Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2685877 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 10, 1954
Filing dateMar 20, 1952
Priority dateMar 20, 1952
Publication numberUS 2685877 A, US 2685877A, US-A-2685877, US2685877 A, US2685877A
InventorsDobelle Martin
Original AssigneeDobelle Martin
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Femoral head prosthesis
US 2685877 A
Images(1)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 10, 1954 M. DOBELLE FEMORAL HEAD PROSTHESIS Filed March 20, 1952 I INVENTORQ Mari/'1? D0 Ze/AP,

0 Z 0 M 552E227 MIE ATTORNEY Patented Aug. 10, 1954 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,685,877 FEMORAL HEAD PROSTHESIS Martin Dobelle, Pittsfield, Mass.

Application March 20, 1952, Serial No. 277,658

Claims.

The object of the invention is to provide means for obtaining a functional hip which would otherwise be non-functional when the head of the thigh bone was destroyed, impaired, or injured beyond repair, or where injury or disease has destroyed the hip joint and stifiened the latter so that motion is greatly limited, if not impossible; to provide a femoral head prosthesis which, when in position in the neck of the femur, will be retained in position without danger of loosening except under such conditions as would fracture a strong or healthy bone; and to provide an appliance of the kind indicated which is of simple form and therefore, simple of application with ordinary skill on the part of the surgeon.

With this object in view, the invention consists of a construction and combination of parts of which a preferred embodiment is illustrated in the accompanying drawing wherein:

Figure 1 is a side elevational view of the upper part of a femur in which the head or proximal fragment has been removed and replaced with the improved femoral head, the dotted lines indicating the initial position of the parts in placement. V

Figure 2 is a view similar to Figure 1 but shows the femoral head finally positioned, the dotted lines indicating the relative positions of the parts;

Figure 3 is an axial sectional view of the improved femoral prosthesis, the keys being shown in extended position;

Figure 4 is a sectional view similar to Figure 3 but with the locking keys in retracted position;

Figure 5 is an elevational viewof the key actuator screw;

Figure 6 is an elevational view of the lock screw; and

Figure 7 is an elevational view of one of the locking keys, detached from the device.

In the use of the invention where the head of the femur is pathologically impaired beyond the point where normality can be restored, it is removed and in old injury or disease the socket of the attendant acetabulum is reamed out for the reception of the prosthetic head which is. applied into the neck of the femur to replace the head removed therefrom.

The operation of applying the prosthetic head consists of boring the neck of the femur along its axis beyond a straight line passing through the great and lesser trochanters. The bore having been prepared, there is then applied the prosthetic head H) which is of plastic and stainless steel insert and which is formed with a shank l l, which enters the bore, the lower end of the shank 2 tapering as indicated at I2. The bore, of course, is made with a suitable reamer (or with a drill followed with a ream'er) so that there will be a snug fit between the shank H and the wall of the bore, the latter, of course, being in the medulla.

But the head must be securely anchored to the femur and to this end the shank H is moulded around and has incorporated with it a core it which is formed with a longitudinal bore l l, this bore being of a diameter corresponding to and registering with the bore id in the lower end of the shank H.

The shank H is formed with lateral slots l6 and the core with lateral slots ll and adjacent these slots H, the core carries the lockin keys ls which are pivotally mounted, as indicated at 2%. By reason of this arrangement, the key may be swung downwardly to nested. positions within the periphery of the core it, or they may be swung outwardly to engage the medullary cortex, the former position being shown in Figure 4 and the latter in Figure 3.

But the keys must be actuated to extended position and to this end there is provided a screw it formed with a pilot 2fl-,the latter engaging the heel ends of the keys when the screw is ad'- vanced, the screw threadingly engaging the bore of the core and the pilot moving axially therealong.

A prosthesis is applied, after the preparation of the receiving borein the neck of the femur, by gently driving on the head with a cupped mallet until the shank is fully seated' When this has been accomplished, the screw 59 is advanced and the pilot then engaging the shoulders El on the locking keys, will raise the latter, causing them to penetrate or engage the medullary cortex and thus lock the shank and with it the head in the desired position on the femur.

