US 2687137 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
24, 1954 A. KRAMER ET AL 2,687,137
ROTARY WASHER WITH VERTICAL AXIS Filed May 2, 1950 INVENTOR A llan K ramer 92 Henry A.Bessesen' F1 4- 34 90 F 1' 7- ATTORNEYS Patented Aug. 24, 1954 ROTARY WASHER WITH VERTICAL AXIS Allan Kramer and Henry A. Bessesen, Cleveland, Ohio, assignors to Bessen, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio,
a corporation of Ohio Application May 2, 1950, Serial No. 159,476
This invention relates to washing machines,
more particularly to an improved washing apparatus utilizing an immersed container or receptacle which carries the articles to be washed and Which rotates in a bath of washing liquid.
It is an object of the invention to provide a washing apparatus wherein articles are carried by a container that is rotated about an upright axis, the container being positively rotated While immersed in washing liquid. As a preferential arrangement the articles being Washed are subjected to the action of high velocity liquid jets while they are being rotated in the container, the jets being so directed onto the articles in the rotating containeras normally to exert rotation retarding forces on such container.
Another object is to provide a washing apparatus of the rotary container type in which the container is positively driven while immersed in a bath of washing liquid and in which liquid jets are directed into the washing liquid, the jets tending to retard rotary movement of the washing liquid bath in unison with the container and to effect a turbulent reverse rotation of such liquid bath.
Another object is to provide a washer having a water jet drive and a motor drive for normal operation in opposition to one another and for optional emergency operation separately and independently of one another. As a more specialized aspect of this phase of the invention the motor drive can be readily disconnected at will for optional operation by the jets alone.
A further object is to provide an improved motor drive for a rotary container washerwherein the container is formed with a circular periphery at which the driving connection is estab lished.
The invention is embodied in a rotary container washer comprising a tub structure for the washing liquid, an article container therein, nozzle means, and a drive motor tiltably mounted and having shaft means that is extended into driving engagement with a circular rim on the article container. The motor may preferentially have a rigidly extending shaft disposed at an angle through a slot opening in the tub wall. Tilting of the motor on its pivot axis shifts the shaft into and out of frictional engagement with the container rim so that the drive can be made or interrupted at will.
Still further objects and advantages of the invention pertaining to certain novel features of construction and combinations and arrangements of process steps and parts providing simplicity in design and economy in manufacture will become shoulder provided by such flange.
apparent. The foregoing and other objects, purposes, and advantages of the invention are set forth in the following detailed description of an illustrative embodiment made in connection with the accompanying drawings forming a part of the specification. Like parts throughout the several views are indicated by the same letters and numerals of reference.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a sectional view, with parts removed or broken away, taken vertically through a rotary container type washer incorporating the principles of the invention;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary top plan view of the Washer, partly in section and with parts broken away and removed;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary elevational detail, partly in section, showing the cam lever arrangement for tilting the motor to disconnect the drive;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary elevational detail, partly in section, showing the combination shaft well and motor supporting bracket; and
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary elevational detail, partly in section and with parts removed, showing the crank or cam lift guide on the motor, this view being taken substantially along the line indicated at 5--5 of Fig. 3 and enlarged with respect to that figure.
The washer assembly comprises an open topped sheet metal tub A which, as shown, may be circular in horizontal section or, if desired, square or other polygonal shape. A removable top or closure B is received within an offset rim flange on the tub and rests by gravity on the circular A container C is mounted within the tub for rotation about an upright or vertical axis. Cleansing liquid such as hot water from a high pressure source such as a city water supply, is introduced into the tub through a nozzle assembly D. High velocity jets from the nozzle impinge on dishes or other articles to be washed, such articles being supported in the rotatable receptacle C. During rotation of the container the jets impinge against and sweep over the surfaces of articles supported therein, the impingement being from many angles and constantly changing to provide a thorough washing action.
The tub A, formed as by spinning or drawing sheet metal, has a circular flat bottom integrally joined along its upwardly curved edges to an upstanding cylindrical side wall 3. The upper edge of the side wall is rolled into a bead 4t along the rim flange and circular shoulder 5 supports the lid or cover B.
The cover B includes a sheet metal ring 6 stamped or spun to the desired circular shape and. formed with an integral depending flange l that has an edge bead 8 for engagement with the tub shoulder 5. A reversely bent flange 9 is formed along the circular inner edge of the cover ring to provide a circular channel which receives the edge of a transparent closure disc II. This disc is of glass or plastic, permitting observation of the washing action with the lid in place.
