Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2690002 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 28, 1954
Filing dateNov 18, 1949
Priority dateNov 18, 1949
Also published asDE1110119B
Publication numberUS 2690002 A, US 2690002A, US-A-2690002, US2690002 A, US2690002A
InventorsGrenell Leland H
Original AssigneeOlin Ind Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of making hollow sheet metal fabrications having a plurality of interconnected passageways
US 2690002 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 28, 1954 H. GRENELL ,6

METHOD OF MAKING HOLLOW SHEET METAL FABRICATIONS HAVING A PLURALITY 0F INTERCONNECTED PASSAGEWAYS Filed Nov. 18, 1949 2 Sheets-Sheet l Figi Fig.2

INVENTOR LELAND IHL GRIENELL BY {M 8.11%

ATTORNEY p 28, 1954 L. H. GRENELL 2,690,002

METHOD OF MAKING HOLLOW SHEET METAL FABRICATIONS HAVING A PLURALITY OF INTERCONNECTED PASSAGEWAYS Filed Nov. 18, 1949 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fig.6

INVENTOR LELAND) Ho GRIENIELL wiw ATTORNEY water Patented Sept. 28, 1954 METHOD OF MAKING HOLLOW SHEET METAL FABRICATIONS HAVING A PLU- RALITY OF INTER-CONNECTED PAS- SAGEWAYS Leland H. Grenell, Pasadena Hills, Mm, assignor to Olin Industries, Inc., East Alton, EL, a corporation of Delaware Application November 18, 1949, Serial No. 128,116

Claims. (01. 29157.3)

This invention relates to the manufacture of sheet metal fabrications and in particular to structural members, heat exchangers, fluid containers, and the like made of sheet metal and to a method of making the same.

Structural members for some uses must have at least one flat or smooth surface, for instance, when used as airplane fuselage, wing, or tail surfaces, box car walls, and the like, and it has been customary to utilize two metal sheets face to face, one flat and one indented, riveted, spotwelded, or brazed together. In such composite members, the ribs or bulges of the indented sheet strengthen and stiffen the flat sheet and thereby reinforce the member. In the art of making refrigerator evapcrators, radiant heaters, and the like, such heat exchange devices in general are composed of a plurality of tubes or chambers adapted to serve as a conduit for the fluid of the heat exchange system and have been constructed heretofore of relatively thin gauge sheet metal by a method which involves indenting channels or grooves in the metal sheeting in a pattern designed to provide after assembly interconnecting passageways. Two of the sheets are then arranged face to face in superposed relation and joined together by brazing or spotwelding along predetermined lines to provide the desired fluid passageways between the sheets. Another method for making heat exchange devices, disclosed in U. S. Patent 1,779,911 issued to Litie, October 28, 1930, consists briefly in superposing two sheets of metal, sealing the edges of the sheets by welding, joining the inner faces of the sheets at spaced intervals by spot-welding, and then introducing fluid pressure through a hole in one of the sheets to expand and separate the sheets between the spot-welds.

Now, the brazing, riveting and spot-welding methods utilized in producing such fabrications have attendant disadvantages. For instance, when the sheets are joined by brazing, one must employ a brazing alloy and an extra processing step of inserting and adequately positioning the brazing strip is required. Further, the brazed joint is not always mechanically perfect and the sheets may separate when stress is applied. Likewise any strengthening of the tube or rib walls due to working is lost owing to, the annealing effect obtained at the brazing temperature. The spot-welding and riveting techniques are not adapted for complete sealing of the sheets between the ribs or fluid passageways, particularly when the ribs or passages are formed by long ducts following either straight, or serpentine,

tortuous or other intricate paths. With such structures, voids are often found present between the sheets at points other than the intended ribs or passageways, resulting in possible lower strength in the case of structural members, and in leaks in the case of heat exchangers, and otherwise detract from the efficiency of such fabrications. Further the coarse-grained cast structure of the spot-welds tends to weaken, the fabrication at these points. Likewise, the spotwelding procedure is not in general well suited for alloys of high electrical conductivity and in many instances the surfaces of the sheets tend to adhere to the spot-welding electrodes marring the sheets and requiring frequent cleaning of the electrodes.

It is therefore an object of this invention to provide an economical, eihcient method for manufacturing such sheet metal fabrications free of the limitations and disadvantages set forth in the foregoing; Another object of the invention is to provide an economical method for manufacturing heat exchange devices from sheet metal of either high or low electrical conductivity, which method permits complex duct patterns or conduit systems to be utilized without the hazards of fluid leaks. Still another object is to provide a relatively low cost thermally efficient heat exchange device. A further object is to provide a low cost method of forming relatively strong structural members, fluid containers, and other such devices from metal sheeting. A still further object is to provide a relatively low cost, light weight, strong sheet metal structural member.

The foregoing objects and advantages, as well as others which may become apparent from the detail description hereinafter, are accomplished in accordance with this invention by a combination of processing steps including sandwiching a pattern of a non-bonding or separation material between two sheets of metal, forming a single layer of metal between the areas covered by the separation material by pressure welding, and applying a fluid pressure on the inner surfaces held apart by the separation material to expand the metal in these areas. Any desired processing maybe employed intermediate the aforenamed steps provided suchprocessing does not interfere with the functioning of said steps. The diameter, length, and positioning of the cavities formed within the sheet by the fluid pressure and the resulting bulges or ribs on the surface depend mainly upon the pattern dimensions and design in which the separation material is originally applied and complex and intricately shaped reinforcing ribs or conduits are thus readily formed by applying the desired pattern. No voids exist between adjacent passageways or ribs, since the metal of the sheets intermediate the passageways are forged or pressure welded into one layer of metal of substantially uniform composition.

