US 2688476 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R. E. MAYO TOBACCO CURING BARN Sept. 7,1954
' 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 10, 1950 INVENTOR. #5057 E. M/ryo,
Sept. 7, 1954 R E MAYO 2,688,476
TOBACCO CURING BARN Filed 0O"). 10, 1950 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 I N VEN TOR.
Ffi'UB/N .E. M/IYO,
Patented Sept. 7
UNITED STATES ATENT OFFICE 'IOBACCO CURING Reubin E. Mayo, Farmville, N. 0'.-
Application October I0, 1950, Serial No. 189,350
3 Claims. 1
The present invention relates to drying houses for treating vegetable matter and more specif-- ically pertains to the structure of a barn for ouring tobacco wherein heat is supplied to the interior of the structure andthe building is so constructed as to. utilize radiant energy for supple menting the heat within the building. This application relates to a drying house which represents improvements over my copend'ing appli cation, Serial Number 673,591, filed May 31, 194 6 now Patent No. 2,529,621;
One of the objects of the present inventibn isto provide a building structure within which green leaf tobacco may be stored and the building is so constructed that radiant energy from the sun is utilized to preheat the incoming air which is employed in association with opentype burners toreduce the amount of fuel requiredforproviding a given amount of heat within the building for curing tobacco.
Another object of the invention resides in forming at least onesidewall of thed'rying house so as to be transparent for admitting radiant energy from" the sun and the invention includes the provision of a heat absorbing surface in back of and spaced from the transparent wall toprovide a passage throughwhich outside air is guided into the barnwhereby the incoming air is pr'e-- heated prior to moving into the presence of the burners or into the presence of the tobacco being cured within the building.
A more detailed object of the invention resides in providing means within the building for sup porting tobacco therein wherein apart of the racl;
structure isformed of tubular members which-- are in open communication with the preheating mingle with the products of combustion and thereafter rise and circulate through the building in which the-tobacco is being cured;
Other objects and features of the invention will be more apparent to those skilled in the art of curing-tobacco as" the present disclosure roceeds and upon consideration. of the following detailed description taken in connection with the 2 accompanying drawings wherein an exemplary embodiment of the building is disclosed along with a plurality of arrangements for control-ling the escape gases or air from the drying house.
In the drawings:
Fig. l is a perspective View of a building exhibiting the inventioni Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken on the line OfFig. 1 and 2=-2 Of F ig. 3.
3 is a sectional view taken on the line 33 of Fig, 2 and on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4- is a horizontal sectional view taken on the line '1 3 of Fig. 1' and 4-4-Of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional viewof a portion of the building along the south wall} and adjacent the associated row of burners.
Fig. 6 is" afragmentary sectional View taken on the line fi -tof Fig; 5. i
Fig. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional View of a port-1m of the structure showing amod'ified damper control for venting the barn.
Fig. 8 is-a fragmentary sectional view taken on the line 8+8- of Fig. 2.
Referring to the drawings there is shown at ID a base for the building which may take any suitable form and in the embodiment illustrated a double wallstructure with an outer panel M formed of some transparent material, such as glass. The inner panelor partition it may be formedof suitable material, such as corrugated metal with the undulations extending in a vertical directionas will be apparent upon a consideration of Figs. 2 and 4. The surface it of the corrugated panel is preferably black or coated- With some blacksubst'anc'eso as to increase the ability of this partition wall to absorb radiant energy'from' thesuri. fhe radiant energy waves pass through the transparent panel M and are absorbed by'th'e'blackwallpanel It. The corrugations increase the surface area of the panel IT. A passage 39 isp'rov'ided between the panels l4 and IS.
The north Wall of the building is represented generally at 19; This wall may be formed of a plurality of'rem'ovable' doors Zil'as shown in Figs. 1 and 4. These'doors are for the purpose of openingv aside of the building to permit the tobacco to be moved into the barn. The north wall as may be otherwise constructed in therorm of a permanent wall structure and provided with at least one access openin and a door therefor. When this wall structure is formed of a plurality of doors 20, a series of vertical posts or supports are employed as indicated at 2|. These uprights 2| may be arranged in any desirable spacing so as to provide support for the tiers or racks which extend through the barn for supporting the tobacco. The north Wall 19 may be formed of opaque material and is not relied on as means for receiving or storing radiant energy from the sun.
