unitary article capable of being manipulated by itself to dispense only Said fluid material through said aperture at said predetermined location after breakage of said capsule.
2. A method of preparing a container for dispensing a fluid material at a predetermined location without admixture with foreign material, said method comprising providing a fragile capsule having Walls rupturable at any point 'thereof and lled with said fluid material, disposing said capsule between two flexible sheets and bonding the opposed margins of said sheets together except over a small area dening a single permanently open dispensing aperture the interspace between said capsule and said sheets being left empty and portions of said opposed margins including said small area extending radially from said capsule to form a ange for said container.
3. A container for dispensing a uid material at a predetermined location without admixture with foreign material, said container comprising a capsule filled with said fluid material and having walls rupturable at any point thereof by application of manual pressure to said container,
said container further comprising a flexible envelope impermeable with respect to said iluid material enclosing said capsule and provided with a generally radially extending ilange having a zermanently open dispensing aperture extending therethrough and opening at the free edge of said flange, said container forming a unitary article having said material as its sole iluid component and capable of being manipulated by itself to dispense said fluid material through said aperture at said predetermined location after rupture of said capsule.
4. A method of preparing a container for dispensing a fluid material at a predetermined location Without admixture with foreign material, said method comprising providing a capsule filled with said iiuid material and having walls rupturable at any point thereof by application of manual pressure, providing flexible nlm material impermeable with respect to said fluid material, completely enveloping said capsule in said nlm material portions of the margin of said film material being brought into opposed relationship to form a radial iiange, and sealing the margins of said film material around said capsule except for a limited area of said opposed margin portions left unsealed and permanently unobstructed to provide a dispensing aperture for the resulting container, any space between said capsule and said enveloping nlm material being maintained free from liquids.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,970,396 Scherer Aug. 14, 1934 2,058,251 Nitardy et al Oct. 20, 1936 2,119,358 Scharf May 31, 1938 2,125,318 Salsberg Aug. 2, 1938 2,325,921 Salfisberg Aug. 3, 1943 2,372,406 Treneer Mar. 27, 1945 2,578,943 Palermo et al Dec. 18, 1951 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 28,302 Great Britain Jan. 29, 1914