Having described in the foregoing in a general way the nature and substance of this invention, there follows a more detailed description of preferred embodiments thereof with reference to the accompanying drawing in which:

Figure l is a plan view illustrating a sheet of metal coated with a pattern of separation material,

Figure 2 is a plan View illustrating a sheet of metal to be superposed on the coated sheet of Figure 1,

Figure 3 is an end view illustrating the metal sheets of Figures 1 and 2 after assembly,

Figure 4 is a perspective view illustrating the assembly of Figure 3 after hot rolling,

Figure 5 is an enlarged sectional View illustrating the metal sheet at BB of Figure 4,

Figure 6 is a plan view illustrating reinforced metal sheeting suitable for use as a heat exchanger,

Figure 7 is a sectional view taken at AA in Figure 6,

Figure 8 is a sectional view illustrating another embodiment, in which the sheet has ribs only on one surface,

Figure 9 is a sectional view illustrating a metal sheet held in a die,

Figure 10 is a sectional view illustrating a sheet formed in accordance with this invention,

Figure 11 is a plan view illustrating another embodiment, in which the ribs are on one surface of the sheet in one area and on the opposite surface in another area, and

Figure 12 is a cross-sectional view of the sheet of Figure 11.

Referring first to Figures 1 and 2, for the manufacture of a heat exchange device, sheets 1 and 2 of metal, 0.070 inch thick and composed of 92% to 94% copper, 2.05% to 2.60% iron, 0.025% phosphorus, 0.05% lead, with the balance zinc, are first degreased by immersion in an organic solvent bath, such as naphtha or white gasoline, at room temperature and then wiped free of solvent. The sheets are then cleaned in an acid bath containing approximately 1 part by volume of 68% nitric acid, 1 part by volume of 95% sulphuric acid, and 1 part by volume of water at room temperature. :Such treatment is designed to remove any oxide film on the metal. The sheets are then rinsed thoroughly in cold water and subsequently in hot water, and air dried at room temperature. The clean surface of the sheet is desirable in order to secure good bonding in the subsequent hot rolling operation.

A separation or weld-preventing material 3, consisting of a mixture of graphite in water glass, is then applied in a thin layer to selected areas on the face of sheet i according to a predetermined pattern. Such separation material may be sprayed through a masking die, painted through a stencil, squeezed through a silk screen, or applied in any other suitable manner. For instance, if the separation material 3 is to be applied through a silk screen to the selected area, graphite in the ratio of about three to four kilograms to three liters of water glass solution is satisfactory. A thinner more fluid mixture is, of

course, used if the separation material is to be applied by painting or spraying on the selected areas.

The elongation of the metal during subsequent rolling must be allowed for in the shape and dimension of the pattern of separation material originally applied to the sheet. For instance, the strip and pattern is lengthened in the direction of rolling in substantially inverse proportion to the change in thickness of the assembly. Pattern lines I0 and ii that run perpendicular to the direction of rolling are, therefore, increased in width, as indicated at [2 and I3, in substantially inverse proportion to the change in thickness of the assembly. Pattern lines 3 that run in the direction of rolling are not changed appreciably in width as indicated at 6, Figure 6. Thus, if one Wishes a conduit running perpendicular to the direction of rolling one inch in diameter and the assembly thickness during the rolling operation is reduced to one-half the original thickness, then the pattern lines running perpendicular to the direction of rolling must be made only about onehalf inch wide. The thickness of the layer of separation material decreases in direct proportion with the decrease in thickness of the assembly during rolling due to the spreading or elongation of the material during the rolling operation. The thickness of the layer of separation material after rolling should be sufficient to prevent bonding of the metal except where such bonding is desired.

After the pattern of separation material 3 has been applied to sheet I, the sheet 2 is placed on sheet I with the separation material 25 between them, Figure 3. If sheet 2 is permitted to move freely in frictional contact with the separation material on sheet I prior to the subsequent hot roll operation, the pattern is likely to be damaged or distorted so that the desired conduit system will not be obtained. The sheets are therefore fastened together to avoid obliteration of the pattern, by any suitable means, such as hell-arc welding the edges, tacking the edges together by spot-welding, or by crimping the edges, or the like.

The assembly is then placed in a furnace and heated to about 900 C. To prevent oxidation of the inner faces of the sheets i and 2, the edges of the assembly may be completely sealed as by welding or the like, or an inert or reducing atmosphere may be employed in the furnace if desired. The temperature of 900 C. is about (3. below the melting point of the alloy and is sufiiciently high to effect pressure welding of the two sheets of metal in the hot rolling step to be described hereinafter. The exact temperature to be used for pressure welding is, of course, dependent upon the melting point of the particular metal or alloy utilized and should be relatively close thereto.