The west wall 24 of the building may also be of a double panel construction as shown in Fig. 3. The outer panel 25 may be formed of any suitable material and may be transparent. The inner partition 26 may be provided with a black surface 21. A passage 30 is provided between the panels 25 and 26 and the space is in open communication with the passage 39 as indicatedat 34 in Fig. 4. The east wall 28 may be similarly constructed and provided with an outer panel 28 which may also be formed of transparent material so as to admit radiant energy from the sun. The inner panel 3| for the east wall may be formed of any suitable material or coated with a black substance for absorbing heat. This surface is indicated at 32. A passage 35 is provided between the panels 29 and 3| which is in open communication with the space 39 as shown in Fig. 4.
The top of the buildin is closed by means of a roof which may advantageously be substantially flat as shown at 36. The roof is of a double panel construction provided with the top roof section 31 and the lower roof panel 38. The upper surface of the roof is formed of some black metal or coated with a black material so as to more efliciently absorb the radiant energy from the sun.
A space 43 is provided between the roof sections 31 and 38 and this space is in open communication with the space 39 between panels of the south wall I2 and the space 43 is also in communication with the passage 30. The invention includes means for directing outside air into the space 43 and such means may take the form of a double cone assembly as shown at 4| in Figs. 1 and 3. The outside air is collected in the double cone structure as it moves in one or more directions and the outside air is guided by a tube 42 into the space 43 between the to roof section 31 and the roof section 38. A similar double cone structure 44 may be provided at the other side of the building for directing air through a tube 46 to a space 41 between the two roof sections at the other side of the building. This space 4! is in open communication with the passage 39 in the south wall and the space 41 is also in open communication with the space 35 provided within the east wall 28.
A vent structure for the building is shown generally at which extends across the top of the building. A slot 52 is provided in the roof through which the products of combustion and air may escape from the tobacco curing chamber within the barn. The vent structure includes side walls 54- and 56 which are so constructed as to close the space between the top roof section 3'! and the lower roof section 38. A ridge type roof 58 is provided for covering the slot 52 to prevent rain or the like from passing into the building and the roof 58 is supported on the side walls 54 and 5B. Openings 6| and 62 are provided under the roof 58 for the escape of gases and air passing upwardly through the slot 52.
A main floor for the building is shown at 64 which is supported in any suitable manner (not shown) on the foundation wall II]. An elongated slot or aperture 66 is provided in the floor '64 which extends substantially from the east wall to the west wall as will be apparent from a consideration of Fig. 4. A sub-floor 61 is provided under the main floor 64 which provides a space 68 therebetween as shown in Figs. 2 and 3.
The building is provided with means for storing tobacco therein and such supporting means may take the form of hollow tubes H which extend from the south wall [2 to the north wall 19 and provide a tier arrangement for supporting hands or sticks of tobacco. The tubes 1| may be supported at one end by the studs or uprights 2| and the other ends of the pipes or tubes ll may be secured to the wall panel [6. The ends of the tubes or pipes 1| adjacent the south wall 12 are in open communication with the passage 39 as shown in Fig. 5. A series of orifices 0r apertures 12 may be provided in the pipes or tubes 12. Thus the incoming air which passes downwardly in the space 39 as indicated by the arrows in Fig. 2 may enter the ends of all of the tubes H which provide the racks for the tobacco so that this preheated incoming air may circulate through the tobacco barn and promote movement of air in the presence of the tobacco being cured.