The screw it is actuated with an ordinary screw driver of which the bit is inserted in the kerf of the head 22 of the screw.

When the locking keys have been fully advanced, the position of the actuating screw lit is retained through the instrumentality of a lock screw 23 threadingly engaged with the upper end of the bore of the post.

It will be noted that the core is terminated just short of the dome of the head, thus forming a shoulder on which the head of the set screw 23 may set, with the head of the screw below the femoral head. Thus there is no projectin metallic part. It will also be noted that the operation of setting the locking keys results in their being raised from a pendant position from their axes to positions normal to the axis of the shank. Thus the slots which they cut in the femur are below them, and the upper hinges have firm; bearings tthroughout their lengths within the neck of the femur, thereby providing a firm anchorage to keep the prosthetic head in place.

With the socket of the attendant acetabulum reamed outwith aistandard cupped; reamer or adequate otherwise, the acetabulumis then in condition to receive the new head with the result that a new hip joint is formed. Because of the inz-- ertness of the material used in the prosthesis, further bony growth, which would defeat its pur pose, is avoided, thus givin an otherwisezcrippledi individual a painless weight-bearing functioning hip.

The invention having been described, what-is claimed as new and useful is:

1. Femoral head. simulating the. natural head of the femur; the samehavin'ga shank insert'able iii a reamedhole formeuin'theneck of the femur, a plurality of" locking members carried in the shank, and shank-encIoSed means for advancing said locking members into engagement with the surrounding bone of the femur.

2. A femoral head' prosthesis comprisinga plastic head simulating thenatural' head of the femur; the same having a shank insertable in areamed; hole formed in the neck of' the femur, the head and shank being formed with an axial" bore, a metallic core encl'o'sed by the shank, locking keys having respectively diametrically o'p-- posed pivotal mountings; and adjusting means for actuating said keys through slots in-theshank the binding engagement with" the medulla-rycortex of the femur; said adjusting means being accessiblethrough the plastic head but unex. posed at any pointof' thesurface-the'reo-f.

3. A femoral head prosthesis comprising a plastic hea d simulating the natural head of the femur, the same having a shank insertable in a reamed hole formed inthe neck of thefemu-r, the headand shank being formed with an ax-ia-t bore, a metallic core enclosed by the shank, locking keys having respectively diametrically opposed pivotal mountings, and normally depending with their free terminals away from the head, an adjusting screw threadinglymou'nted in thebo're ofthe core and having a pilot engageable with the being wholly within thecore so that no portion thereof projects beyond the surface of the head, the screw being actuable through the head.

4, A femoral head prosthesis comprisin a head portion simulating the natural head of the femur, the same having a shank insertable in a reamed hole formed in the neck of the femur, a plurality of locking keys mounted within the shank on respectively oppositely disposed pivotal axes ;.the-keys hanging normally in pendant positi'ons away from? the head} an: adjusting screw threadingly engaged with an axial bore formed in the shank and having a pilot engageable with the heel ends of the keys to elevate them through clearance si'ots in the shank into positions substantiallynormal with the axis of the shank so as to enter and be anchored in the medullary cortex of the femur, the adjusting screw being whollycontained within the shank so that no part projects beyond the surface of the head through which said screw is accessible.

5; A femoral head prosthesis comprisin a head portion simulating the natural of thefemur; the same having a shank irisertable in a reamed"v hole formed inthe neck of the femur, a plurality of lockingkeys mounted within the shank on respective-lyoppositely disposed pivotal: axes, the keys hanging normally in pend'antposiztions away from the head, an adjusting screw: threa'dingly engaged" with anaxial bore formed in the shank and having a pilot'engageable withthe heel ends of" the keys toelevate them through:- cl'e'arance slots in the shank into positions substantially'n'ormal with the axis of the-shank so as to enter and be anchored in the medullary cortex of the'f'emur, the adjusting'screw'bein wholly contained within theshank so that no part projects beyond the surface of the head throughwhich said screw is accessible, the headi having a bore coaxially incident with the axis of the ad justi'n' screw, and a lock-screw: threaded said bore and having: its bearing. on. a shoulder therein, the: lock-screw seated being. below the surf-ace-ofsaid head,

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED- STATES PATENTS Number Name. Date 2,077,804 Morrison Apr. 20,1937 2,381,950 Hard'inge. Aug. 7,, 1945 2,612,159 Collison Sept. 30,1952

OTHER- REFERENCES La Presse' Medicale; May 3, 1947, page 302. (Gopy in Div. 55.)