Inasmuch as each sheet of the metal, i and 2, is 0.070 inch thick and the layer of separation material 3 is only about 0.002 to 0.005 inch thick, the assembly, Figure 3, is about 0.14 inch thick. As soon as the assembly has reached a temperature of about 900 C. it is hot rolled in one to a thickness of about 0.070 inch and is then cleaned with acid, washed and dried as described in the foregoing treament of sheets i and 2. It is desirable to hot roll to a reduction of thickness of at least 35% in order to insure welding of the sheets, and a reduction of approximately 50% in one pass is preferable as is described in the foregoing. The welded sheet is then cold rolled to a finish gauge of about 0.048 inch thickness, is

then annealed at a temperature of 750 C. for one half hour to remove the hardening effect of the cold rolling, and is then cleaned by acid, washing, and drying treatments as described hereinbefore. The cold rolling step is carried out in order to accurately control the thinness of the sheet. If sufficient accuracy in gauge for the particular use can be obtained by hot rolling, the entire reduction can be carried out by hot rolling, and the cold rolling and annealing treatments referred to in the foregoing may be omitted. The strength of the sheet formed by the hot rolling step is appreciably greater than that of the cast structure obtained with spot-Welding techniques. The cast structure formed by spot-welding contains appreciably larger grains than the sheet prior to such welding, Whereas the sheet formed by the hot rolling step has a grain size substantially uniform throughout the sheet.

In applying the separation material 3 to sheet I, a portion is extended to the edge of the sheet at 4. The unbounded edge 4 of sheet 9, Figure 4, is then pried open mechanically, and a copper tube is inserted into the opening and silver soldered, brazed, or threaded therein. The free end of the copper tube 1 is attached to an hydraulic pump by any suitable means such as a sleeve and nut, and about 250 to 300 pounds per square inch fluid pressure is applied to expand the metal in the unwelded inner portions of the sheet containing the separation material. Only suificient pressure need be applied to bulge the metal in these areas to an extent sufficient to provide the desired cavities or conduit indicated at 6, i2 and i3, Figures 6 and '7. As will be understood in the art the amount of fluid pressure necessary will vary with the gauge, temper, and composition of the metal used. If desired, to produce very sharp, intricate conduit patterns, the sheet Qprior to application of the pressure may be placed in a die whose faces are recessed in accordance with the desired conduit pattern. During the application of the fluid pressure, the conduit Walls 0, l2, and 13 within the die are reduced in thickness about 0.001 to 0.002 inch from the original thickness of about 0.024 inch on each side of the separation material prior to application of the fluid pressure, and appear as bulges on the surfaces of the sheet. The cavity walls are thus strengthened by the work-hardening effected by expansion of the metal.

When no die is used, the metal expands with little or no thinning of the cavity wall and the cavity is formed upon applying the fluid pressure merely by further separation or opening up of the metal. in the separation material areas with a resultant decrease of sheet length or width, or both, depending on the design and dimensionof the cavities. However, the sheet may be so held in a die, during application of the fluid pressure,

' that the length or width does not decrease and the expansion is accomplished by a thinning of the cavity Wall, as in the foregoing.

In some instances it may be desirable to have the heat exchange device in a shape other than a relatively flat sheet, for instance, a U-shaped device may be desired, such as is used to partially surround the ice cube or freezing compartment of a refrigerator. For such purpose the sheet 9 can be bent into the desired shape either before or after the fluid pressure has been applied to form the conduit within the sheet. If the bending is done after the conduits have been formed, the conduit pattern should be so designed as to permit such bending and care should be observed 6.. in such deforming operations to avoid closing off desired passageways. A hole such as illustrated at 8, Figure 6, may be drilled into the conduit and a copper tube partially inserted therein and silver soldered or brazed thereto which copper tube may then serve along with copper tube 7 to provide an entrance and exit for the heat exchange medium. The conduit 6, i2, and it, Figure 6, corresponds substantially to the pattern of separation material 3, Figure 1.

While the foregoing specific embodiment is described with particular reference to a heat exchanger, it will be understod that the expanded sheet 9, Figure 6, is relatively strong and rigid due to the ribs formed by the conduit 6, I2, and i3 and minus the inlet and outlet, 1 and 8, can be used to advantage as a sheet metal structural member. If a structural member having only longitudinal reinforcing ribs is desired, the ends of the sheet may be cut off for a sufficient distance to remove the transverse conduits, or headers, l2 and [3. The cavities in the sheet whether they be ultimately utilized for the sheet strengthening effected by their walls or as fluid conduit, or both, may as pointed out hereinbefore have practically any desired design, the design being controlled by the pattern of separation material.

For some uses, it may be desirable to have the bulges formed by the cavities all on one side of the sheet instead of on both surfaces. An embodiment illustrating such construction is shown in section in Figure 8, in which the conduit 5: and 52 forms bulges on only the top surface of the sheet. Such construction, which is well adapted for structural members having a flat or smooth face, can be obtained, for instance, if one sheet is sufficiently thicker than the other that all expansion occurs on the thin sheet surface when the fluid pressure is applied. For example, the bottom sheet I utilized may be ten times as thick as the sheet 2 and the pattern applied, the sheets assembled and hot rolled until pressure welded, and the fluid pressure applied, etc., as described in the foregoing embodiment, the final thickness of the device being greater, of course, due to the greater thickness of the bottom sheet. Such construction, as is illustrated in Figure 8, may also be obtained by inserting the rolled sheet 9 containing the separation material 3 in a die having one face recessed to conform to the conduit pattern and the other face unrecessed. Upon applying fluid pressure on the unwelded inner surfaces of sheet 9 one surface of the sheet is prevented from expanding by the unrecessed face of the die, whereas the other surface of the sheet expands into the recesses in the other face of the die. For some uses as'in structural members, a semicircular bulge or rib may not be as desirable as some other shape. The contour of the expanded surface may be controlled by providing the recesses in the die face with the desired contour. For instance, Figure 9 illustrates an embodiment for forming an angular contour instead of the semicircular contour shown for the ribs in Figure 8. The unexpanded sheet 9 containing separation material 3 is held between the unrecessed die plate I! and the die plate I6 having angular shaped recesses It in its inner face positioned over the separation material 3 within the sheet 9. Upon applying the fluid pressure, as described hereinbefore, the surface of the sheet expands forming angular contoured ribs l9, Figure 10.