The invention includes means for supplying artificial heat to the interior of the barn and any suitable type of heating means may be employed in combination with the arrangement for preheating the incoming air. In the embodiment illustrated a row of burners 16 is arranged lengthwise along the south wall 12 as shown in Fig. 2. These burners may be of the open flame type and are preferably arranged in a recess 11 provided in the foundation wall [0. A pipe 18 is provided for supplying fuel to the rows of burners 16. forms a continuation of the panel is provides means for guiding the incoming air passing downwardly through the space 39 around the lower end of the partition 79 and upwardly along another panel section 8| so that the incoming air moves into the presence of the burners 16. A slot 10 is provided in the floor section 68 to permit heat from the burners 16 to move into the space 68. The preheated incoming air is intermingled with the heated air or the products of combustion provided by the heaters 16.
A similar row of heaters 83 are provided along the north wall l9 and these burners may be mounted in a recess 84 of the foundation wall 10. These burners 83 may be of the open flame type. A panel section 86 is provided along the north wall and may be flush therewith as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. An elongated slot 81 is provided along the lower end of the panel section 86 so that air may enter this slot to move in the direction of the arrow 88 shown in Fig. 2. A short panel section 89 is provided within this portion of the building to guide the air entering the slot 81 into the presence of the heaters 83 or into the presence of the products of combustion arising therefrom. A slot is provided in the floor 61 over the burners 83. It will be noted that the space-68 provided between the main floor and the sub-floor 61 provides a conduit for guiding air or products of combustion from the south and north walls areas towards the center of the barn for rising through the slot 66. An important feature of the invention relates to the control of It will be observed that a partition 19- the escape of air and the products of combustion.
from the interior of the building. It is desirable during the early curing phase to permit as much moisture as possible to escape from the tobacco and from. the barn. It is alsoadvantageous to restrict the escape of moisture from the presence of tobacco as the curing process progresses. The damper arrangement shown in Fig. 3 pro- Vides means for maintaining such conditions. The ventilating slot 92 is provided with a damper 9i which is mounted for turning movement about a horizontal pivot 92. The damper is biased towards a closed position by means of a spring 93. The spring 93 may be of a tension type and is preferably one which may be adjusted to control the force applied to the damper 9|. The opposite end of the damper 9| is provided with means in the form of a hook 96 for suspending a predetermined weight or quantity of tobacco 94 thereon as illustrated in Fig. 3.
In carrying out a curing operation a quantity of green tobacco like that to be cured and having a high moisture content is suspended on the hook 99 and this tobacco is of sufficient weight to bias the damper 9| to an open position. As the curing process proceeds the green tobacco stored in the barn and supported on the rack tubes II will give oil a relatively large amount of moisture in vapor form. The damper 9! is then open to permit the rapid escape of this moisture through the openings 8i and 62. Moisture will also be released from the tobacco 94 suspended on the hook 96 so that this fixed quantity of tobacco will become lighter in weight. Thus as the curing process advances and when it is desired to prevent the rapid escape of moisture from the barn during the later stages of the curing process, the spring 93 will progressively move the damper 9| towards a closed position and in proportion to the quantity of moisture that remains in the tobacco being treated within the barn.
In operation of the barn and when it is desired to cure a batch of tobacco one or more of the doors 20 forming the north wall l9 are removed and the hands or sticks of tobacco are suspended from the rack tubes '1 I. After the north wall has been closed and when a cluster of green tobacco has been suspended from the hook 96 the curing operation may be initiated. In the event that there is sufiicient sunlight the curing operation may be started without the necessity of operating the burners 19 and 83. The air entering the roof structure through the scooping devices 4| and 44 will be preheated by radiant energy within the spaces 43 and 61. This air will pass downwardly in the space 39 and will be further heated by the radiant energy passing through the transparent panel l4 and stored by the surface H. The morning sun will also preheat the air in the space 35 between the two panels of the east wall 28. In the afternoon the air in the space 39 between the two panels of the west wall 24 will be heated by radiant energy. This preheated air will then pass through the space 68 in the floor structure and escape through the slot 66 and move in the presence of the tobacco. During this stage of operation it may be undesirable to permit air to enter the slot 8'! and a damper 98 may be closed to prevent air from entering the building through this slot along the north wall [9.
