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Publication numberUS2687775 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 31, 1954
Filing dateJul 10, 1950
Priority dateJul 10, 1950
Also published asUS2683492
Publication numberUS 2687775 A, US 2687775A, US-A-2687775, US2687775 A, US2687775A
InventorsReuben C Baker
Original AssigneeBaker Oil Tools Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Setting tool and well packer
US 2687775 A
Images(3)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 31, 1954 Filed July 10, 1950 R. c. BAKER 2,687,775 SETTING TOOL AND WELL PACKER 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN VEN TOR.

REUBEN C. BAKE-Q,

ATTO/vEYJ Aug. 31, 1954 R. c. BAKER 2,587,775

' SETTING TOOL. AND WELL PACKER' Filed July 10, 1950 $5 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V EN TOR.

BEUQEN' C. BAKE/e,

' 'ATTae/vEYJ Aug. 31, 1954 R. c. BAKER 2,687,775

SETTING TOOL AND WELL PACKER Filed July 10, 1950 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 HVVENTUR.

RFUBEN BAKEQ,

J47 roemsvs Patented Aug. 31, 1954 ATENT OFFICE .SETTIN G TOOL AND WELL PACKER (Reuben C. Baker, Coalinga,

Calif., assignor to Baker Oil Tools, Inc., Vernon, Calif., a. corporation of California Application July 10, 1950, Serial No. 172,926

12 Claims. 1

The present invention relates to subsurface well tools, and more particularly to well packers or anchoring devices, and. apparatus for setting such equipment in well bores.

An object of thepresent invention is to prevent inadvertent loosening or disconnection of a well packer, or other well tool, from a runningin string during lowering of the equipment in a well bore.

Another object of the invention is to provide a thread locking device for preventing inadvertent loosening or separation of a well packer, or the like, from a setting tool, by means of which the packer is anchored in packed-off condition in a well bore.

A further object of the invention is to provide a thread lock in subsurface well equipment, which prevents unscrewing between the parts, but which is, nevertheless, easily placed within and removedfrom the equipment.

Another object of the invention is to provide a setting tool combination, in which the larger portion of the coupling for securing the setting tool to the packer can be pre-assembled or connected to the packer, as in a shop or warehouse, in order to permit the remainder of the setting tool to be associated with the packer at the well in a minimum of time and without any special equipment.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide a wire line setting tool and well packer organization, in which the setting tool is releasably connected to the packer, and in which the setting tool is preventedfrom inadvertently and prematurely becoming released from the packer.

Still a further object of the invention is to provide a well packer, or similar well tool, in which the possibility of prematurely setting the initially retracted slips of the packer or other tool is largely minimized.

This invention posesses many other advantages, and has other'objects which may be made more clearlyapparent from a consideration .of a form in which it may be embodied. This form is shown in the drawings accompanying and forming part ofthe. present specification. It will now bejdescribed in detail, for the purpose of illustrating the general principles of the invention; but it is to be understood that such detailed description is not to be taken in a limiting sense,

since the scope of the invention is best defined by the appended claims.

Referring to the drawings:

Figures 1a and lb together constitute a longit-udinal section through a well apparatus, with the parts arranged for runningthe equipment in a well bore, Fig. 1b being alower continuation of Fig. la;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged longitudinal section through a portion of the apparatus;

Fig. 3 is a cross-section taken along the line 3-3 on Fig. 2;

Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 1b, disclosing the packer portion of the apparatus anchored in packed-oir condition within a well casing;

Fig. 5 is a cross-section taken along the line 5--5 on Fig. 1b;

Fig. 6 is a cross-section taken along the line (2 -6 on Fig. 4; i

Fig. 7 is a section taken along the line, l-7 on Fig. 5;

Fig. 8 is a fragmentary side elevation taken along the curved line 8-8 on Fig. 5;

Fig. 9 is a cross-section taken along the line @-9 on Fig. 11);

Fig. 10, is a view similarto Fig. 9 of the slip member expanded against the casing;

Fig. 11 is a section taken along the line I l| l on Fig. 9;

Fig. 12 is a side elevation taken along the curved line l2-|2 on Fig. 9; and

Fig. 13 is an enlarged fragmentary longitudinal section of the lower slip guide arrangement.

In the form of the invention disclosed in the drawings, it is desired to run a well packer A to a desired location in a well casing B disposed within a bore hole. The packer is then anchored in packed-on condition against the well casing through use of a setting tool C connected to it. This setting tool is attached to the lower end of a running-in string D, such as a wire line extending to the top. ,of the well bore.

The general organization of setting tool C and well packer A is described and claimed in my application for Apparatus for Operating Tools in Well Bores, Serial No. 80,851, filed March 11, 1949, now Patent No. 2,640,546, patented June 2, 1953.

