US 2686018 A
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Aug- 10, 1954 J. F. couRTNEY INTERNAL FRICTION DEVICE 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 13. 1953 femm Aug. 10, 1954 Filed Feb. 13, 1953 J. F. coURTNEY 2,686,018 INTERNAL ERECTION DEVICE '5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Aug. 10, 1954 J. F. coURTNEY INTERNAL FRIcTIoN DEVICE Filed Feb. 13I 195s 5 Sheets-SheetI 3 ffwefvcf Z7 602224197@ Jose/@ Patented Aug. 10, 1954 UNITED STS TNT OFFICE INTERNAL' FRIc'rroN DEVICE tion of New Jersey Application February 13, 1953, Serial No. 336,722
4 Claims. l
This invention relates to a new and improved internal friction device as used in conjunction with uniform strand tensioning and/or uniform driving mechanisms.
The uniform tensioning of strands and/or filaments is extremely important to the overall strength of a fabric made from these strands or laments. More particularly synthetic fibers such as glass When they are wound on spools normally have irregular stress and strain patterns set up therein thus making it difficult to accomplish the making of a strand or filament having a uniform tensile strength even though the filament is continuous and synthetic.
It is therefore a principal object of the present invention to remove undesirable and unequal stresses and strains from glass or other filaments.
Another important object of this invention is to provide a strand tensioning device which includes the pulling of a glass strand over a roller surface, the rotation of which is controlled by internal friction created within a rubber or elastomer covering of an adjoining roller.
Another important object of this invention is the provision of means in a strand tensioning device for adjustably controlling the rotation of a roller over which a strand to be tensioned is drawn.
Still another important object of this invention is to supply a strand tensioning roller which is snubbed by rolling contact of an adjacent roller.
Another and still further important object of this invention is to provide a strand tensioning apparatus which includes the drawing of a glass or other filament to be tensioned over a roller, the rotation of which is controlled by a rubber covered rotatable member in Contact therewith and means regulating the biasing of the rubber covered rotatable member against the strand carrying roller.
Still another important object of this invention is to provide adjustable yieldable contact of a rubber-like covered rotatable snubbing member with a strand carrying roller. Still another and further important object of this invention is the provision of a friction held lever means for directly biasing a spring for greater or lesser urging of a rubber covered snubbing wheel against a strand carrying roller.
An important object of this invention is to obtain uniform tension on a strand or sheet of material by using the internal friction of a rubber, rubber-like friction wheel or rubber covering of a wheel by compressing the rubber against some member either rotating or stationary.
Another object of this invention is to employ an internal frictional resistance to and in any rotational driving mechanism to accomplish a uniform output drive for the particular driving mechanism.
Still another important object of this invention is to supply. a rubber or elastomer rotating member which is arranged and constructed to bear against a revolving member, a flat stationary member or a curved stationary member to utilize the internal friction-resisting rotation of the rubber rotatable member to provide for the uniform driving of the mechanism.
The important difference between usual friction devices and the internal friction device of this invention is that in the presently used device there is an external sliding surface subject to comparatively rapid wear and the friction is subject to extreme changes due to surface conditions of the sliding members. With the device of the present invention the friction is a rolling friction and occurs beneath the surface of a rubber member; thus the internal friction of the device of the present invention is more constant and is not subject to eXtreme changes for any given rubber composition. In the use of the internal friction wheel the replacement of a sliding contact with a rolling contact materially reduces the amount of wear of the contacting surface. It should be understood that the friction wheel employed in this device may take any form and still accomplish the desired result.
Other and further important objects of this invention will become apparent from the disclosures in the following specification and accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is an elevational view partially in section of the strand tensioning device of this invention;
Fig. 2 is a combination sectional and elevational view taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. l;
Fig. 3 is a top plan View of the device of Figs.v l and 2;
Fig. 4 is a side elevational View of a modified strand. tensioning device of 'this invention;
Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on the line 'tiof Fig. 4, and
Fig. 6 is a sectional View taken on the line @-6 0f Fig. 4.
Fig. 7 is a side elevational View of a modified adaptation of the present invention;
Fig. 9 is a side elevational view of the device of Fig. 8;
Fig. l is a front elevational view of a still further modified form of the invention wherein the internal frictional means of rubber or the like is applied to a planetary gear mechanism, and
Fig. li is a sectional view taken on the line II-II of Fig. 10.