During the early curing stage the vent slot 52 will remain open as previously described to permit the rapid escape of moisture from tobacco in the building. In the event that additional heat is required for any stage of the curing operation the burners l6 and 83 may be set in operation.- The incoming preheated air passing downwardly through the space 39 will then move in the presence of the heaters 19' and if they are of the open flame type the heated air will mingle with the products of combustion and rise through the tobacco barn. The damper 98 may be opened so that the air entering the slot 91 will also pass intothe presence of the heaters 83 and if they are of the open flame type mingle with the products of combustion and rise into the curing. chamber through the slot 66. The incoming preheated air will also enter the tubes H and. escape through the apertures '52 to further promote circulation through the barn. As the curing operation proceeds the vent slot 52 will be progressively closed. in accordance with the dehydration of the tobacco in the barn and inv re sponse to the decreased weight of the cluster of tobacco plants carried by the hook 96.
A modified damper control is shown in Fig. I. In this embodiment two damper blades 59! and I02. are mounted for swinging movement about the axis of a horizontal pivot !93. A temperature responsive device in the form of a bellows I04 is provided connecting the adjacent ends of the damper blades ml and I92. As the temperature within the building increases the bellows I94 expands and thereby moves the dampers toward positions closing the venting slot 52. As the temperature falls within the building the bellows I94 contracts and moves the dampers towards the open position. A tension spring I99 may be provided for supplementing the action of the bellows H14 in returning the damper blades to the open positions.
While the invention has been described with reference to specific structural features and with regard to a building structure to a particular type it will be understood that changesmay be made in the details as well as the general organization. Such modifications and others may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a building structure for curing tobacco, an upper metal roof section, a lower roof section spaced from the upper roof section, means for collecting and guiding outside air into the space between the roof sections, side walls, tWo spaced panels forming the south side wall with the space therebetween in communication with the space between the roof sections, a floor and a subfioor spaced below the floor to provide a space between, means guiding air from the space between the panels to the space between the floor and sub-floor, said floor having an elongated aperture therein through which the air may rise into the interior of the building, a north wall having a slot therethrough along a lower portion in open communication with the space between the floor and sub-floor, and a row of burners along the north wall supplying heat to the air entering through said slot.
2. In a building structure for curing tobacco, an upper metal roof section, a lower roof section spaced from the upper roof section, means for collecting and guiding outside air into the space between the roof sections, side walls, two spaced panels forming the south side wall with the space therebetween in communication with the space between the roof sections, a floor and a subfioor spaced below the floor to provide a space 7 between, means guiding air from the space between the panels to the space between the floor and sub-floor, said floor having an elongated aperture therein through which the air may rise into the interior of the building, a north wall having a slot therethrough along a lower portion in open communication with the space between the floor and sub-floor, a row of burners along the north wall supplying heat to the air entering through said slot, and means for adjusting the eifective area of said slot.
3. In a building structure for curing tobacco, an upper roof section, a lower roof section spaced from the upper roof section, a double cone structure for collecting outside air including means for guiding said air into the space between the roof sections, side walls, two spaced panels forming one of said side walls with the space therebetween in open communication with the space between the roof sections, a floor, a sub-floor positioned below said floor to provide a space therebetween in open communication with the space between said panels so that air may move into the space between the floor and the subfloor, said floor having an elongated aperture therein extending from one side wall to an opposite side wall with its longitudinal axis disposed parallel to said panels, the side wall opposite said panels having a slot therein for admitting air to the space between the flOOr and sub-floor for escape through said elongated aperture, means for supplying heat to the air as it enters through said slot, and means for supplying heat to the air entering the space between the floor and subfloor as it leaves the space between said panels.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 430,762 Taylor June 24, 1890 1,583,376 Welch May 4, 1926 1,593,890 Welch July 27, 1926 2,185,760 Altenkirch Jan. 2, 1940 2,472,534 Home June 7, 1949 2,529,621 Mayo Nov. 14, 1950