The packer A includes a tubular body [0 having a body abutment H threaded on its lower end, and an enlarged head lit at its upper end, along which the skirt [3 of a cylinder 14 is slidably mounted. A cylinder head I5 extends inwardly from the lower end of the skirt and slidably engages the external cylindrical surface of the body 10. Bodyports l6 provide .communication between the interior of the body and the cylinder 14, leakage between the body and cylinder being prevented by the side seal rings H. The packer disclosed can be run on a tub- 3 ing string if desired, and set hydraulically, which necessitates the use of the ports iii and seal rings l1. When the present setting tool is used, however, the ports l5 and rings ll may be omitted, although such omission is not essential.

A set of upper segmented slips i8 is disposed around the body it immediately below the cylinder head I5. These slips are held initially in retracted position byshear screws l9, attaching them to an upper conical expanded 2t initially secured to the body by one or more shear screws 2!. The converging surfaces of the upper set of slips l3 and upper expander are so disposed with respect to one another as to secure the packer A against movement in an upward direction within the casing B, following outward expansion of the slips 58 into engagement with the casing.

A set of lower segmental slips 22 is provided adjacent the body abutment H, and these slips are also secured by shear screws 23 to a lower tapered expander 24 attached initially to the body it by one or more shear screws 25. The direction of taper on the exterior of the lower expander 24 and the taper on the cooperable surfaces of the lower slips 22 are such as to hold the well packer A against movement in a downward direction, following expansion of the slips 22 outwardly against the casing B.

A suitable lock is provided between the body it and the upper expander 20 to permit upward movement of the body Ill within this expander, but to preclude its downward movement. Such lock may be of any suitable form. It is illustrated as including a split ring 26 received within a groove 21 in the upper expander and engageable with the downwardly facing ratchet teeth 28 on the body.

A suitable packing 29, such as a packing sleeve, of rubber or similar pliant, elastic material, is disposed around the body ill between the upper and lower expanders 20, 24. The endsof the packing sleeve are received within annular pockets formed between the expander skirts 3 and the exterior of the body.

In setting the packer A, a downward force is exerted on the cylinder sleeve M of sufficient extent to shear the screws l9 attaching the upper slips 18 to the upper expander 2!}. These slips are then moved downwardly along the upper expander and radially outward into anchoring engagement with the well casing. Such outward expansion of the upper slips 18 can occur, since their retaining shear screws is have a lesser com bined shear value than the shear screws 2! attaching the upper expander 28 to the packer body 50. These last-mentioned screws have a lesser shear value than the screws 25, 23 holding the lower expander 24 to the body and the lower slips 22 to the lower expander.

After the upper slips I8 have been engaged with the well casing, an upward strain or pull is imparted to the packer body W, which shears the screws 21 holding the upper expander 26 to the body, and moves the lower expander 2s and lower slips 22 with the body toward the upper expander. This action foreshortens the packing sleeve 29 and effects its outward expansion into firm sealing engagement with the wall of the casing B.

Thereafter, an increase in the upward pull or force on the packer body [0 substantially simultaneously shears the screws 25, 23 holding the lower expander 24 to the body and the lower slips 22 to the lower expander, causing the lower body abutment H to shift the lower slips 22 upwardly along the lower expander and radially outward into anchoring engagement with the wall of the casing. The split, contractible lock ring 25 then engages the ratchet teeth 23 formed on the body to lock the latter against downward movement, since such downward movement is transmitted through the upper expander 20, packing 28, lower expander 2 and lower slips 22 to the well casing B. Upward movement of the body is resisted by the engagement of the lower abutment It with the lower slips 22, the upward force being transmitted from the latter through the lower expander 24, packing sleeve 2Q, upper expander 2e and upper slips 8 to the well casing B (see Fig. 4)

In the manner just described, the well packer A is anchored in packed-oil condition against longitudinal movement in both directions within the well casing B.

The well packer disclosed is designed primarily for use in producing oil and gas wells. It has a central bore or passage 3!, which can be closed by a flapper valve head 32 pivoted on the abutment H and urged by a spring 33 to closed position against a body abutment valve seat 3 5. A slotted junk pusher and feeler 35 may be attached to the abutment H to prevent premature setting of the packer during its descent in the well casing.

It is desired to provide an arrangement which will enable the well packer A to be run in the well casing 13 in a rapid manner. Such expeditious lowering of the well packer in the well casing can be accomplished through use of a wire line D. It is desired to set the packer fully and firmly against the casing without imposing a strain on the wire line. A substantially large strain or pull on the packer parts may be required, and for this reason, the mechanism for setting the packer must be capable of transmitting a large force and of automatically releasing itself from the well packer when the desired maximum force has been exceeded. Moreover, it is desired to set a type of packer which is used primarily in the production of oil, gas, and the like, and which has the unobstructed central passage 3! therethrough, in order to permit subsequent movement of production equipment into or through the packer.

The above purposes are effectuated with the equipment disclosed in the drawings. As shown therein, setting of the well packer is dependent upon the development of a gas pressure within the setting tool C secured initially to the well packer. This gas pressure is developed within the upper portion of a cylinder 35, consisting of a generally cylindrical sleeve 37, an upper head 38 threaded into the sleeve, and also a lower head 39 threaded into the sleeve.