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2077804 *May 19, 1936Apr 20, 1937Morrison Gordon MonroeDevice for treating fractures of the neck of the femur
US2381050 *Dec 4, 1943Aug 7, 1945Mervyn G HardingeFracture reducing device
US2612159 *Mar 1, 1949Sep 30, 1952Marie B CollisonTrochanteric plate for bone surgery
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3024785 *Jun 10, 1959Mar 13, 1962Dobelle MartinFemoral head prosthesis
US4080666 *Sep 13, 1976Mar 28, 1978Fixel Irving EImplantable prosthetic bone device
US4237875 *Feb 23, 1979Dec 9, 1980Towmotor CorporationDynamic intramedullary compression nailing
US4409974 *Jun 29, 1981Oct 18, 1983Freedland Jeffrey ABone-fixating surgical implant device
US4681590 *Jun 18, 1986Jul 21, 1987John TanseyFemoral stem prosthesis
US4787378 *Sep 8, 1986Nov 29, 1988Sodhi Jitendra SSelf-retaining nail for fracture of neck of femur
US4878918 *Nov 5, 1985Nov 7, 1989Gabor TariMechanically fixed acetabular unit for prostheses and implantation device for fixing it into the cotyloid cavity
US4911722 *Aug 6, 1987Mar 27, 1990Office Medico Chirurgical International S.A. (O.M.C.I.)Mechanical self locking femoral prosthesis and a method for implementing same
US5057103 *May 1, 1990Oct 15, 1991Davis Emsley ACompressive intramedullary nail
US5167665 *Dec 31, 1991Dec 1, 1992Mckinney William WMethod of attaching objects to bone
US5417531 *Feb 9, 1994May 23, 1995Brown; Gordon A.Locking cam anchor apparatus
US5542273 *Nov 23, 1994Aug 6, 1996Bednarz; James W.Positive acting barrel lock
US5741262 *Jun 6, 1995Apr 21, 1998Astra AktiebolagHip joint prosthesis
US5800547 *Oct 24, 1996Sep 1, 1998Schafer Micomed GmbhVentral intervertebral implant
US5882351 *Feb 7, 1997Mar 16, 1999Biomedical Enterprises, Inc.Fasteners having coordinated self-seeking conforming members and uses thereof
US5971985 *Sep 12, 1997Oct 26, 1999Ace Surgical Supply Co., Inc.Bone attachment device for use with tissue grafts and membranes
US5980575 *Feb 26, 1993Nov 9, 1999Astra AktiebolagHip joint prosthesis
US6027504 *Dec 5, 1997Feb 22, 2000Mcguire; David A.Device and method for producing osteotomies
US6273915 *Aug 13, 1997Aug 14, 2001James B. GrimesFemoral head-neck prosthesis and method of implantation
US6287310Mar 11, 1999Sep 11, 2001Biomedical Enterprises, Inc.Fasteners having coordinated self-seeking conforming members and uses thereof
US6406233Nov 20, 2000Jun 18, 2002Brenten P. ShanerAnchor for use with metal studs
US6547793Feb 18, 2000Apr 15, 2003David A. McGuireSystems and methods for producing osteotomies
US6626948 *Mar 26, 2001Sep 30, 2003Benoist Girard SasFemoral hip prosthesis
US6689135 *Jan 25, 2002Feb 10, 2004Albert EnayatiExpandable bone fastener and installation tool
US6689153Apr 14, 2000Feb 10, 2004Orthopaedic Biosystems Ltd, Inc.Methods and apparatus for a coated anchoring device and/or suture
US6743233Aug 2, 2000Jun 1, 2004Orthopaedic Biosystems, Ltd., Inc.Medical screw and method of installation
US6783553Oct 24, 2001Aug 31, 2004James B. GrimesProsthesis
US7744638Jan 21, 2005Jun 29, 2010Depuy Products, Inc.System for stabilization of fractures of convex articular bone surfaces including subchondral support structure
US7749252 *Mar 17, 2006Jul 6, 2010Kyphon SarlInterspinous process implant having deployable wing and method of implantation
US7780710Jan 21, 2005Aug 24, 2010Depuy Products, Inc.System for stabilization of fractures of convex articular bone surfaces including subchondral support structure
US7846162 *May 15, 2006Dec 7, 2010Sonoma Orthopedic Products, Inc.Minimally invasive actuable bone fixation devices