of the sheet and on the opposite side of the sheet in other areas. Such an embodiment is illustrated in Figures 11 and 12, where it may be seen that the conduit is formed by expansion of the top surface towards the ends of the sheet, and by expansion of the bottom surface near the center of the sheet. Here again such construction is accomplished by inserting the sheet '9 in a die whose faces are recessed in accordance with the pattern to permit the desired expansion of the top surface near the ends of the sheet 9 forming bulge l4 and of the bottom surface at the center forming bulge IS. The conduit thus above the plane of the sheet at the end portions and below the plane of the sheet at the center portion. Where the sheet is to be shaped, for instance into a U-shape to fit about the ice-cube compartment of a refrigerator, it may be highly desirable to permit bulging of only one surface in various areas of the sheet in accordance with the practice illustrated in the foregoing.

While in the foregoing a specific rolling, annealing, and cleaning sequence is described, it will be understood that various rolling, annealing and cleaning techniques, trimming, tacking the sheets together, shaping and other such operations may be employed in accordance with this invention between the step of applying the separation material and the step of applying the fluid pressure, depending upon the prevailing practice and the physical characteristics desired the finished product. For instance, the hot and cold rolling may be carried out in a number of steps depending upon the economics of the situation and available rolling equipment, or the cold rolling or annealing, or both, may be omitted entirely. Whereas, the pressure weld is accomplished by hot rolling the assembly in accordance with the preferred practice set forth herein, it is to be understood that some metal sheeting may be pressure welded merely by applying sumcient pressure at room temperature and that such pressure welding technique may be utilized in accordance with this invention. Regardless, however, of the intermediate processing used, it is necessary that the metal of the sheets be suitably joined to form one substantially uniform layer at all superposed points not held apart by the separation material prior to application of the fluid pressure.

The process is well suited for continuous operation. For example, the patterns of the separation material may be applied successively to the surface of a strip of metal being unwound from a coil, a second strip of metal being unwound from another coil may be superposed on the pattern-coated strip, and the strips then tacked together by spot-welding, edge crimping, or the like and fed continuously through a heating furnace and hot rolling mill. After the rolling and other such processing has been completed, the pressure welded strip containing the separation material is then expanded by applying fluid pressure as described above to the internal metal surfaces coated with separation material.

Any suitable separation material may be employed, its chief function being to prevent bond-- ing of the coated surfaces during the welding operation. For instance, in addition to the graphite water glass mixture set forth in the foregoing, other inorganic ingredients mixtures may be employed such as zinc oxide, k-ieselguhr or other diatomaceous earths, flint, talc, powdered quartz, clays, and the like and mixtures thereof with each other and with graphite and water glass or the like. The separation material used must, of course, be so compounded as to flow or elongate with the metal and retain uniformly sufficient thickness to prevent bonding where not desired. Likewise, although the embodiment is described in the foregoing with particular reference to copper base alloys, the process of this invention is applicable to other metal sheeting, for example, aluminum, magnesium, steel, and the like adapted to be pressure welded. As will be apparent from the foregoing, the process of this invention permits the fabrication of a sheet of metal provided with internal ducts or internal passageways of substantially any desired design or pattern, which oavitied sheet of metal with appropriate conduit pattern is adapted for use as a lower cost, more efficient heat exchange device than is obtainable with prior processes. Relatively thick low cost sheet stock may be employed since the desired cavity wall thinness is obtained by the thinning action resulting from the pressure welding step and the thinning of the metal in the immediate area upon which the fluid pressure is applied. In prior methods, in which the cavity wall was stamped or drawn, the sheet stool: used had to be substantially of the thinness desired in the cavity wall. Likewise, the process permits the manufacture of cavitied sheet metal well suited for strong li ht weight structural members and other uses. It is to be understood that the embodiment of the present invention as shown and described is only illustrative and that many changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the following claims.

The word sheet is used in the appended claims to define a piece of metal which is very thin in relation to its length and breadth.

Having thus described the invention what is claimed and desired to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. The method of making hollow sheet metal fabrications having a plurality of interconnected passageway portions in the form of a single sheet of homogeneous metal which consists essentially of interposing a pattern composed of separation material between two clean-surfaced metal sheets, which pattern has the general configuration of the desired pattern of passageway portions but is foreshortened in one direction and includes a plurality of spaced, relatively narrow, elongated, interconnected passageway portions arranged to define between them a, plurality of spaced areas free from separation material in which the sheets are to be Welded together; securing said plates together at portions other than those portions opposite the pattern of separation material to prevent relative slippage during a subsequent rolling operation; uniformly reducing the thickness of the assembly by at least 35%, elongating the assembly in the direction in which the pattern of separation material is foreshortened to extend the pattern of separation material and the area of the sheets between said passageway portions in that direction without appreciable extension of the pattern of the separation material or the areas of the sheets between said passageway portions in a transverse direction and welding the contacting inner surfaces of the sheets in the areas surrounding the pattern of separation material and between said spaced passageway portions, all, and simultaneously, by hot rolling the assembly in the di- 2. The method of claim 1 in which the hot.

rolling of the assembly is such as to reduce the thickness thereof by at least 50%.