A motivating gas under pressure is generated in the cylinder, and this force is imposed upon a piston :35 slidably mounted in the cylinder. This piston 38 has one or more ring grooves 4'! in its periphery for the accommodation of seal rings 43, to prevent leakage between the piston it and cylinder sleeve 31. As disclosed, these rings 48 may consist of rubber, round in crosssection, to guard against leakage in both directions.

The upper end of a piston rod 59 is threadedly connected to the piston 36, the rod extending downwardly through the lower cylinder head 39 to a point therebelow, where an anvil or crosspiece 50 is mounted within a transverse slot 5! in the rod. Leakage betweentthe rod 4.9.and lower cylinder 2 head .39 is prevented :by suitable rod packing 52, in the form of. one ormore round :rubber or l-nubber-like seals, engaging the periphery of the rod and disposed within suitable ring grooves 53 in thelhead. The packing or seal rings 52 prevent leakage'of liquids from the well-casing into the rcylinder belowithe piston 46, insuring that air under atmospheric pressure is ipresent below .the piston- 46- when the apparatus israssembled and ;-lowered in the well casmg.

It isdesiredto transfer the downward movement of,or force imposed upon, the pistonlfi and the piston rod 49 :to the upper slips i8 of the packer, and the relative upward movement of the cylinder 36 to the packer body ill), in order to obtainthe-desired anchoring of the packer in the well casing, in the manner described above. To accomplish this purpose, a tubular actuating mandrel 54 is threadedly connected to the lower cylinder head .39. The lower end of this mandrel 54is coupled to the packer body 10 through the agency of a frangible connecting device. As specifically disclosed, the lower end of the mandrel 54isthreaded into an adjuster .sub 54a, which is threaded onto the upper end of a tension rod 55 extending downwardly withinthe packer body Ill. The lower end of this rod is threaded into a tension head 56 screwed ontothe upper end of a releasing stud 51 having an intermediate portion 51a of reduced diameter. The lower end ofthis stud is threaded into .a dependin shank 58, that is, in turn, secured to a latch retainingabutment 59 having an upward and inwardly inclined face 60. The cylindrical portion 6| of the abutment engages the :packer valve head 32,.tohold it in openposition.

Any upwardforce imposed upon the tension rod .55, tension head 56, releasing stud 5-1, shank 58 and retaining abutment 59 is adapted to be imparted to the packer body ID. This force is transferred from the inclined face :69 of the retaining abutment onto companion inclined, inner faces 62 on latch feet 63 integral with springlike leg members 64 forming the lower portion of a latch sleeve 65, which extends upwardly to a point along the tension head 56. At this point, the sleeve is provided with .an inturned shoulder 66 that canbe spaced upwardly froma lower flange or shoulder 61 on thetension head 56. The outer inclined faces 68 of the latch feet engage the valve seat-34 on the bodyuabutment ll, and serve to transmit any upward force imposed on the retaining abutment 59 directly to the packer abutment II, which forms part of the packer body l0.

When the parts forming the mechanism for coupling or lockingthe tension rod 55 and tension head 56 to the packer abutment H occupy the position shown in Figs. lb and 4, the latch sleeve shoulder 66 is disposed a substantial distance above the tension head shoulder 61. The inclined face 60 of theretaining abutment 59 bears upon theinclined faces 62 of the latch feet 63 and tends to ,urge and hold themoutwardly against the valve seat 34. Such outward movement may be limited by engagement of the lower portions 69 of the spring legs 64. with the inner surface -l of the packer abutment.

Upon the exertion ,otsuflicient tension on the releasing stud to pull it apart,.th-e shank 58 and retainingabutment 59 may. drop downwardly, as explained in my above-identified application, to remove the abutment 59,-from1 its retaining position: behind the latchateet ;63;,-

,allow .the latterto be diseng ged ;from the packer abutment H. The latch rreta-ining abutment '59-and its shank .58 .can .droptothe {extent limited by the engagement of its shoulder Flt-l with an inwardly directed flange 12 on a retrieving sleeve 13 threadedonto the lower end of the tension :head 56.

Following disruption of the releasing stud. 51 and dropping of the latch retaining, abutment 59, upward movement onthe tension rod 55 will lift the tension head 56'withrit, causing the shoulder 6luon the latter to engage the uppershoulder 66 on the latch sleeve 65,,pul-ling the latch legs 64 and their foot portions 63. upwardly and inwardly within the packerzbody 10. :Such upward movementof the tension rod 55 andtension head :56 also causes the retrievingsleeve shoulder 12 to engage the shoulder H on the shank 58 and elevate the retainingabutmentz59 through the packer. It is to be noted that all of the locking elements, with the exceptionof the spring-like foot portions 63 on the latch sleeve 65., are smaller in diameter than the. internal diameter of the-passage 3| throughthe packerbody l0. Since the spring-like feet 63 and legs 64 can flex inwardly, the. entire locking mechanism maybe removed from a set well packer A, and removed with the remaining portions of the setting tool C to the top of thewell bore. It is alsoto be noted that the initial distance between the latchsleeve shoulder- 66 and tension head shoulder 56 is substantially less thanthe distance between the (shank shoulder -'H and retrieving sleeve shoulder 12. This disparity in distance insures against the abutment 59 again moving within thelatch feet 63 during elevation of. the setting tool after disruption of the stud 51.

