US 2688139 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 7; 1954 F. w. JARDoN ANATOHICAL REPLACEMENT MEANS Filed March 9, 1950 Patented Sept. 7, 1954 Fritz` W. Jardon, Southbridge,v Mass., assigner to American Optical Gompany, Southbridge, Mass., a voluntary association of Massachusetts Application March-9, 1950, Serial No'. 148,577"
This invention relates to the provision of means for replacement of` portions oi the human anatomy which must be removed by surgical operations or which have been lost through injury and the like, said means consisting of a body portion of a foraminous nature having an irregular surface texture and a plurality of communicating orifices or cavities therein through which the cont-iguously related bony structure and tissues may grow and become iirmly adhered.
One of the principal objects of the-invention is to provide replacement means of the above character which may be employed for eyes,
hernia belts or nets or the like, bone replacethe enucleated part ofthe eye and to which the muscles may or may not be directly connected and being formed of abody, portion of inert material having an irregular surface texture and foraminous nature embodying av plurality of communicating periorations or cavities extending throughout the bulk of said body portionl andthrough which the tissues of the eye may join with each other to form an outer closed wound for sealing the implant withiny the-cavity of the eye whereby no secretions will be dis-r charged by the eye and which will form. a seal against the entrance of external means.
Another object is to provide an. implant of the above character for the usew-ith a shell type, replaceable or interchangeable main eye portion and having interconnecting means w-ith said main eye portion for imparting movements thereto when the implant is moved by the attached muscular structure of the eye.
Another object is to provide novel means and methods of forming body portions of the above character in accordance With the dimensional requirements and shape characteristics desired.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings. It willV be apparent. that many changes in the infectious details of; construction, arrangement of parts;
and steps of the method shownV and describe-:li-
may be'madewithout departing from the spirit of the invention as expressedv inthe accompany-A ing claims.
I', therefore, do-fnot wish to' be limited to the exact details' of construction, arrangement of parts andv method shownE andv described asr one form only ofthe invention is given by way of*A illustration.
The present invention isdirected particularly to forming body portionsfof the above character from an inert material so'form'ed as to have a foraminousna-ture with an irregularV surface and a multiplicity of minute'irregular communicating periorationsV or cavities therein. The said body portions are carefully shaped to function as means for replacing portions of the humanA anatomy which!4 have been removed either by surgical meansor throughy accident They not only havethe tensile strength and rigidity requiredl for such replacementsbut also, due to* their foraminous nature and other character-4 isticsdescribed' above,\wl1` enable the bone tissues or other tissues of the body to-grow into andbecomefbonded therewith' asv a unitary replacement. There is lesstendency ofy the human body to -rej ectthev existence' ot such` material and will enable substantially closed wounds to be formed-whereby the grown tissueswill notonly function to obviate body secretions'but will also provide a shield* against the entrancev ofI foreign and infectious means. Another advantage is that they may be made by simple, novel, andinexpensive methods.
Thev presentvinventionis adapted toV several -diiierent uses, as set forth above, but for simplicity and ease of description',only one embodiment of the invention isshown and described herein although theinvention is in no way intended to belimited inl scope to such' showing.
Referring to the drawings: Fig. l is aplan View of an implant for an articial' eye embodying. the invention;` and Fig; 2 is anenlargedsectional view of Fig. 1`
cliagrarnmatically showing the implant in posi-c tionof useI andiassembled'with the artificial eye portion.
Referring more particularly to the drawings wherein lille characters of reference designate like parts-throughoutl the several views, the em- 'bodiment of the invention as shown in the draw-r ings comprises a ball portion' Ill formed preferablyy ofi` a plastic or articialf resinous material such as Iay high'` polymeric triluorochloroethylene,` `polytetrafluoroethyleney polyethylene, rnethyll methacrylate and nylon or other similar material which is relatively chemically inert.
Other materials such as tantalum and columbium metals may also be used.
The ball portion I0, in accordance with the present invention, is formed to a foraminous structure and comprises a body portion having a plurality of interconnecting or communicating orifices or cavities II therein, preferably of an irregular nature and has an irregular outer surface formed throughout the major portion thereof. The said ball portion further comprises a base I2 having a relatively smooth, arcuately shaped surface I3 thereon and has a reduced projecting portion I4 on the forward face thereof in the form of a protruding necklike member. The ball portion I U, in the particular example given, is adapted for use in replacing the enucleated eye of an individual, that is, the said portion is used as an implant formed to the desired size and shape required for filling in the cavity of the enucleated eye and is adapted to have the motive muscles, illustrated by numerals I5 and I 5, attached thereto by suturing or other suitable means I'I and I8.
The body portion of the implant, as shown herein, is formed foraminous in nature or with a plurality of communicating perforations or cavities therein to permit the tissues of the eye to grow into said perforations or cavities and to meet and heal into integral relation with each other. By controlling the framework of the structure, which is similar to that of a sponge, the tissues may grow into and completely rlll in the perforations or cavities and thereby become rmly adherent with said ball portion. Due to the outer irregular characteristics of the major portion of the outer surface of said ball portion, said tissues are capable of growing in overlying relation with said ball portion about and through perforations in the protruding neck I4, as diagrammatically illustrated at I9 and 2U, with said tissues growing through the perforations or cavities at the base of said neck I4, as illustrated at 2 I, forming a closed wound for completely sealing the implant within the cavity of the eye socket whereby no secretions will be discharged by the eye. This also forms a permanent seal against the entrance of external infectious means. The base I3 is, in this instance, intentionally formed relatively continuous and smooth so as to prevent the bonding of tissue therewith whereby the ball portion IU will be more free to move and respond to the action of the muscles I5 and I6. It is to be understood that the particular muscles referred to and which are attached to the ball portion. are the internal and external rectus muscles and the superior and inferrior rectus muscles.