3. The method of claim 1 in which the interconnected passageway portions of the separation material include at least one elongated area and a plurality of transversely-extending areas.

4. The method of claim 1 in which the sheet resulting from the hot rolling operation is placed between a pair of spaced confining die faces having portions at least opposite the pattern of the separation material which are spaced apart a distance substantially greater than the thickness of the resulting sheet; and the fluid forces the metal opposite the separation material into contact with at least one of the adjacent faces of the confining dies with suficient force to cause the metal contacting said face to assume the shape of said face at the places of contact therewith.

5. The method of claim 1 in which the sheet 10 metal fabrication is a heat-exchanger element and an outlet from said passageways is formed at a place remote from the inlet.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS I Number Name Date Re. 19,778 Litle, Jr. Dec. 3, 1935 346,661 Knight Aug. 3, 1886 361,857 Bigney Apr. 26, 1887- 1,'709,865 Muffiy Apr. 23, 1929 1,712,085 Litle, Jr. May 7, 1929 1,723,659 Rosenqvist Aug. 6, 1929 1,798,652 Booth Mar. 31, 1931 2,034,278 Becket Mar. 17, 1936 2,154,216 Savage Apr. 11, 1939 2,161,293 Heath June 6, 1939 2,212,481 Sendzimir Aug. 20, 1940 2,312,451 Strike Mar. 2, 1943 2,458,629 Orley Jan. 11, 1949 2,472,937 Brinkoeter June 14, 1949 2,498,275 Johnson Feb. 21, 1950 2,582,358 Schoellerman Jan. 15, 1952 2,585,736 Burr Feb. 12, 1952 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 401,476 Germany Sept. 8, 1924 94,212 Sweden Jan. 13, 1939