The piston rod 49 is movable downwardly within the bore of the actuatingmandrel 54, the cross-piece 50 "projecting in opposite directions from the rod 49 through. diametrically opposed longitudinally extending slots l6 formed through the mandrel wall. The cross-piece 50 also extends into opposed slots 11 formed through a setting ring or sleeve 18 .slidab'ly mounted on the actuating mandrel 54, to form a connection between the piston rod and the setting ring 18. Asetting sleeve or skirt 19 is adjustably'threaded on the setting ring -7 8, the lower portionof the skirt being secured to a ring 30 resting ontop of the packer cylinder sleeve I3.

As indicated above, a gaseous force or pressure is imposed upon the piston 46. This force moves the piston and piston rod 49 downwardly and the cylinder 36 in a relative upward direction. The downward movementtof the rod 49 is transmitted to theringti) through the anvil 50, setting ring "it, and sleeve 19; whereas, the upward movement of the cylinder 36 is transmitted-to the packer body [0 through the actuating mandrel 54, sub 54a, tension rod 55, tension head 56, :stud 57, shank .58, abutment 59, latch feet 53 and body abutment H. -Accordingly, it is apparent that the development of sufiicient pressure in the cylinder 36 acting upon the piston 46 willeventually shear the screws 1 9 holdingtthe upper slips 158 to the expander 20, and move the slips outwardly against the casing. Thereafter, the cylinder 36 will move upwardly'to move the body It in the same direction for the purpose of expanding the packing-sleeve 29 against thecasing B, and the lower slips 12.2 against the casing, in the manner described above.

In order to obtain the desired operational sequence, a combustiblefuel or power rcharge 8i may be contained within the upper end of the cylinder 36. The combustion charge, such as a railway flare of cylindrical or stick form, is placed in the upper head end 38 of the cylinder 36 Within a combustion chamber 82 formed therein. The charge is ignited by a blank cartridge 83 contained within a gun barrel BE inserted within the upper end of the upper cylinder head '38. Leakage between the barrel and head is prevented by suitable side seals 85 on the barrel engaging the wall ofthe head.

The barrel 84 is threaded into a cable head 86, which, in turn, is threadedly secured to the upper end of the cylinder head 38. The wire line running-in string D is suitably secured to the cable head 86, in a known manner, and has the lower end of its electrically conductive wire or core 81 connected electrically to a heating filament 88 contained within the cartridge 83.

The apparatus is lowered in the well bore with the parts in the position shown in Figs. 1a and 11). When the depth in the casing B is reached at which the well packer A is to be set, the electrical circuit through the cartridge filament 88 is completed, which fires the cartridge 83. The flame issuing therefrom ignites the upper end of the power charge 8|, initiating its combustion. This charge contains its own source of oxygen to support combustion. As combustion proceeds, a gaseous pressure is developed within the cylinder 36 above the piston 46. As the pressure increases, the piston 46 is urged downwardly and the cylinder 36 relatively upwardly. The force imposed on the piston is transmitted through the rod 49, cross-piece 50, and setting ring E8 to the sleeve 19, ring 80 and cylinder M, which bears against the upper slips l8. Downward move ment of the lower piston 46 takes place against the relatively slight resistance of the air in the cylinder 36 below the piston 46, which is initially at atmospheric pressure, and also against the hydrostatic head of fluid in the well'casing acting upwardly across the cross-sectional area of the piston rod 59. When sufiicient pressure has been developed within the cylinder 36 by the gaseous medium, and has been transmitted to the slips [8, to overcome the shear strength of the shear screws [9, and also the hydrostatic head of fluid acting upwardly on the piston rod 65, the slips l8 are released from the expander 25 and are pushed downwardly along the latter into outward engagement with the casing B.

As the combustible charge BI; continues to burn, the gas pressure within the cylinder 35 increases to a further extent, and this increased pressure or force is transmitted to the lower piston 46. Since the upper slips l6 are wedged against the casing, the piston 46 cannot move downwardly to any further appreciable extent.

Instead, the cylinder 36, actuating mandrel 54, sub 54a, tension rod 55, tension head 56, stud 51, shank 58, latch retaining abutment 59, latch feet 63, abutment I l and its packer body I!) are urged in an upward direction. When the pressure and force within the cylinder 36 has increased sufficiently to overcome the shear strength of the screws 2| holding the upper expander 26 to the body H), such screws are disrupted and the packer body is moved upwardly within the upper expander 25 to compress the rubber packer sleeve 29 between the upper and lower expa-nders 26, 24, forcing it into firm sealing engagement with the casing wall.

Further increase in the cylinder gas pressure, as a result of the continued combustion of the 8 I charge 8|, efiects shearing of the screws 25, 23 attaching the lower expander 24 to the body It and the lower slips 22 to the lower expander, allowing the cylinder 36 to move upwardly and carry the body in and lower slips 22 in an upward direction to shift the latter radially outward into engagement with the casing.