An upright metal post or spindle I4 is carried by the tub bottom i. This post has an integral base flange l5 and is secured in place in the tub center as by a screw it that extends through the bottom of the tub.
The article receiving receptacle or assembly C includes an open top container that comprises a substantially flat circular bottom It and an upright cylindrical side Wall I9. The container is smaller than but conforms in general to the shape of the tub A, there being an annular clearance 29 between the upright wall of the container and the upright wall of the tub. Holes ll in the container bottom permit the escape of washing liquid from the container into the tub. A tubular metal socket member or sleeve 2! is secured to the center of the container bottom in upright position and is received over the spindle it to support the container on the latter in rotatable relation. The sleeve extends through a central opening in the container bottom and has an integral circular flangeZZ that supportingly underlies the container bottom.
An open bottom cup-like implement holder 23 is mounted in the center of the container, the
walls of. the cup surrounding the sleeve. Rivets 2t extend through the sleeve flange, tub bottom, and inturned ears 25 on the cup to secure the parts together. A retainer ring 25 having upstanding spikes 2l' is secured to the container bottom by screws 28. In washing dishes and pottery, plates and the like are placed edgewise between the spikes which thus support the dishes on the tub bottom and prevent slipping and shifting of the dishes. The socket member or sleeve 2| has a closed top which bears on a steel ball held in a retainer 32 on the top of the spindle. The article receiving assembly C is thus balanced on the ball 35 for free turning, there being a clearance space 33 between the bottom of the tub and the bottom of the container.
Washing liquid or water is supplied to the nozzle D through a flexible conduit 34 such as a tubular hose having a quick disconnect end fitting 35 that is received on a companion fitting 36 pressed into an opening in hollow body portion ill of the nozzle. The other end, not shown, of the flexible conduit is provided with the conventional fitting for attachment to the hot water supply or mixing faucet of a sink. The washer, supported in level position on the sink drainboard, can thus be readily connected to the sink or other faucet so as to receive high pressure hot water such as that obtained from domestic water sources supplied from city water mains.
The metal nozzle body 3'! is welded or secured by screws to the outside of the sheet metal cover ring 6 and is formed with an internal chamber that communicates with the passage in the inlet fitting or tube 38.
A jet head or button 30 of brass or similar metal is press fitted or threaded into a recess or opening in the underside of the nozzle body 3! and projects through an opening in the cover ring 5. The button head is drilled or formed with outwardly divergent passages 4!, d2, 43 and 44 that communicate with the hollow interior of the nozzle body. These jet passages or openings in the nozzle head are positioned or located to direct high velocity water streams through the open top of the container C and into the interior of the latter. These streams or jets, diagrammatically represented at El, 52, 53 and 54, respectively issuing from the jet openings 4!, 42, and it, impinge against articles such as plates and dishes supported in the container and, by reaction against such articles, cause the entire receptacle and its contents to rotate on the spindle post 14. The jets also play or scrub over the surfaces of articles in the container to give the desired cleansing action.
As the tub or receptacle progressively fills with water, the downwardly angled jets drive into the surface of the water, churning the latter and swirling it about and over the articles. A suitable detergent or cleanser placed in the tub or container at the time it is loaded or charged with articles to be washed is taken up by or dissolved in the water and augments and hastens the cleansing action of the water and jets.
In the side wall 3 of the tub just below the lid supporting shoulder 5 is an overflow opening or outlet 5%] which releases the washing liquid from the tub chamber at a predetermined height above rolled or beaded circular rim 55 on the container. The tub bottom is formed with a discharge or drain opening 55. A unitary cast metal shroud or drain member 5'5 is fitted against the outside of the tub over both the overflow openingand the drain opening. This L-shaped member is hollow and has an open side disposed against the outside of side Wall 3 of the tub. The drain memher also extends around the tub corner and beneath that portion or" the tub bottom I which has the drain opening 53. Water which enters space or chamber 58 between the drain member and the tub Wall is directed to flow through an outlet 5;! in the bottom of the drain member. The edges of the drain member closely follow the contour of the tub and a suitable packing or calking may be used to provide a water-tight seal. Screws til through the tub wall and bottom are threaded into integral bosses of the drain member and hold the latter in place.