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US346661 *Aug 3, 1886 Island
US361857 *Dec 8, 1886Apr 26, 1887 Jewelry-stock
US1709865 *Jul 1, 1927Apr 23, 1929Copeland Products IncProcess of forming refrigerator elements
US1712085 *May 8, 1926May 7, 1929Copeland Products IncRefrigerating apparatus
US1723659 *Nov 16, 1926Aug 6, 1929Gunnar RosenqvistMethod of forming hollow articles
US1798652 *Feb 13, 1930Mar 31, 1931Booth Morris FCooling unit for refrigerating systems
US2034278 *Apr 19, 1934Mar 17, 1936Electro Metallurg CoLaminated metal stock
US2154216 *Jun 24, 1936Apr 11, 1939Gen ElectricCooling pad
US2161293 *Mar 30, 1938Jun 6, 1939Gen Motors CorpRefrigerating apparatus
US2212481 *Dec 8, 1937Aug 20, 1940American Rolling Mill CoMulticellular expanded material and process of manufacturing same
US2312451 *May 2, 1941Mar 2, 1943Strike George NWelding process
US2458629 *Jun 18, 1945Jan 11, 1949George OrleySerpentine freezer shelf
US2472937 *Jul 19, 1946Jun 14, 1949Ed Friedrich IncCooling plate
US2498275 *Sep 25, 1945Feb 21, 1950Wallace C JohnsonMethod of producing propeller constructions
US2582358 *Jun 8, 1948Jan 15, 1952Northrop Aircraft IncMethod of producing stiffened skin panel
US2585736 *Mar 24, 1948Feb 12, 1952Kold Hold Mfg CompanyHeat exchange unit having a trough
USRE19778 *May 8, 1926Dec 3, 1935sMethod of making evaporators
DE401476C *Nov 12, 1921Sep 8, 1924Charles Harold MeighVerfahren zur Herstellung von ganzstueckigen, metallischen Hohlkoerpern mit Rippen
SE94212A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2754572 *Jul 14, 1954Jul 17, 1956Olin MathiesonMethod of making roll welded hollow sheet metal structure
US2759246 *Dec 8, 1954Aug 21, 1956Olin MathiesonMethod of making hollow articles
US2759247 *Jul 21, 1950Aug 21, 1956Olin MathiesonMethod of making heat exchangers
US2772180 *Jun 28, 1952Nov 27, 1956Olin MathiesonParting compositions in metal manufacturing
US2779086 *Dec 9, 1954Jan 29, 1957Metal Specialty CompanyMethod of making a hollow metal structure
US2779168 *Sep 8, 1955Jan 29, 1957Gen Motors CorpRefrigerating apparatus
US2781645 *Sep 17, 1952Feb 19, 1957Gen Motors CorpHeat exchanger
US2822151 *Oct 22, 1954Feb 4, 1958Olin MathiesonConnection for plate heat exchanger
US2833527 *Jun 6, 1955May 6, 1958Fluor CorpLiquid and gas contacting columns and their tray structures
US2838961 *Jan 20, 1954Jun 17, 1958Dalgleish John EMethod of making dies
US2845695 *May 21, 1953Aug 5, 1958Gen Motors CorpMethod of making refrigerating tubing
US2856164 *Jun 16, 1955Oct 14, 1958Olin MathiesonHeat exchanger
US2857660 *Dec 9, 1955Oct 28, 1958Reynolds Metals CoMethod of expanding pressure welded passageway panels to precise volume
US2863303 *Dec 7, 1954Dec 9, 1958Gen Motors CorpRefrigerating apparatus
US2866429 *Dec 9, 1955Dec 30, 1958Reynolds Metals CoSemi-automatic apparatus for expanding a pressure welded passageway panel
US2894731 *Jul 18, 1955Jul 14, 1959Gen Motors CorpRefrigerating apparatus
US2896312 *Feb 25, 1955Jul 28, 1959Gen Motors CorpRefrigerating apparatus
US2898747 *Jan 7, 1958Aug 11, 1959Ind Patent CorpSelf-refrigerating container
US2906006 *Apr 13, 1954Sep 29, 1959Olin MathiesonMethod of making a sheet metal article
US2915296 *Apr 7, 1955Dec 1, 1959Olin MathiesonHeat exchanger
US2920377 *Oct 12, 1956Jan 12, 1960Gen ElectricEvaporator structure and method of manufacture
US2920380 *Aug 29, 1957Jan 12, 1960Olin MathiesonMethod of making plate-type heat exchanger
US2922344 *Oct 13, 1953Jan 26, 1960Olin MathiesonLanding mat
US2924437 *Mar 21, 1955Feb 9, 1960Olin MathiesonHeat exchanger
US2926003 *May 4, 1955Feb 23, 1960Olin MathiesonHeat exchanger
US2933806 *Feb 5, 1957Apr 26, 1960Olin MathiesonHollow articles
US2933905 *Jul 9, 1957Apr 26, 1960Gen Motors CorpRefrigerating apparatus
US2941280 *Oct 3, 1955Jun 21, 1960Olin MathiesonSheet metal fabrication
US2944328 *Jul 16, 1954Jul 12, 1960Olin MathiesonMethod of making heat exchanger
US2948053 *Mar 23, 1956Aug 9, 1960Philco CorpMethod of manufacturing refrigerating apparatus
US2950512 *Apr 2, 1957Aug 30, 1960Revere Copper & Brass IncCasting apparatus and method
US2957230 *Aug 1, 1955Oct 25, 1960Olin MathiesonMethod of making plate or sheet metal articles having hollow sections
US2957234 *Mar 12, 1957Oct 25, 1960Emery I ValyiMethod of making pressure vessel
US2957679 *Jun 2, 1955Oct 25, 1960Olin MathiesonHeat exchanger
US2958934 *Aug 5, 1952Nov 8, 1960Gen Motors CorpMethod of making refrigerating apparatus
US2966729 *May 31, 1956Jan 3, 1961Reynolds Metals CoMethod for accomplishing one side expansion in pressure welded passageway panels
US2966730 *Jan 29, 1958Jan 3, 1961Reynolds Metals CoMethod of and apparatus for expanding passageway panels on one side
US2982012 *Jul 21, 1955May 2, 1961Revere Copper & Brass IncStrip material having expansible slits
US2983994 *Aug 1, 1955May 16, 1961Olin MathiesonMetal articles having hollow sections and method of making same
US2987810 *Jan 23, 1956Jun 13, 1961Olin MathiesonMetal working
US2989383 *Feb 14, 1958Jun 20, 1961Fluor CorpSolid adsorber
US2991047 *Jul 26, 1957Jul 4, 1961Borg WarnerHeat exchanger
US2991543 *May 15, 1957Jul 11, 1961Olin MathiesonConnection