The pressure in the cylinder 36 continues to increase, as combustion of the charge 8| proceeds, and all of the packer elements. are engaged more firmly with the casing B. When the pressure exceeds the tensile strength of the reduced diameter portion 51a of the releasing stud 51 securing the actuating mandrel 54 indirectly to the body I0, this stud 51 is pulled apart at its reduced diameter portion 51a torelease automatically the setting tool C from the well packer.

As was indicated above, such release of the setting tool occurs as a result of dropping of the latch retaining abutment 59 and the shank 58 to the extent limited by engagement of the shank shoulder i! with the flange 12 of the retrieving sleeve 13. This dropping removes the latch retaining abutment 59 from its holding position behind the latch feet 63 and allows the latter to be pulled upwardly with the remainder of the setting tool 0 during elevation of the latter. This upward pulling occurs because of engagement of the tension rod shoulder 61 with the inturned shoulder 66 on the latch sleeve 65. Of course, the shank 58 and latch retaining abutment :59, as well as the lower broken portion of the releasing stud 51, are also elevated through. the well packer A with the remainder of the setting tool, since these elements are supported by the retrieving sleeve flange 12.

Accordingly, it is apparent that all of the setting tool mechanism C is released from the set and anchored well packer A, and the entire mechanism elevated by means of the wire line D to the top of the well bore.

After the setting tool has been removed fromv the well casing, production equipment (not shown) may then be run in the well casing for suitable coaction with the Well packerA in producing the well from one or more zones below the well packer. The central passage 3| through the packer body [0 is unobstructed, except for the lower back pressure valve head 32, which is readily displaced to one side, allowing the production tubing and other equipment to be placed in leakproof engagement with the packer body l0 and also allowing such equipment to extend completely through the packer body, if desired. to a point therebelow.

During lowering of the setting tool C and well packer A organization in the well bore by means of the wire line D, there may be a tendency for relative rotation to occur between the well packer and the setting tool, or between parts of the setting tool itself. As an example, relative rotation may occur between the tension rod 55 and the adjuster sub 54a attached to the lower end of the setting mandrel 54. The threaded connection between the tension rod 55 and adjuster sub 54a is preferably a right-hand one. If relative rotation between the adjuster sub and tension rod is in such a direction as to screw the rod 55 further into the sub, nothing detrimental to the equipment can occur. However, if the direction of rotation is such as to unthreacl the tension rod 55 from the adjuster sub 54a, and if such unthreading or unscrewing is sufficient in extent, the result may be a complete disconnection between the tension rod and the adjuster sub, which 9 has the effect of disconnecting or detaching all parts of the setting tool above the tension rod from the coupling portion of the setting tool within the packer A, and of effectivelydisconnecting the setting tool C from the well packer.

Were the foregoing undesirable action to occur, the well packer A would drop down the casing B and would be lost in the hole.

In order to guard against such undesired release of the major portion of the setting tool from the tension rod 55, a locking device is provided between the tension rod and the adjuster sub. This locking device does not interfere with the threading of the tension rod 55 upwardly into the sub 54a, but it does prevent rotation of the tension rod with respect to the sub in the opposite direction. The locking devicefillustrated in the drawings consists of a helical left-hand spring 913 having its lower end 9! fitting within an end groove slot 92 inthe upper end of the tension rod 55. This spring is wound left-hand or opposite to the righthand threads on the tension rod and adjuster sub. The peripheral portions of the spring turns snugly and frictionally engage the inner cylindrical wall 93' of the adjuster sub 54a.

In the event that the tension rod 55 is threaded upwardly into the adjuster sub, such action is not resisted one bit by the lock spring 9!], since such right-hand turning of the tension rod twists the spring in the proper direction, to release its periphery from frictional engagement with the wall 93 of the adjustersub. However, should the tensionrod 55 tend to turn in the opposite or left-hand direction, such action would tend to expand the lock spring 90 and urge it more firmly against the wall of the adjuster sub) Thus, the lock spring 90 functions in the nature of a oneway, brake, preventing unscrewing of the tension rod 55 in a downward direction from the adjuster sub 54a, but readily permitting its upward threading into the adjuster sub. Accordingly, the lock spring 90 prevents relative rotation between the adjuster sub and the tension rod in a direction which would cause the latter to unthread from the adjuster sub 56a, and allow the well packer A and the lower adapter portion of the setting tool C to drop on the setting mechanism, and be lost in the well bore.

The lock spring 95 is readily inserted in the aclproper direction, as to the right, and forced into the sub bore through its upper end until it engages the bottom of the smooth portion 93 of the bore. The tension rod 55 is then threaded into the adjuster sub 54a, its slot 92 receiving the lower end SI of the lock spring. Thereafter, upward threading of the tension rod can continue, the lock spring merely retracting or releasing itself from the wall 93 of the adjuster sub. Thus, the lock spring does not interfere or offer any material resistance to threading of the tension rod into the adjuster sub to the desired extent. It does, however, as described above, prevent unthreading of the tensionrod from the adjuster sub.