As shown in the drawings:
The reference numeral ID indicates generally a receptacle for housing a spool or cake of continuous glass lament II. The receptacle I@ is provided with a conical shaped cover i2 which has an opening I3 in the central and apex portion thereof As shown in Figs. l and 2 a strand I4 of the glass spool II is shown being pulled outwardly through the opening I3 and thereafter passed through a guide bushing i5 for delivery through the strand tensioning device of this inivention. The guide bushing l5 is mounted on a Vbracket I6 which forms a part of a frame structure I'I which carries the entire strand tensioning device. The term strand used herein shall be construed to include rope, single filament, or sheet material.
A roller I8 is journally mounted for rotation on the frame structure Il and is disposed beneath an upper rotatable member I9 which is simi lai-ly journalied for rotation on the frame structure I1. The lower roller I8 is provided with a shaft 2li. The shaft 2G is journalled in spaced apart aligned openings 2l and 22 in spaced apart substantially parallel walls 23 and 2li of the frame structure I'L The spaced apart walls 23 and 2d are equipped with upwardly opening spaced apart aligned slots 25 Vand 23 positioned directly above the spaced apart aligned openings 2| and 22. The upper roll or rotatable member I9 is provided with a shaft 2.1 and it is the function of the shaft to journally carry the rotatable member I9 within the upwardly opening slots 25 and 26. The rotatable member .I3 is provided with an annular rubber covering of substantial thickness in direct engagement with the lower roller 8. The term rubber in this specication shall be construed to mean any rnatural or syn thetic rubber or any elastomer or other material capable of resilient deformation. As the glass strand I4 leaves the guide bushing I5 it passes over the lower roller I8, the rotating of which is controlled by the snubbing action of the upper rotatable member I9 thereagainst. The upwardly opening slots 25 and 25 permit the rotatable member I3 to freely `ride over .the lower roller I8 automatically compensating for irregularities of the circumferential surfaces of the tivo rollers as well as for various diameter sizes of strands to be tensioned.
The spaced apart walls 23 and 23 of the frame structure il have comparable projecting portions 29 and 3l) which extend in a direction away from the vertically disposed rollers I8 and IS vand on the opposite side from the guide bushing l5. The projecting portions 23 and 30 include horizontally aligned openings .3| and 32. Arms 33 and 34 are equipped with hinge pins 35 and 3B for their respective journalling in the openings 3I and 32 in the projecting portions 29 and 3D of the frame structure. It should be understood that the arms 33 and 34 are entirely separate and independent of each other and may separately hinge about their hinge pins 35 and 36. The separate arms 33 and 34 project forwardly from their hinge connection to the frame structure over the oposite ends of the shaft 2l of the rubber covered upper rotatable member I9. Thus the arms rest on the shaft 2 causing an urging of the upper rotatable member I@ downwardly against the lower strand carrying roller I8. The variable degrees of rotatable snubbing are accomplished by weights 31 and 3i! carried on the arms 33 and 34, respectively. As shown in Figures l, 2 and 3 weights 3l' and 33 are provided with central passages or openings 39 and 40, respectively in order to receive passage of the arms 33 and 34. Each weight 3i and 38 is equipped with a set screw lil and 42 so that the weights may be simply and easily adjustable along the length of the arms 33 and 3d to obtain greater or lesser biasing of the upper rotatable member I against the lower strand carrying roller I3. It should be apparent that when the weights 3l and 33 are positioned at or near the outward ends of the arms 33 and 363, there is a greater load imposed on the rotatable member I3 and it follows that there will be a greater deformation of the lrubber covered surface of that rotatable member to the extent that the strand carrying roller lil is snubbed in its rotation by the internal friction created within the rubber covering of the rotatable member I9 as it bears down against the strand carrying roller I8.
As shown in Figure l the glass strand Ill after passing over the roller E3 is carried around the rearward side of the rotatable member I9 and thence forwardly in the direction indicated by the arrow 53. The pulling of the glass strand from its spool I I in the manner described and .as shown in Figures l, 2 and 3 will tend to uniformly tension the strand and to remove undesirable stresses and strains which are inherently within the strand if they are wound upon a spool or within such a cake immediately after forma tion of the strand by a glass furnace and without other means for eliminating such undesirable stresses and strains. It should be understood that this is not the simple braking of the strand carrying roller i3, but rather is the controlling of the rotation of that roller by the application of a surface deforming rotatable member and the accompanying internal friction of that deformable surface.