In Fig. 1 there is diagrammatically illustrated a plan view of the implant or ball portion In while in Fig. 2 the implant or ball portion I0 is illustrated in position of use in the socket of the eye and in assembled relation with an artificial eye portion 22. The said artificial eye portion is of the known conventional type having a suitable iris 23 of a color and pattern to match that of the good eye of the individual and embedded within a clear plastic covering '24 simulating the cornea of the eye and having a scleral portion 25 formed of translucent plastic material of the shape and color pattern simulating that of the sclera of the individuals eye. In this instance the main articial eye portion is formed with a socket 26 of a size and shape to receive the projection o-r neck portion I4 of the implant whereby the said articial eye portion 22 will move with the implant 4 portion in response to the action of the muscular structure of the eye. The said eye portion 22 is removable from the implant by removing the said eye from beneath the lids 21 and 28.
In forming the implant or ball portion I0, the suitable plastic desired is selected and is intermingled with preferably iibrous materials of irregular contour shape or having thread-like characteristics which are in no way affected by the solvents used with said plastics during the fabrication of said ball portion. The materials which may be used may be glass, steel or other suitable materials which may be removed by a leaching process and which will not effect the plastic itself. By this it is meant that, for example, a steel wool or other similar means might be intermixed with the plastic and thereafter subjected to hydrofluoric acid or other suitable acid which will eat away the mineral and allow the communieating cavities to remain. In this respect, a glass which may be leached away or dissolved by hydrofluoric acid or similar acid may be used with said glass being of a brous nature. Other means, such as bicarbonate of soda in particle form, may be intermingled with the plastic and thereafter leached or removed by dissolving the said particles. The main feature, however, is to fabricate the plastic to the size and shape desired and having dispersed throughout the plastic something of a nature which may be leached out so as to leave the communicating perforations or cavities therein and in which the tissues may grow, as described above, these tissues being those surrounding the bone structure or may be the bone structure itself or the adjacent tissues.
While the device embodying the invention is described as being an implant type artiicial eye for use in instances when the part of the human anatomy to be replaced is that of the enucleated eye, it is to be understood that the invention may apply to a replacement portion for any part of the human anatomy which must be removed by surgical operations or which has been lost through accident or injury and which can be in part replaced by a plastic or artificial resinous member formed with a plurality of communicating perforations or cavities therein and through 'which the bone structure or associated tissues may grow. For example, hernia belts or nets or the like may be formed of such plastics, bone replacements, llers for the lung or other cavities of the body or any particular part of the body wherein the bone or removed tissue is desired to be replaced. As a further example, skull plates may be formed to have the above described characteristics when it is necessary to remove some of the skull structure and to replace the same. Only relatively rigid, shape-retaining material, particularly chemically inert and stable, is used for such purposes.
From the foregoing description it will be seen that simple, ecient and economical means and method have been provided for accomplishing all of the objects and advantages of the invention.
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. A muscle-actuated prosthesis for emplacement in the eye socket of a being from which the eye has been removed, said prosthesis comprising a body portion of generally globular shape having a relatively smooth arcuate-shaped posterior surface and an anterior portion adapted to cooperate with an eye representation seated thereover to obtain movement of said representation in response. to muscle action on the body Portion, the remaining surface of said body portion between said anterior portion and smooth posterior surface being relatively rough and including a plurality of orifices connecting with a multiplicity of irregularly related communicating channels permeating the body thereof in all directions to provide a sponge-like framework, said orices and communicating channels being of a size only sufficient to permit the adjacent body tissues to grow therethrough and meet so as to effectively heal together and form a closed wound, and by means by which the eye muscles may be connected to said body portion in desired positional relation to hold the prosthesis in place within the eye socket and to obtain movement thereof simulating that of a natural eye, said body portion being free to respond to the action of said eye muscles by reason of its smooth arcuate-shaped posterior surface which prevents the bonding of tissue therewith.
2. A muscle-actuated prosthesis for emplacement in the eye socket of a being from which the eye has been removed, said prosthesis comprising a body portion of generally globular shape having a relatively smooth arcuate-shaped posterior surface and a reduced protruding neck-like portion on its anterior side to which an eye representation may be attached, the remaining surface of said body portion between said neck portion and smooth posterior surface being relatively rough and including a plurality of oriiices connecting with a multiplicity of irregularly related communicating channels permeating the body thereof in all directions to provide a sponge-like framework between said protruding neck-like portion and smooth arcuate-shaped posterior surface, said orifices and communicating channels being of a size only suicient to permit the adjacent body tissues to grow therethrough and meet so as to effectively heal together and form a closed wound, and means by which the eye muscles may be connected to said body portion in desired positional relation thereabout to hold the prosthesis in place within the eye socket and to obtain movement thereof simulating that of a natural eye, said body portion being free to respond to the action of said eye muscles by reason of its smooth arcuate-shaped posterior surface which prevents the bonding of tissue therewith.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 448,745 Wright Mar. 24, 1891 470,332 Friel Mar. 8, 1892 2,085,052 Taylor June 29, 1937 2,252,277 Tate et al. Aug 12, 1941 2,503,139 Soler Apr. 4, 1950 2,516,804 Rolf et al. July 25, 1950 OTHER REFERENCES Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 32nd edition (1950), edited by C. D. Hodgman. Published by Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., Cleveland, Ohio. A copy is in the Scientific Library of the Patent Ofce. Pages 1360, 1362, 1372, 1374, 1377, 1379, 580, 581.