When the parts are to be dismantled, the lock spring 90 would prevent unscrewing of the tension rod 55 from the adjuster sub 54a. However, the setting mandrel 54 can be unthreaded from the adjuster sub 54a and the latter then threaded downwardly along the tensionrod 55, which actime is not interfered with by the lock spring 90,

, box 57.

with the tension rod. With the removal of the lock spring, the adjuster sub 54a may then be turned in the opposite direction to unthread it completely from the tension rod 55.

As described above, the latch retaining abutment 59 is held initially in an upward position, with its inclined face 50 engaging the latch feet 53, and thereby coupling the setting tool C to the well packer A. In the event that the abutment 59 were to move downwardly, the latch feet 63 would released and the well packer might drop downwardly. to a position in which the latch feet were retracted and the entire packer disconnected from the setting tool. Such action could occur, for example, in the event that the piston 46 were not at the uppermost end of its stroke, which might allow the cylinder 36 to shift downwardly, this downward motion being transmitted through the setting mandrel 54, tension rod 55, tension head 55, release stud 57 and shank 58 to the retaining abutment 59, shifting it downwardly of the latches 63.

To preclude. the aforementioned possibility, a locking or thrust plate is disposed over the tension rod 55 and engages a shoulder 96 in the packer body it at the lower end of its threaded This plate is held in this position by a suitable lock nut 93 threaded on the tension rod and engaging the plate 95, the nut having a plurality of radial pins 99 extending outwardly therefrom for cooperation with a suitable tool (not shown) The lock nut 98 is tightened against the lock plate 95 to the extent necessary to hold the latch retaining abutment 59 in its uppermost position and with its inclined face 60 securing the latch feet 63 outwardly in appropriate engagement with the body valve seat 34.

With the locking plate 95 and lock nut 98 arrangement, any downward forces or thrusts imposed on the tension rod 55 cannot effect downward shifting of the latch retaining abutment 59, since the downward force is transmitted through the lock nut 98 and plate 95 to the packer body iiJ. However, the nut and plate do not interfere with the disruption of the release stud 57 after the packer A has been fully set, and the consequent dropping down and release of the latch retaining abutment 59 from the latches 63, which effectively disconnects the entiresetting tool C from the well packer A and allows the setting tool to be withdrawn to the top of the well bore.

The locking plate95 and loci; nut 98 arrangement also has the function of preventing the tensionmandrel 55 from rotating with respect to the packer A, which might tend to effect disconnection of some of the other threaded conneetions therebelow, as the various threaded connections in the tension head 55, release stud 5T, shank 58 and retaining abutment 59.

The locking nut and plate arrangement also permit the lower adapter portion 55, 56,51, 58, 59, etc. of the setting tool to be assembled in a shop or warehouse before the equipment is transported to the well location, all of which adds to the convenience and ease of relating the various parts of the" apparatus to one another. The entire coupling device secured to the lower end of the tension rod 55, and the tension rod itself, can be mounted in the packer A in the shop, the locking plate 95 and lock nut 98 then being properly mounted in place, together with the adjuster sub 54a and lock spring 90. At the well location, it is merely necessary to secure the setting mandrel 54 in the adjuster sub 54a, and bring the ring 80 attached to the lower end of the setting sleeve I9 into contact with the upper end of the cylinder sleeve I3.

The well packer employs an upper and lower arrangement which insures proper location and spacing of the slip segments when they are shifted outwardly into engagement with the wall of the well casing. The upper slips I8 consist of a plurality of arcuate segments I preferably having weakened longitudinal inner grooves IOI which are in alignment with longitudinal peripheral outer grooves or notches I02. The aligned inner and outer grooves Nil, I02 form weakened sections along which each segment can break when being wedged against the casing B by the tapered upper expander 20, in order that the smaller segments, into which the slips are broken, can

conform more closely to the curvature of the casing wall, and thereby provide a greater anchoring force of the slips I8 in the casing.

When the slips are in a retracted position, they are located in proper spaced relationship by the shear screws I9. However, once these shear screws l9 are disrupted, the slips I8 may not retain their spaced relation in being expanded outwardly against the casing. To insure maintenance of this relationship, each segment I00 is provided with a radial end guide groove I03 in its upper portion, in which a locating pin I 04, secured to the cylinder head I5, is slidably received. When the cylinder I4 is moved downwardly to shift the upper slips I8 along the upper expander 20, the shear screws I9 are disrupted and the guiding grooves I03 slide along the locating pins I04, in order to hold the slip segments I 00 uniformly spaced with respect to each other, to the full extent of their outward expansion into engagement with the well casing B. Thereafter, the exertion of an adequate wedging force between the expander 20 and slips I8 will break each segment I00 into smaller segments, as described above, with the wickers I of the slips firmly embedded into the wall of the well casing,

and with all of the slip segments I00 disposed substantially uniformly around the upper expander 20 and well casing B.

A similar arrangement is provided with respect to the lower slip assemblage 22, in which the lower slips also have the longitudinal inner and outer aligned peripheral weakened grooves IOIa, I021. These slips also have the end guide grooves IBM in their large or lower portion receiving the locating pins mm, which, in this instance, are secured to a washer or disk I06 resting upon the body abutment II.