A modified form of the invention is shown in Figures 4, 5 and 6. This modified device performs the same strand tensioning function with slightly different apparatus. A glass strand 44 is received from a receptacle (not shown) which would be identical to the receptacle I3 as shown in Figures l, 2 .and 3. The modiiied tensioning device is provided with a frame support structure which includes a cross arm 43. A roller or shea-ve 4'! is journalled on a shalt #t3 which in turn is xedly mounted on the cross arm 36. The shaft 48 is provided with a bolt head f3.8 and nut 53 which engages the threaded end of the shaft llt. The sheave or roller @l is provided with an annular V-shaped groove through and over which the glass or other strand to be tensioned is drawn. lt should be understood that the strand carried in the V-groove may extend entirely around the roller or may wrapped around the roller several times to get the desired capstan eiect. At the outer periphery of the strand carrying roller 4l there is an integral annular flange extending laterally therefrom the inner surface of which provides the area for engagement by a rotatable snubber thus making the device comparable to the tensioning device to Figures l, 2 and 3. A rotatable member 53 coresponding to the rotatable member I3 is provided with a rubber annular cover 54 of substantial thickness. The rotatable member 53 is adapted to engage the inner annular surface of the lateral extending annular flange 52 of the roller 4? and by reason of the variable degrees of deformation of the rubber covering 54 the rotation of the strand carrying roller il is controlled to produce a strand having uniform tensioning.
The rotatable member 53 is journalled on the shaft 55 which is carried on an arm 5E by a threaded attachment thereto as shown at 5l. The arm 555 is a part of a bellcrank 53 which is pivotally attached at 59 to the frame structure cross arm 56. The bellcrank 5S is provided with a second arm G disposed angularly with respect to the rotatable member carrying arm E5.
An actuating lever E! which is hingedly attached to the cross frame 45 by means of a bolt B2, a split or other lock type washer 63 is shown in Figure 6 in a position intermediate the bolt 2 and the cross frame 45 to provide for substantial frictional engagement of the actuating lever 6i with the cross frame d6. The operator of the device may adjust the lever arm 6| by pulling it about its hinged bolt B2 causing it to assume different angular relationships with respect to the frame 55, and in View of the friction washer the lever arm tends to maintain the position in which it is manually placed. A coil spring Sli joins the arm Eil of the bellcrank 5B with the actuating lever arm Si at the location t5 intermediate its hinged attachment with the cross frame [i5 and its outer swingable end. W hen the actuating lever 6i is manually moved in the direction of the arrow 66 the tension on the spring Ell increases causing a greater biasing or urging of the rotatable member 53 against the inner annular surface of over-hanging flange 52 of the strand carrying sheave roller lil. Similarly the manual movement of the actuating lever Si in the opposite direction Will lessen the force of application of the rotatable member 53 against the roller il thus minimizing the snubbing of the strand carrying roller 47 by the rotatable member 53. The rotatable members i9 and 53 erform identical functions in the two forms of this invention as shown in Figures 1 and 4. In the modified form of the tensioning device the glass strand 44 is pulled upwardly as indicated by the arrow 6? and is carried over and around the strand carrying sheave AT which similarly rotates in the same direction as indicated by the arrow 68.
As in the strand tensioning device in Figures 1 to 3 the strand tensioning device of Figures 4 to 6 functions to control the rotation of the strand carrying roller by the surface deformation of a snubbing rotatable member. In both instances there are means provided for adjusting the degree of force by which the rotatable member contacts the strand carrying roller and thus simultaneously causing surface deformation of the rotatable member and the creating of an internal friction within the deformable surface to snub the strand carrying roller which has a substantially nondeformable surface. The running of a strand through this device thus gives the strand a uniform tensioning. Such uniform strand tensioning is the result desired and after such a strand has been so rid of its undesirable irregular stresses and strains it is suitable for many applications such as fabrics and/or twines with the expectation that the resulting fabric and/or twines may be of a uniform strength throughout their entireties.