The closure for the tub drain opening 58 comprises a rubber or other deformable pad ti carried on a raised central portion of a lever 62 housed within the drain member space 53. One end of the lever is carried by a fulcrum 63 formed in the bottom leg of the drain member, the other end 64 of the lever being connected as by a link 65 to a crank 66. This crank is on the end of a pin 88 which extends through an integral boss on the drain member shroud 5? and is journaled in the boss for rotative movement of the crank. A knob 62' on the outer end of the crank pin 68 may be manually operated to raise and lower the pivoted lever in opening and closing the drain outlet. The crank is provided with a stop, not shown, which holds it at its uppermost dead center position with the closure pad '5! compressed tightly across the drain opening 56.
The washer is supported so that the rotational axis of the receptacle C is vertical, or substantially so, by means of feet 'l'il secured to the tub bottom and a foot portion H formed integrally on the underside of the drain member or shroud. The jets from the nozzle head til form a coned pattern, the several jets diverging from one another in their travel toward the articles in the container. it
The jet 52 from thenozzleopeningfl is directed substantially radially with respect to the rotational axis ofthe container and has relatively little influence on the rotation of the container. The jet openings 43 and 44 are directed somewhat tangentially with respect to the rotational axis of the container C and articles carried thereby so as to rotate the container clockwise, as viewed in Fig. 2. The stream or jet from the nozzle opening 4! is also directed tangentially with respect to the container and the articles therein but in a direction to oppose the rotation as induced by the jets 53 and 54. The jets 53 and 54, however, being greater in number than the single jet 5| overcome the effect of the jet 5| on the container and articles therein so that the net result of the jets is a tendency for the container to rotate in the clockwise direction referred to. Additionally the jet openings 43 and 44 may be of larger capacity or diameter than thejet openings 5i so as to project water at a faster rate and in a greater volume.
.The washing action is improved by positively rotating the container C independently of the action of the water jets 5!, 52, 53 and "54. Positive rotation of the container is obtained by drive means designated generally at E. This container actuating means comprises an electric drive motor 12 tiltably mounted externally of the tub A. The motor has an extension shaft 13 extending into the interior of the tub through a vertically elongated opening 14 in the tub wall 3. A channel shaped enclosure 15 is secured against the outside of the tub wall 3 over the opening 14 to prevent the loss of washing liquid throughsuch opening. The enclosure is formed with an integral edge flange 16 which is sealingly welded or riveted to the tub wall. The upper edges of the enclosure are formed with integral ears 11 that carry a horizontal pivot pin 18.
The motor 12 is of standard or conventional design andmay be a universal electric motor operating on either 110 volts alternating current or 110 volts direct current such as prevails in the electric power supply systems of cities. The motor frame, comprising the usual laminated structure of soft iron plates, is secured as by screws to a tilt element or bracket of inverted U-shape. This bracket has downwardly projecting leg portions Bl], the lower ends of which are aperturedto receive the ends of the pivot pin 18 supported in the cars 11 of the'shaft enclosure 15. The pivot pin 18 is located with respect to the center of gravity of the motor 12 sothat the motor tends to turn or swing by gravity in a clockwise direction, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 3. The lower end of the motor shaft 13 is thus made to bear yieldingly against the outside of therolled peripheral bead 55 on the container C and to thereby establish a frictional drive to rotate the container. Means such as knurling or rubber. facings, or both, are provided on the engaging parts to minimize slippage and improve the driving connection. For example, the shaft end may be knurled as indicated at 8| and the container bead 55 may be faced with a strip 82 of rubber or similar material bonded in place or clamped in the bead dur 'ing the formation of the latter.
When the motor 12 is energized by connecting its flexible electrical cord 83 to a suitable electric power outlet or supply, the container C is rotated at a speed of from about forty to one hundred sixty revolutions per minute. A speed of the order of about eighty revolutions per minute is satisfactory for domestic dishwashing and similar purposes. The present washer can, of course, be used for washing light articles of clothing and linens and the same range of container speeds may be used. Speeds lower than about forty revolutions per minute do not have a sufficiently vigorous agitating action on the washing liquid and long washing periods are required. Speeds in excess of about one hundred sixty revolutions per minute, particularly in washers of large diameter, are unsuited to domestic dishwashing because of the centrifugal forces tending to shift the dishes in the container.
A hollow sheet metal housing 84 encloses the electric drive motor and related par-ts, this housing :being secured as by a screw 85 to a post 86 welded or otherwise attached to the outside of the tub wall 3. The post 86 is positioned below the shaft enclosure 15 and the electric cord 83 extends through an aperture in the housing protected as by a rubber grommet 81.