During lowering of the equipment in the well bore, the lower slips 22 might encounter some foreign object and become prematurely tripped or expanded. To minimize this possibility, the shear screws 23 securing the slips to the lower expander 24 are supplemented by actually integrating each slip segment [00a to its neighboring slip segment. As a matter of fact, the lower slips 22 are at first integral with one another, the slip assembly being formed from an integral piece of metal having the weakening and guide grooves referred to above. In addition, preferably spaced equi-angularly apart, the slip ring or sleeve has additional weakening internal grooves I01.

This decpergroove [07, in conjunction with an external aligned weakening groove I02a leaves a relatively small metallic bridge I08 between the adjacent segments 100a, holding the segments to one another, and, of course, resisting their outward expansion, since the slip member 22 is at first a solid ring. Assuming that three main slip segments I00a are to be used, the deeper weakening grooves I01 and their aligned external peripheral grooves I02a will be spaced 120 degrees apart. When the packer body I0 is pulled upwardly, in order to set the lower slips 22 against the casing, the first action is to shear the lower screws 23. Almost simultaneously, the metallic bridges I08 between the main segment portions I00a of the slip sleeve are disrupted by the wedging action of the expander 24, which breaks the sleeve into three main segments I00a, or places them in essentially the same condition as the upper slip segments I00. Thereafter, each lower slip segment I00a is guided outwardly, until it engages the well casing B, by the locating and guide pins IEl Ia extending upwardly from the washer or disc 5 06. When sufi'icient wedging force is exerted on each slip segment I00a, it will break at its other weakened portions into a plurality of smaller segments.

It is unnecessary for the upper segments I00 to be initially formed as a solid integral sleeve, inasmuch as any foreign particles or substances that might engage the upper slips, during lowering of the equipment in the well casing, could not urge such slips outwardly toward the well casing. Instead, the tendency is for such slips to be urged and maintained in their retracted position. This is not true of the lower slips 22, however, since any upward force imposed upon them tends to shift them upwardly along the lower expander 24 and radially outward against the well casing B.

The upper slips I8 are held in retracted position by the shear screws l0 alone, which can be made to disrupt at a predetermined force within relatively close limits. The metallic bridges I08, however, may have a great variation in the force required to disrupt them, but this is of no material importance in connection with the lower slips 22, since the upward movement of the packer body I0 will, in any event, effect a disruption and expansion of the slips 22, and with a force which is much less than the force required to disrupt the release stud 51. The parts may be so related in strength as to insure that the upper slips ill will first be anchored against the well casing B, the packing sleeve 29 expanded against th well casing, and the lower slips 22 then moved upwardly along the lower expander 24 and outwardly into engagement with the well casing.

The invention described herein relating to the slip arrangements and the guiding of the slips between retracted and expanded positions is both described and claimed in my divisional application for Subsurface Well Tool, Serial No. 246,106, filed September 11, 1951.

The inventor claims:

1. In well apparatus: a well tool to be set in a well bore; a setting tool detachably secured to said well tool, said setting tool comprising latch means engageable with said well tool, means for holding said latch means in engagement with said well tool, means for exerting a force on said holding means which is transmitted from said holding means through said latch means to said well tool, said force exerting means aces'ryrvs 13 including a releasable connection connected to said holding means and intermeshing threaded elements, one of which threaded elements is secured to said releasable connec'tion and oneway lock means for preventing unscrewing of said threaded elments from each other,said lock means engaging atleast one of said threaded elements to one side of the threaded engagement of said elements with eachother.

2. In well apparatus: a well'toolto beset in a well bore; means forsetting said tool, including male and female elements threadedly engaged with each other one-way lock means engaging said elements to prevent their relative rotation in one direction, said male element having a sufficient threaded length as to be capable of threading into said female element to an extent sufiicient to shift said one-way lock means longitudinally along one of said elements and into a position where it is out of locking engagement with said one of said elements.

i 3. In wellaapparatus: a well tool to be set in a wellbore; means for setting said tool, including intermeshing male and female elements threadedly engaged with each other; a helical lock spring engaging said elements tolock said elements against relative rotation in one direction,

said male element having a sufficient threaded length as to be capable of threading into said female element to an extent sufficient to shift said lock spring longitudinally along one of said elements and into a position where it is out of,

member engaging said latch member to hold it coupled to said body, upwardly movable means including intermeshing threaded members, a releasable connection between said upwardly movable means and retaining member, and one-way lock means engaging said threaded members to prevent their unthreading from each other, said lock means engaging at least one of said threaded members to one side of the threaded engagement of said members with each other.

5. In well apparatus: a body; normally retracted means on said body; a tool for exerting an upward force on said body and a downward force on said normally retracted means to expand said normally retracted means outwardly in a well bore; said tool comprising a latch member releasably coupled to said body, a retaining member engaging said latch member to hold it coupled to said body, an upwardly movable threaded member, a threaded tension rod threaded into said threaded member, a releasable connection between said rod and retaining member, and one-way lock means engaging said threaded member and rod to prevent their relative unthreading from each other, said lock means engaging said rod and threaded member to one side of the threaded engagement of said rod and threaded member with each other.