As shown in Fig. 7, the reference numeral 'I0 is f directed to a stationary supporting structure upon which is journally mounted a winding spindle or the like, 1|. The spindle is adapted to receive a tube, bobbin, cone or the like, such as shown at 12, upon Which is wound a strand of material shown at 13. A device commonly termed a builder mechanism M is adapted to press against the surface of the package of strand material being Wound onto the member l2. The builder mechanisms in the past have performed various functions such as constituting size-limiting means for rolls of material and causing the strand of material to lay in an even and uniform manner on a spool or the like. The builder mechanism as shown in Fig. '7 includes a pad 'i5 which engages the surface of the material wound on the spool 12. The pad 15 is carried on an arm 'i6 which is pivotally mounted at 'il on the stationary supporting structure it. The lower end of the arm 16 terminates in a fork 'I3 for journally carrying a wheel member i9 on a shaft 8i) spanning the fork i8. The wheel member 79 includes a core or hub portion 8l and a rubber or elastomer peripheral covering 82. An arcuate stationary surface is provided at 83 forming a track on which the wheel member 19 may travel. The arcuate member 83 forms a part of a circle with its center being the axial center of the hinge 'il of the arm 16. Further, the track member 83 forms a part of the stationary supporting structure lil. The radius of the track member 83 is slightly less than the radius of the builder mechanism arm 'Iii from the hinge l1 to the outer extremity of the rubber periphery 82 of the wheel lil. It will thus be seen that the rubber peripheral surface 82 of the Wheel 19 will be somewhat compressed at the point of rolling contact with the stationary curved track 83. Itwill thus be seen that the builder mechanism as employed in this Fig. '7 performs the added function of determining the density or compactness of the package being formed. The arcuate movement of the builder mechanism, as the package increases in diameter, is limited by reason of the internal friction occasioned Within the annular rubber covering 82 of the wheel member 'i0 as that wheel is urged against the stationary curved surface 83 and thus the Weight of the package being formed may be closely controlled. Rotation of the friction wheel i9 requires a certain amount of work with a given pressure of the friction against the stationary surface and it is thus evident that the package weight may be controlled for a denite diameter of package.
Figs. 8 and 9 show the application of internal friction to a variable speed driving mechanism. The mechanism includes a pair of spaced-apart, axially aligned shafts 8d and $35, each of which is equipped with a beveled pinion gear 8% and tl'. The beveled pinions B and Si mesh with opposed beveled pinion gears 88 and 39 which are carried within a ring member Sil. Rotational drive is delivered to the shaft 84 by reason of the braking of rotation of the ring member 9d, rotational drive is thus transmitted to the output shaft 85. A rotatable wheel member 9i having a hub or core @2 and an outer annular rubber or elastomer covering 93 is carried on a shaft Ell which is mounted on and across a forked portion @il of an arm 96. As best shown in Fig. 9 the arm $6 is pivotally mounted at 91 on a stationary supporting structure S3. The far end of the arm t3 is shaped in the form of a handle Se so that the arm and its associated wheel 9| may be arcuately swung about the hinge 95 for more or less engagement with the ring member of the variable speed driving mechanism. An arcuate rack member it!) is formed on the stationary supporting structure $8 and is adapted to be engaged by a pawl ror latch member' icl which is hingedly mounted on the arm 9B at ft2. Ilhus, after manual adjustment of the Aarm Sit has been made the pawl is put into the notch lying adjacent thereto on the rack l. It is therefore evident that after adjustment is Compl ted the arm 95 remains in fixed position with the rubber covered wheel ci in a xed degree of compressing engagement with the differential ring member dii. Here, again, the primary principle is to substitute a rolling internal friction for the usual external sliding friction. Rotation of the ring member 9E is thus accurately controlled through the internal friction developed within the annular rubber member '93. In this modification, as shown in Figs. 8 and 9, it is not necessary that the drive mechanism be solely for a strand or sheet material. The end result in a driving mechanism employing this internal rolling friction as a means for snubbing the drive is a uniform and completely controlled output.