In making and interrupting the frictional drive connection between the knurled end 8| of the motor shaft 13 and the rubber covered rim 55 of the container C, the drive motor assembly is tilted on the pivot pin 18. As previously mentioned, the weight of the motor 12 acts by gravity normally to swing the motor assembly in aclockwise direction, as viewed in Fig. 1, so as yieldingly to hold the knurled shaft end 8| against the rim of the rotatable container. To interrupt th driving connection the motor assembly is shifted in a counterclockwise direction substantially to the position shown in Fig. 3 in which the knurled shaft end is withdrawn from the rim of the rotatable container. This shifting of the motor assembly is accomplished by means of a crank formed as an offset in a bent rod 90. The aligned ends of this rod are journaled in openings in the upper end of the shaft enclosure '55 and the housing 84, the opening in the enclosure being shown at 89, Fig. 4.
A knob 9| on the outer end of the crank rod may be manually actuated to rotate the crank rod so as to swing the crank portion through its operating arc of about 180. The crank portion of the rod is received through an opening 94 in a sheet metal cage 32 secured as by a flange 93 to the frame of the motor 12. When the rod is rotated by the knob 9! to swing the crank portion to its uppermost position, as shown in Figs. 3
i and 5, the crank bears against the upper wall of the cage 92 and raises the motor assembly to retract the knurled shaft end 8| from the container rim 55. The cage 92 is formed with a r cess to receive the crank portion of the rod fill to hold the crank at its uppermost dead center position,
The electric drive motor 12 rotates in that direction which turns the container C in a counterclockwise direction, as viewed in Fig. 2. Thus the container is driven by the electric motor reversely to the direction it would normally turn under the influence of jets 53 and t ll. This positive movement of the container in a reverse direction relative to the jet reaction has an augmenting effect on the cleansing forces of the jets and improves the washing action. In the event of electrical power failure the Washer can be used nevertheless, by relying solely on the water jets to rotate the container C in the usual manner. When so operating the washer, the motor assembly is retracted to the inactive 'oposition shown in Fig. 3.
t is also feasible to utilize the washer when the city water system iailsor the pressure is so low as to result in ineffective jet action. To
operate without the jets, the tub A is merelyv filled to the desired level with the wash water or other liquid and the container C operated. by means of the electric motor until the wash is completed. The washing liquid or water is then released through the outlet and the tub filled with rinse water. After rotating the container C by means of the electric rive motor to rinse the articles, the tub is again drained through the outlet 56 and the articles removed and dried or allowed to dry in the container. The drying can be accelerated by removing the lid or cover 13 and rotating the container C by means of the electric drive.
In normal operation of the washer, the articles, such as dishes or crockery, are placed in the container C in the usual manner and a quantity of detergent or other washing aid is added. The
cover B is placed on the tub and high pressure hot water introduced through the nozzle head iii. While the tub is filling with the hot washing liquid, the drain opening bi; being closed, the container C is rotated by means of the electric drive motor l2. After the tub is filled to the level of the overflow opening the supply of additional hot water through the jet head fill may be terminated for a period of time duringwhich the rotation of the container C is continued by means of the electric drive. This supplemental driving of the container agitates the washing liquid in the tub and may be continued as long as necessary to complete the Washing of the articles.
The rinsing is then accomplished by supplying hot water through the jet head it so that the wash water is caused to overflow through the outlet Alternatively, the wash water may first be released through the drain outlet lit and the rinse then turned on. In any event, the liquid in the tub A is drained through the outlets and 59 and the articles then subjected to a hot flushing rinse supplied through the jet head ts, this action taking place while the rotation of the container C is continued by means of the electric drive. After the hot flushing rinse, the water being shut off, the cover B is removed from the tub. Continued rotation of the container C by means of the electric drive results in rapid drying of V the hot dishes and pottery. v
In utilising the washer for clothing, linens and the like, the usual procedures are followed, the electric drive motor 12 being utilized to turn the container C during both washing and rinsing operations.
In accordance with the patent statutes the principles of the present invention may be utilized in various ways, numerous modifications and alterations being contemplated, substitution of parts and changes in construction being resorted. to as desired, it being understood that the apparatus shown in the drawings and described above and the particular method set forth are given merely for purposes of explanation and illustration without intending to limit the scope of the claims to the specific details disclosed.
What we claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A washer comprising in combination a tub having an overflow outlet to limit the maximum height level of Washing liquid therein, an article container mounted in the tub for rotation and having a substantially circular periphery, a motor having a rotatable shaft extending from one end, means supporting the motor above the maximum height level of the washing liquid, and means astablishing a direct frictional driving connection between the motor shaft and the periphery of the container.