6. In a well apparatus: a body; normally retracted means on said body; a tool including means for exerting an upward force on said body and means for exerting a downward force on said normally retracted means to expand said normally retracted means outwardly in a well 14 bore; said upward force exerting means. comprising a latch member releasably coupled-to said body, a retaining member engagingsaid latch member to hold it coupled to said body, an upwardly movable threaded member; atlireaded tension rod threaded into said threaded member, a releasable connection between said rod and retaining member, and-a helical lock spring engaging said threade'dmember and rod outside of their threaded engagement with each other to prevent their relative rotation in one direction while permitting their relative rotation in the opposite direction. i

'7. In well apparatus: a body; normally retracted means on said body; a tool for expanding said normally retracted means outwardly, said tool comprising a latchmemberreleasably coupled to said body, a retainingm'ember' engaging said latch member to hold itcoupled to said body against relative longitudinal movement in one direction, movable means, aflrel'easable connection between saidmovable means and'retaining member whereby saidrnovable means is operable tohold saidretaining member against-said latch member, and thrust mean engaging'said movable means and'body' -to prevent-said movable means and retaining member from moving in the longitudinal direction opposite to said one direction.

8. In well apparatus: a body; normally retracted means on said body; a tool for expanding said normally retracted means outwardly, said tool comprising a latch member releasably coupled to said body, a retaining member engaging said latch member to hold it coupled to said body against upward movement, movable means, a releasable connection between said movable means and retaining member whereby said movable means is operable to hold said retaining member against said latch member, and thrust means engaging said movable means and body to prevent downward movement of said movable means and retaining member relative to said latch member.

9. In well apparatus: a well tool to be set in a well bore; a setting tool detachably secured to well tool, said setting tool comprising latch means engageable with said well tool, means for holding said latch means in engagement with said well tool, means for exerting a force on said holding means which is transmitted from said holding means through said latch means to said well tool, said force exerting means including a releasable connection connected to said holding means and intermeshing male and female threaded elements, one of which is secured to said releasable connection, and one-way lock means in said female element and engaging said male and female elements to prevent unscrewing of said threaded elements from each other, said male element being capable of threading into said female element to an extent sufficient to shift said oneway lock means longitudinally along said female element to a position where it is out of locking said elements with each other to prevent unscrewing of said elements from each other, said male element being capable of threading into said female element to an extent sufiicient to shift said spring longitudinally along said female element and out of frictional engagement with said female element.

11. In well apparatus: a body; normally retracted means on said body; a tool for expanding said normally retracted means outwardly, said tool comprising a member extending into said body, a releasable connection between said member and the lower portion of said body preventing upward movement of said member relative to said body, and means engaging said member and the upper portion of said body to prevent downward movement of said member relative to said body.

12. In well apparatus: a body; normally retracted means on said body; a tool for exerting an upward force on said body and a downward force on said normally retracted means to expand said normally retracted means in a well bore; said tool comprising a latch member adapted to be coupled to said body, a retaining member engag ing said latch member to hold it coupled to said body, an upwardly movable threaded member, a threaded tension rod threaded into said threaded member, a releasable connection between said rod and retaining member, and a helical lock spring in said threaded member connectedto said rod and engageable with said threaded member to one side of the threaded engagement between said member and rod to prevent unscrewing of said rod from said threaded member while permitting further threading of said rod into said threaded member to an extent sufiicient to shift said lock spring longitudinally along said threaded member and out of engagement with said threaded member.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2920704 *Apr 8, 1957Jan 12, 1960Otis Eng CoWell devices
US3002563 *Mar 16, 1959Oct 3, 1961Baker Oil Tools IncConvertible well packer
US3106961 *Feb 24, 1959Oct 15, 1963Baker Oil Tools IncParallel string packer
US3131765 *Apr 13, 1962May 5, 1964Baker Oil Tools IncConvertible well packer and bridge plug
US4685523 *May 6, 1986Aug 11, 1987Otis Engineering CorporationRemovable side pocket mandrel
US4688634 *Jan 31, 1986Aug 25, 1987Dresser Industries, Inc.Running and setting tool for well packers
US4773478 *May 27, 1987Sep 27, 1988Halliburton CompanyHydraulic setting tool
US6793022Apr 4, 2002Sep 21, 2004Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.Spring wire composite corrosion resistant anchoring device
US20120255723 *Apr 5, 2011Oct 11, 2012Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.Drillable slip with non-continuous outer diameter
EP1350920A2Apr 3, 2003Oct 8, 2003Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.Slips for anchoring a downhole tool
Classifications
U.S. Classification166/63, 411/924, 166/237, 166/125
International ClassificationE21B33/129, E21B23/06, E21B23/04
Cooperative ClassificationE21B33/1293, E21B23/04, E21B23/065, Y10S411/924
European ClassificationE21B33/129L, E21B23/04, E21B23/06D