US7846186Jun 20, 2006Dec 7, 2010Kyphon SĀRLEquipment for surgical treatment of two vertebrae
US7857840 *Oct 1, 2007Dec 28, 2010The Cleveland Clinic FoundationFastener assembly
US7879106Mar 25, 2003Feb 1, 2011Smith & Nephew, Inc.Hip joint prosthesis
US7896886Jan 26, 2006Mar 1, 2011Depuy Products, Inc.Nail plate and implantation jig therefor
US7901432Mar 1, 2004Mar 8, 2011Kyphon SarlMethod for lateral implantation of spinous process spacer
US7909825Nov 21, 2007Mar 22, 2011Sonoma Orthepedic Products, Inc.Fracture fixation device, tools and methods
US7914533Nov 30, 2006Mar 29, 2011Sonoma Orthopedic Products, Inc.Minimally invasive actuable bone fixation devices
US7918877Feb 28, 2005Apr 5, 2011Kyphon SarlLateral insertion method for spinous process spacer with deployable member
US7927341Mar 22, 2006Apr 19, 2011Depuy Products, Inc.Nail plate and jig therefor
US7931674 *Mar 17, 2006Apr 26, 2011Kyphon SarlInterspinous process implant having deployable wing and method of implantation
US7938850Jan 26, 2006May 10, 2011Depuy Products, Inc.Nail plate
US7942875May 15, 2006May 17, 2011Sonoma Orthopedic Products, Inc.Methods of using minimally invasive actuable bone fixation devices
US7955356Feb 28, 2005Jun 7, 2011Kyphon SarlLaterally insertable interspinous process implant
US7955392Dec 14, 2006Jun 7, 2011Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Interspinous process devices and methods
US7988709Feb 17, 2006Aug 2, 2011Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US7993374Oct 30, 2007Aug 9, 2011Kyphon SarlSupplemental spine fixation device and method
US7998174Jun 16, 2006Aug 16, 2011Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8007521Jan 22, 2007Aug 30, 2011Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8007537Jun 29, 2007Aug 30, 2011Kyphon SarlInterspinous process implants and methods of use
US8029567Feb 17, 2006Oct 4, 2011Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8034079Apr 12, 2005Oct 11, 2011Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Implants and methods for posterior dynamic stabilization of a spinal motion segment
US8034080Jan 22, 2007Oct 11, 2011Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8038698Oct 19, 2005Oct 18, 2011Kphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8043378May 26, 2009Oct 25, 2011Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Intercostal spacer device and method for use in correcting a spinal deformity
US8048117Sep 23, 2005Nov 1, 2011Kyphon SarlInterspinous process implant and method of implantation
US8048118Apr 28, 2006Nov 1, 2011Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Adjustable interspinous process brace
US8048119Jul 20, 2006Nov 1, 2011Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Apparatus for insertion between anatomical structures and a procedure utilizing same
US8057513Feb 17, 2006Nov 15, 2011Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8070778Mar 17, 2006Dec 6, 2011Kyphon SarlInterspinous process implant with slide-in distraction piece and method of implantation
US8083795Jan 18, 2006Dec 27, 2011Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Intervertebral prosthetic device for spinal stabilization and method of manufacturing same
US8096994Mar 29, 2007Jan 17, 2012Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8097018May 24, 2007Jan 17, 2012Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8100943Jun 16, 2006Jan 24, 2012Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8105358Jul 30, 2008Jan 31, 2012Kyphon SarlMedical implants and methods