2. A washer comprising in combination a tub having an overflow outlet to limit the maximum height level of washing liquid therein, an article container mounted in the tub for rotation and having a substantially circular periphery, a motor and means supporting the motor above the maximum height level of the washing liquid, and shaft means drivingly connected to the motor, said shaft means extending through the wall of the tub below the said maximum height level of washing liquid and being pressed yieldingly against the periphery of the container in the establishment of a driving connection therebetween.
3. A washer comprising in combination a tub having an overflow outlet to limit the maximum height level of washing liquid therein, an article container mounted in the tub for rotation and having a substantially circular periphery, a motor and means supporting the motor above the maximum height level of the washing liquid, shaft means drivingly connected to the motor, said shaft means extending through the wall of the tub below the said maximum height level of washing liquid and being pressed yieldingly against the periphery of the container in the establishment of a driving connection therebetween and means operative to withdraw the shaft means from the container periphery to interrupt the driving connection.
In combination in a washer comprising a tub and a container mounted for rotation in the tub, the container having a circular periphery and the tub having an overflow outlet limiting the depth of washing liquid in the tub to a predetermined maximum height le'velthe improvement which comprises a drive assembly having a power unit supported wholly above the container and wholly above the level of liquid at its maximum depth in the tub, the drive assembly including a rotatable member extending through the tub wall at a level below the overflow outlet and into frictional engagement with the container periphery.
5. In combination in a washer comprising a tub and a container mounted for rotation in the tub, the container having a circular periphery and the tub having an overflow outlet limiting the depth of washing liquid in the tub to a predetermined maximum height level the improvement which comprises a drive assembly having a power unit supported by the tub outwardly of the container and wholly above the level of liquid at its maximum depth in the tub, the drive assembly including a rotatable member extending through the tub wall at a level below the overflow outlet and into frictional engagement with the container periphery.
6. In combination in a washer comprising a tub and a container mounted for rotation in the tub, the container having a circular periphery and the tub having an overflow outlet limiting the depth of washing liquid in the tub to a predetermined maximum height level the improvement which comprises a drive assembly having a power unit supported by the tub outwardly of the container and wholly above the level of liquid at its maximum depth in the tub, the drive assembly including a rotatable member extending through the tub wall at a level below the overflow outlet and.
into frictional engagement with the container periphery and a deformable frictionstrip secured about the container periphery along the path traversed by the rotatable member.
7. In combination in a washer comprising a tub and a container mounted for rotation in the tub, the container having a circular periphery and the tub having an overflow outlet limiting the depth of washing liquid in the tub to a predetermined maximum height level the improvement which comprises a motor movably mounted on the outside of the tub above said maximum height level, a shaft extending downwardly from the motor and through the tub wall at the level below the overflow outlet and into the tub interior, and means for moving the motor to shift the shaft into and out of frictional engagement with the container periphery.
8. In combination in a washer comprising a tub and a container mounted for rotation in the tub, the container having a circular periphery and the tub having an overflow outlet limiting the depth of washing liquid in the tub to a predetermined maximum height level the improvement which comprises a motor tiltably mounted outside the tub above said maximum height level and having a shaft extending downwardly and through the tub wall at a level below the overflow outlet and obliquely into the tub interior, and means for effecting tilting movement of the motor to shift the shaft into and out of driving engagement with the periphery of the container.
9. In a washer having a tub casing and a rimmed container mounted in the casing for rotation about an upright axis, the improvement which comprises an electric motor, means mounting the motor on the casing to swing about a substantially horizontal axis, wholly above the top of the container, the motor having a rotatable element disposed to bear against the container rim in establishing a frictional drive connection, and means on the casing actuatable to shift the motor on its pivot to move the rotatable element into and out of engagement with the container.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date Re. 15,051 Shelton Feb. 22, 1921 1,049,896 Miller Jan. 7, 1913 1,345,059 Belknap June 29, 1920 1,382,915 Huggins June 28, 1921 ,528,187 Farrell Mar. 3, 1925 1,563,554 Campbell Dec. 1, 1925 1,635,321 Hinkley July 12, 1927 1,869,510 Saunders Aug. 2, 1932 1,949,814 Replogle Mar. 6, 1934 2,307,254 Bassett Jan. 5, 1943 2,350,218 Remer May 30, 1944 2,437,968 Palotsee Mar. 16, 1948