US2992545 *May 27, 1959Jul 18, 1961Gen Motors CorpRefrigerating apparatus
US2993263 *Jan 20, 1958Jul 25, 1961Reynolds Metals CoMethod of expanding pressure welded passageway panels
US2994946 *Feb 27, 1956Aug 8, 1961Reynolds Metals CoDeep drawn heat exchanger
US2995807 *Nov 29, 1957Aug 15, 1961Revere Copper & Brass IncHeat exchangers and methods of making the same
US2999306 *Nov 19, 1956Sep 12, 1961Reynolds Metals CoHot pressure welded honeycomb passageway panels and like structures
US3003228 *May 26, 1955Oct 10, 1961Reynolds Metals CoMethod and apparatus for expansion of unbonded areas in composite plates
US3004329 *Aug 23, 1956Oct 17, 1961Rudy Mfg CompanyHeat exchanger and method of construction
US3004330 *May 23, 1957Oct 17, 1961Revere Copper & Brass IncTubes for structural and fluid conducting purposes, and methods of making the same
US3010202 *Mar 10, 1958Nov 28, 1961Calumet & HeclaMethod of forming thin metal panels having bifurcated edges
US3012309 *May 18, 1956Dec 12, 1961Olin MathiesonFabrication of hollow articles
US3012758 *Jan 23, 1957Dec 12, 1961Lyon Jr George ARadiator structure
US3015878 *Jul 27, 1956Jan 9, 1962Reynolds Metals CoDifferential expansion of pressure welded passageway panel
US3020633 *Apr 24, 1959Feb 13, 1962Olin MathiesonFabrication of hollow articles
US3034204 *Mar 20, 1956May 15, 1962Olin MathiesonHeat exchanger
US3036369 *Jun 29, 1955May 29, 1962Revere Copper & Brass IncMethod of making fluid conducting elements
US3036370 *Dec 10, 1956May 29, 1962Olin MathiesonFabrication of hollow articles
US3038246 *Jan 18, 1956Jun 12, 1962Olin MathiesonFabrication of hollow articles
US3045330 *Jul 30, 1958Jul 24, 1962Olin MathiesonFabrication of hollow articles
US3052964 *Sep 29, 1958Sep 11, 1962Olin MathiesonMetal fabrication
US3053514 *Aug 30, 1954Sep 11, 1962Olin MathiesonSheet metal fabrications
US3056189 *Sep 18, 1958Oct 2, 1962Olin MathiesonMethod of making a heat exchanger
US3058203 *Sep 5, 1957Oct 16, 1962Reynolds Metals CoHollow metal plumbing structure
US3062403 *Feb 25, 1960Nov 6, 1962Emery I ValyiPressure vessel and method of making same
US3066389 *Jul 30, 1956Dec 4, 1962Olin MathiesonFabrication of hollow articles
US3067491 *Dec 10, 1956Dec 11, 1962Robert M NeelFabrication of hollow articles
US3073012 *Aug 29, 1957Jan 15, 1963Reynolds Metals CoMethod of making pressure welded passageway panel containing accumulator chamber
US3086559 *Feb 19, 1959Apr 23, 1963Grenell Leland HRoll bonded tubing fittings
US3088193 *Apr 13, 1959May 7, 1963Olin MathiesonMetal fabrication
US3094301 *Aug 1, 1957Jun 18, 1963Robert S TaylorHeat placement
US3094956 *Apr 16, 1956Jun 25, 1963Olin MathiesonFabrication of hollow articles
US3098290 *Apr 27, 1954Jul 23, 1963Reynolds Metals CoMethod of expanding passageway panel on one side
US3108361 *Mar 20, 1956Oct 29, 1963Olin MathiesonFabrication of hollow articles
US3114202 *Mar 24, 1960Dec 17, 1963Olin MathiesonMethod of pressure welding metal sheets
US3118157 *Oct 10, 1957Jan 21, 1964Olin MathiesonGliding device
US3127860 *Jun 23, 1959Apr 7, 1964Olin MathiesonFabrication of hollow articles
US3133517 *Sep 16, 1959May 19, 1964Continental Can CoMethod of forming container bodies and product thereof
US3136037 *Oct 31, 1955Jun 9, 1964Olin MathiesonMethod of constructing finned heat exchangers from bonded metal sheets
US3140755 *Apr 15, 1960Jul 14, 1964Olin MathiesonMuffler or other hollow article and fabrication of same
US3144709 *Oct 13, 1959Aug 18, 1964Continental Can CoPreparation of sheet stock having longitudinal internal weakening therein
US3144712 *Apr 1, 1959Aug 18, 1964Continental Can CoPreparation of non-homogeneous metal stock having regions of relatively low notch sensitivity
US3147545 *Aug 24, 1962Sep 8, 1964Olin MathiesonMetal fabrication
US3148728 *Nov 10, 1959Sep 15, 1964Olin MathiesonHeat exchanger
US3165820 *Aug 18, 1960Jan 19, 1965Fromson Howard AMethod of forming honeycomb structure
US3166829 *May 28, 1956Jan 26, 1965Lemelson Jerome HDucted sheeting construction
US3166831 *Sep 4, 1962Jan 26, 1965Olin MathiesonMethod of making composite elements
US3173195 *Feb 19, 1957Mar 16, 1965Jerome H LemelsonMethod of making ducted panelling
US3173479 *Sep 30, 1959Mar 16, 1965Olin MathiesonHeat exchanger
US3181607 *Aug 30, 1963May 4, 1965Olin MathiesonFinned hollow article
US3195226 *Jun 13, 1962Jul 20, 1965Olin MathiesonManufacture of composite bodies utilizing liquid soluble material to maintain porosity
US3205560 *Apr 27, 1956Sep 14, 1965Reynolds Metals CoMethod of making a pressure welded finned panel
US3205563 *Jun 21, 1956Sep 14, 1965Olin MathiesonFinned structure and method of manufacture
US3206838 *Dec 29, 1955Sep 21, 1965Olin MathiesonHeat exchanger element
US3206839 *May 9, 1961Sep 21, 1965Olin MathiesonFabrication of heat exchangers
US3239164 *May 22, 1961Mar 8, 1966Trw IncSpace radiator system
US3276108 *Feb 21, 1964Oct 4, 1966Reynolds Metals CoMethod of making a muffler
US3346220 *Jan 8, 1965Oct 10, 1967Jerome H LemelsonDucted panelling and articles
US3354532 *May 27, 1965Nov 28, 1967Olin MathiesonMethod of fabricating heat exchangers
US3408723 *Mar 24, 1965Nov 5, 1968Olin MathiesonMethod of expanding multihardness panels