US8109972Oct 25, 2007Feb 7, 2012Kyphon SarlInterspinous process implant having deployable wings and method of implantation
US8114131Nov 5, 2008Feb 14, 2012Kyphon SarlExtension limiting devices and methods of use for the spine
US8114132Jan 13, 2010Feb 14, 2012Kyphon SarlDynamic interspinous process device
US8114136Mar 18, 2008Feb 14, 2012Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Implants and methods for inter-spinous process dynamic stabilization of a spinal motion segment
US8118839Nov 7, 2007Feb 21, 2012Kyphon SarlInterspinous implant
US8118844Apr 24, 2006Feb 21, 2012Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Expandable device for insertion between anatomical structures and a procedure utilizing same
US8128663Jun 27, 2007Mar 6, 2012Kyphon SarlSpine distraction implant
US8128702Oct 25, 2007Mar 6, 2012Kyphon SarlInterspinous process implant having deployable wings and method of implantation
US8147516Oct 30, 2007Apr 3, 2012Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8147526Feb 26, 2010Apr 3, 2012Kyphon SarlInterspinous process spacer diagnostic parallel balloon catheter and methods of use
US8147548Mar 17, 2006Apr 3, 2012Kyphon SarlInterspinous process implant having a thread-shaped wing and method of implantation
US8152855Sep 17, 2010Apr 10, 2012Howmedica Osteonics Corp.Method and apparatus for hip femoral resurfacing tooling
US8157841May 24, 2007Apr 17, 2012Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8157842Jun 12, 2009Apr 17, 2012Kyphon SarlInterspinous implant and methods of use
US8167890Oct 30, 2007May 1, 2012Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8177852 *Sep 24, 2010May 15, 2012Smith & Nephew, Inc.Hip joint prosthesis
US8182533 *Jan 19, 2009May 22, 2012Richard PerkinsAnnular repair device and method
US8211185 *May 1, 2009Jul 3, 2012Linares Medical Devices, LlcComposite joint implant incorporating inner extending stem with outwardly displaceable branches for securing to a sectioned bone end
US8221458Oct 30, 2007Jul 17, 2012Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8226653May 3, 2010Jul 24, 2012Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Spinous process stabilization devices and methods
US8262698Mar 16, 2006Sep 11, 2012Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Expandable device for insertion between anatomical structures and a procedure utilizing same
US8282675Jan 25, 2008Oct 9, 2012Depuy Spine, Inc.Anti-backout mechanism
US8287539Jun 10, 2009Oct 16, 2012Sonoma Orthopedic Products, Inc.Fracture fixation device, tools and methods
US8287541Jun 10, 2009Oct 16, 2012Sonoma Orthopedic Products, Inc.Fracture fixation device, tools and methods
US8317831Jan 13, 2010Nov 27, 2012Kyphon SarlInterspinous process spacer diagnostic balloon catheter and methods of use
US8317832Feb 9, 2012Nov 27, 2012Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Implants and methods for inter-spinous process dynamic stabilization of spinal motion segment
US8349013Jun 22, 2010Jan 8, 2013Kyphon SarlSpine distraction implant
US8361130 *Oct 5, 2007Jan 29, 2013Depuy Spine, Inc.Bone screw fixation
US8372117Jun 5, 2009Feb 12, 2013Kyphon SarlMulti-level interspinous implants and methods of use
US8398719 *Dec 23, 2010Mar 19, 2013Concept, Design And Development, LlcNeck sparing total hip implant methods
US8439917Feb 22, 2011May 14, 2013Sonoma Orthopedic Products, Inc.Fracture fixation device, tools and methods
US8454693Feb 24, 2011Jun 4, 2013Kyphon SarlPercutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8470049Dec 23, 2010Jun 25, 2013Concept, Design And Development, LlcNeck sparing total hip implant system