In addition to adapting the internal frictional snubbing device of this invention to a differential means, the modifica-tion, as shown in Figs. l and il, provides for the adaptation of the invention to a planetary gear drive mechanism. An input drive shaft is shown at |613 and has a carrier idd fixedly attached thereto so that as the shaft itt rotates, so will the carrier its. The carrier it@ has journally mounted thereon spaced-apart planet gears [c and itt which are disposed between an outer ring member Nil having an internal annular ring ist and a centrally disposed sun gear leg. The sun gear 39 is mounted on and is fastened to a shaft l le which is spaced apart but in axial alignment with the input shaft i633. The shaft il@ constitutes the output drive shaft of this driving mechanism. The ring member it? has a disk-like upporting structure i i i which is carried on a bearing member l i2 disposed about the output drive shaft Ht. The outer annular surface of the ring member itl is engaged about a rolling wheel member H3, as shown in Fig. l0, which is quite similar in construction to the wheel member 9 l, as shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The wheel l i3 includes a hub itil and an outer annular rubber covering H5 which provides the means for obtaining the internal frictional resistance to the drive delivered to the output shaft lit. The wheel l 3 is mounted on a belicranl; arm H5 which is pivotally carried at iii' on a supporting structure it. A Weight itil is slidably mounted on the ram arm of the bellcrank i iii and is adjusted in any desired position therealong by an adjacent set screw 129.. The greater the distance the weight i i9 is located from the pivotal mounting lil, the greater will be the urging of the wheel i i3 against the ring member le?, and thus the resultant drive of the output shaft lil will be increased. An absence of snubbing of the ring member EN in the device as shown in Figs. 10 and ll would result in no drive being delivered to the output shaft l it. Any rotational drive mechanisrn delivered to the device through the input shaft 93 would be dissipated in the mechanism by the free running of the planet gears and ring gear and there would be no effective drive to the output sun gear H59. In the same manner that the differential drive is caused to have a uniform output, so also is the planetary drive output made uniform by the snubbing of the ring member IS7 by mea-ns of the internal friction within the rubber or elastomer covering l l5.
Numerous details of construction may be varied throughout a wide range without departing from the principles disclosed herein, and I therefore do not propose limiting the patent granted hereon otherwise than as necessitated by the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
l. In a strand tensioning device, a support, a nrst roller journalled thereon and providing a peripheral strand engaging surface, means for controlling rotation of the roller, said means comprising a second rotatable member having a shaft extending laterally outwardly from both ends, said support having spaced apart upwardly open slots located above said rst roller for receiving the shaft of the second rotatable member whereby said second rotatable member may have movement toward and away from said first roller, a peripheral deformable annular surface on said second rotatable member engaging the roller, separate means urging each end of said shaft downwardly into the bottoms of the upwardly open slots, said separate means including spaced apart separate arms hingedly mounted on said support adjacent said upwardly opening slots, and individual weight means adjustably carried on cach of said arms, said arms engaging the shaft extensions of said second rotatable member and urging it into contact with said first roller.
2. in a strand tensioning device, a support, a shea-ve journalled thereon, said sheave having an annular flange adjacent the outer periphery thereof, means for controlling rotation of said sheave, said means comprising a rotatable member, said rotatable member having a peripheral deformable outer annular surface arranged and constructed to engage the inner surface of the annular flange of the sheave, a bellcranlr lever hingedly mounted on said support, said bellcrank lever having angularly spaced apart arms, said rotatable member journally mounted on one of the arms of said bellcrank lever, and spring means engaging the other arm of said bellcrank lever to urge said rotatable member into surface deforming engagement with the inner surface of said annular flange.
3. A device as set forth in claim 2 in which a lever arm is hingedly mounted on said support in spaced apart position with respect to the hinging of said beilcrank lever, and said spring means joining said lever arm, whereby angular changes of said lever arm directly control the spring means for greater or lesser urging of said rotatable member against the annular flange of the sheave.
4. A builder mechanism for a strand Winder comprising a stationarf,7 supporting structure, a spindle on said supporting structure, a tube on said spindle, a strand wound on said tube, a strand-engaging pad, an arm hingedly mounted intermediate its ends on said supporting structure, one end of said arm carrying said pad, the other end of said arm iournally carrying a wheel, said wheel having an annular rubber outer periphery, a curved surface carried by said supporting structure and generated about the arm hinge as a center, the radial distance between the arm hinge and the curved surface being somewhat less than the length of the arm between its hinge and the outer rubber annular periphery of the wheel whereby the rubber periphery is compressed and rolling of the wheel on the curved surface by the building of strand on the tube is resisted by internal friction within the rubber periphery.
(References on following page) 9 References Cited in the le of this patent Number UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 534:130 917,727 Hammond Apr. 6, 1909 5 2,541,456 1,539,754 McCuuougho May 26, 1925 2,605,651 1,963,308 Molinelli June 19, 1934 2,233,311 Harne Feb. 25, 1941 2,362,920 Moore Nov. 14, 1944 Number 2,396,153 Butler Mar. 5, 1946 10 346,072 2,444,448 Kannenberg July 6, 1948 848,630
Name Date Jencks Apr. 5, 1949 Lanphere July 18, 1950 Hunt Dec. 12, 1950 Bartak Feb. 13, 1951 Winther Aug. 5, 1952 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date France Nov. 11, 1904 France July 31, 1939