US3414863 *Nov 25, 1964Dec 3, 1968Jerome H. LemelsonElectrically conducting panel
US3458917 *Jan 3, 1966Aug 5, 1969Mueller Co PaulMethod of fabricating metal sheets with fluid passages
US3650005 *Mar 19, 1970Mar 21, 1972Showa Aluminium Co LtdMethod for producing tube in sheets
US4081026 *Aug 3, 1976Mar 28, 1978Olin CorporationHollow article
US4093024 *Jun 15, 1976Jun 6, 1978Olin CorporationHeat exchanger exhibiting improved fluid distribution
US4149524 *Sep 26, 1977Apr 17, 1979Honeywell Inc.Corrosion resistant solar absorber panel
US4181173 *Feb 24, 1978Jan 1, 1980United States Steel CorporationHeat exchanger assembly
US4224817 *Jan 29, 1979Sep 30, 1980Olin CorporationApparatus and process for making tube in sheet heat exchangers
US4227391 *Jan 29, 1979Oct 14, 1980Olin CorporationProcess for making tube in sheet heat exchangers
US4246960 *Mar 26, 1979Jan 27, 1981Olin CorporationFail safe heat exchanger
US4402207 *Jul 9, 1981Sep 6, 1983Olin CorporationZero clearance device for rolling mill apparatus
US4615183 *Jun 24, 1985Oct 7, 1986The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health And Human ServicesCold plate for laboratory use
US5011098 *Dec 30, 1988Apr 30, 1991The Boeing CompanyThermal anti-icing system for aircraft
US5353868 *Apr 19, 1993Oct 11, 1994Abbott Roy WIntegral tube and strip fin heat exchanger circuit
US5404935 *Dec 9, 1992Apr 11, 1995Beltec InternationalCabinet-style apparatus for transferring heat to food and cooling food
US5494100 *Dec 23, 1992Feb 27, 1996Peze; AndreWelded plate fin heat exchanger and heat exchanger plate fin manufacturing process
US6173107May 8, 1997Jan 9, 2001British Telecommunications Public Limited CompanyMethod and apparatus for installing transmissions
US6328283Apr 5, 2000Dec 11, 2001British Telecommunications Public Limited CompanyMethod and apparatus for installing transmission lines
US6364290Sep 17, 1997Apr 2, 2002British Telecommunications Public Limited CompanyBlowing head including a buckle detector
US6739029Jan 10, 2003May 25, 2004Sonaca S.A.Manufacturing process for a grooved structure and structure obtained by this process
US20120160233 *Dec 16, 2011Jun 28, 2012Yudie YuanSolar energy absorber unit and solar energy device containing same
DE1032645B *Aug 26, 1955Jun 19, 1958Ver Deutsche Metallwerke AgAbdeckmittel und Verfahren zu seiner Anwendung beim zonenweisen Walzplattieren
DE1104917B *Dec 8, 1955Apr 20, 1961Perry J RieppelVerfahren zur Herstellung von Hohlkoerpern durch Blaehen geschichteter Metallteile
DE1111911B *Jun 24, 1958Jul 27, 1961Phoenix Rheinrohr AgSilikathaltiges Trennmittel in Plattierpaketen
DE1117527B *Nov 17, 1956Nov 23, 1961Reynolds Metals CoVerfahren und Einrichtung zum Aufblaehen von durch oertlich begrenzte Pressschweissung gebildeten Hohlblechtafeln zu Hohlkoerpern zwischen nachgiebigen Gegenlagern
DE1121013B *Dec 12, 1956Jan 4, 1962Reynolds Metals CoVerfahren und Vorrichtung zur Herstellung von Hohlzellenkonstruktionen
DE1130537B *Nov 15, 1957May 30, 1962Sunbeam CorpVerfahren zur Herstellung eines elektrisch beheizten Kochgeraetes und nach diesem Verfahren hergestelltes Kochgeraet
DE1143775B *Feb 27, 1957Feb 21, 1963Olin MathiesonVerfahren zum Herstellen von Hohlkoerpern
DE1185312B *Mar 2, 1961Jan 14, 1965Olin MathiesonVerfahren zum Einziehen eines langen, biegsamen und isolierten elektrischen Heizelementes in einem Hohlkoerper und eine Einrichtung dafuer
DE1209407B *Jan 17, 1957Jan 20, 1966Bridgeport Brass CoVorrichtung zum Herstellen von nur zonenweise miteinander verbundenen Blechen
DE1288884B *Aug 29, 1958Feb 6, 1969Wieland Werke AgVerfahren zum Herstellen von Ein- oder Vielkanalblechen oder -baendern
DE1527575B1 *Dec 18, 1962Aug 12, 1971Olin MathiesonAls Baublech bzw. Waermeaustauscher geeignete Hohlgegenstaende und Verfahren zu deren Herstellung
DE1677197B1 *Sep 26, 1960Feb 4, 1971Olin MathiesonVerfahren zum Herstellen von Waermetauscherplatten
DE2925272A1 *Jun 22, 1979Jan 17, 1980Olin CorpWaermetauscher
EP0077613A2 *Sep 29, 1982Apr 27, 1983Texas Instruments IncorporatedProcess for producing reinforced structural articles
EP0110311A1 *Nov 23, 1983Jun 13, 1984Fr. Kammerer GmbHFlat heat exchange plate and method of making it
EP0117710A2 *Feb 21, 1984Sep 5, 1984Alcan International LimitedRoll bonded tubing for brazed articles
EP0376371A2 *Dec 8, 1989Jul 4, 1990The Boeing CompanyThermal anti-icing system for aircraft
EP1044798A2 *Apr 12, 2000Oct 18, 2000DELTA di Amidei Dario & C. SasMethod for manufacturing cellular structures in composite of metallic layers and cellular structures achieved according to this method
EP1327489A1Jan 9, 2003Jul 16, 2003Sonaca S.A.Method for making a grooved structure and structure made by this method
WO1984002178A1 *Nov 23, 1983Jun 7, 1984Kammerer F GmbhHeat exchanger panel and manufacturing method thereof
WO1992021272A1 *May 14, 1992Dec 10, 1992Beltec IntCabinet-style apparatus for transferring heat to food
Classifications
U.S. Classification29/890.42, 29/421.1, 62/523, 244/134.00B, 165/170
International ClassificationB21D53/04, B21D53/02, B23K20/00, F28F3/14, F28F3/00
Cooperative ClassificationB23K20/00, F28F3/14, B21D53/045
European ClassificationB21D53/04A, F28F3/14, B23K20/00