US8535322 *Nov 7, 2012Sep 17, 2013Roy Y. PowlanHip nail and inertial insertion tooling
US8540513 *Apr 3, 2012Sep 24, 2013Murtada Hassan AldoukhiExpandable dental implant with improved mechanical retention
US8568413Dec 18, 2009Oct 29, 2013Sonoma Orthopedic Products, Inc.Bone fixation device, tools and methods
US8568454Apr 27, 2007Oct 29, 2013Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Spine distraction implant and method
US8568455Oct 26, 2007Oct 29, 2013Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Spine distraction implant and method
US8591546Dec 7, 2011Nov 26, 2013Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Interspinous process implant having a thread-shaped wing and method of implantation
US8591548Mar 31, 2011Nov 26, 2013Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Spinous process fusion plate assembly
US8591549Apr 8, 2011Nov 26, 2013Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Variable durometer lumbar-sacral implant
US8617211Mar 28, 2007Dec 31, 2013Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Spine distraction implant and method
US8641762Jan 9, 2012Feb 4, 2014Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Systems and methods for in situ assembly of an interspinous process distraction implant
US8672975 *Oct 26, 2007Mar 18, 2014Warsaw Orthopedic, IncSpine distraction implant and method
US8679161Oct 30, 2007Mar 25, 2014Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Percutaneous spinal implants and methods
US8740943Oct 20, 2009Jun 3, 2014Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.Spine distraction implant and method
US20080046088 *Oct 26, 2007Feb 21, 2008Zucherman James FSpine distraction implant and method
US20080086131 *Oct 5, 2007Apr 10, 2008Depuy Spine, Inc.Bone screw fixation
US20100121326 *Nov 9, 2009May 13, 2010Christian WollOrthopedic intramedullary fixation system
US20100185244 *Jul 17, 2009Jul 22, 2010Gooch Hubert LSystems and methods for the medical treatment of structural tissue
US20100298949 *Oct 22, 2008Nov 25, 2010Smith & Nephew, Inc.Joint prosthesis
US20110035022 *May 1, 2009Feb 10, 2011Linares Medical Devices, LlcComposite joint implant incorporating inner extending stem with outwardly displaceable branches for securing to a sectioned bone end
US20120010723 *Dec 23, 2010Jan 12, 2012Concept, Design And Development, LlcNeck sparing total hip implant methods
US20130123933 *May 7, 2012May 16, 2013T. J. Smith & Nephew LimitedHip joint prosthesis
USRE43143Dec 2, 2005Jan 24, 2012Hayhurst John OTissue manipulation
EP1356795A1 *Mar 18, 2003Oct 29, 2003ESKA Implants GmbHSet for constructing a modular implant
EP1407728A1 *Oct 7, 2002Apr 14, 2004Centerpulse Orthopedics Ltd.Femoral head prosthesis
EP2392295A1Jun 1, 2011Dec 7, 2011Implant reductionProsthetic implant with reversible anchoring
WO1997011651A1 *Sep 27, 1996Apr 3, 1997Biomedical Enterprises IncFasteners having coordinated self-seeking conforming members and uses thereof
WO2000009044A1 *Aug 10, 1999Feb 24, 2000Davies Christopher RobertJoint prosthesis and anchoring means
WO2003059210A2 *Dec 24, 2002Jul 24, 2003Pierluigi VersariSteady shaft for prostheses
Classifications
U.S. Classification623/23.11, 606/329, 606/68, 606/314, 606/330, 411/21, 606/323
International ClassificationA61F2/00, A61F2/30, A61F2/46, A61F2/36
Cooperative ClassificationA61F2002/4638, A61F2002/30579, A61F2/3662, A61F2002/30774, A61F2002/30405, A61F2310/00017, A61F2002/30626, A61F2/3601, A61F2002/30632, A61F2220/0025, A61F2002/30354, A61F2/3603, A61F2220/0033, A61F2002/30507
European ClassificationA61F2/36D, A61F2/36A1