|Publication number||US2690185 A|
|Publication date||Sep 28, 1954|
|Filing date||Sep 27, 1949|
|Priority date||Sep 27, 1949|
|Publication number||US 2690185 A, US 2690185A, US-A-2690185, US2690185 A, US2690185A|
|Inventors||Pomykala Edmund Stanley|
|Original Assignee||Pomykala Edmund Stanley|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (32), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 28, 1954 E. s. POMYKALA 2,6905185 l ALL WEATHER HUT Filed Sept. 27, 1949 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 421' y y- 10 1 l %Y 49' .9 la za 8 e Q, x MMM INVENTOR.
Sept. 28, 1954 E. s. POMYKALA 2,690,185
ALL WEATHER HUT Filed Sept. 27 1949 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Sept. 28, 1954 E. s. POMYKALA ALL WEATHER HUT Filed Se t. 27, 1949 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR.
Sept. 28, 1954 E. s. POMYKALA 2,690,185
ALL WEATHER HUT Filed Sept. 27, 1949 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 gwucm tom Patented Sept. 28, 1954 O'FF I CE ALL WEATHER HUT Edmund stanleyromykala, Mobile, AIa.
Application Septemben27, 1949,,Serial No..118,010-
This` i'nvention relates to improvements' in huts; tents, beach hous'es" and 'other' Similar' habi tations, generallyofitemporarynature; In. para ti'cula'r' it" concerns construction of: economical' shelters or quarters for military personnel at:
advance bases, especially in very coldpolar re"- gions..
The' Object of the present invention is'to' provideuaprefabricated structure of. a compact and economical. nature which may b'e. carried' along' with. the personnel inaircraft* or other 'means' of transportation, for immediate construction.. of. a' suitable shelter or hut at und'evelope'd; advan'ce'd bases..
' A further Object is to provide a self supporting structure, the inside of which is' freezfrom masts', and the outside free from guys' and other obst'ructions and adaptable for: extremely rapidand* simple assembly and' disassemblyunder' adverse conditions', using a pieces.
A further object' is to' make the above* structure in the form of a basic'frame with suitable alternate additional' elements' for use' indifierent climates.
A further* obj ect' is* to make' the. above. structure adaptable for the* application of available' raw* materials such as foliage', dirt', snow', etc'. to' improve insulation characteristi'cs;
Afurther Object' is to make the' above' structure adaptable for. the application ofapermanent covering, permitting construction ofcheap but durable shelters for beaches, farm. houses, and
other` Outlying places;
Other andmore specific objects* will appeal' in the' following detailed' description of' illustrative forms of construction basedfion* the present* invention, having reference to the accompanying drawings.
The hut is circular in plan and' domi'cal in section. short vertical columns' support a roof roughly elliptical in section. The'short tubular' columns and roof ribs together' with roof* rib' stressing* cables form a continuous rigid frame.
Further details are as follows:
Figure 1 is a plan view of roof frami'ng.
of Connecting Figure 2 is a typical sectional view showing.
Figure 4 is a part elevation View to an* enlarged scale showing typical" tubular' column and* rib' framng.
Figure 5 is' a part side elevatior view* of top* ribframing at the ventil'a-tor.
, taken on line T-T of Figure 4.
Figure 8 is a part plan view of the base chann'el'ring. at 'the point ofconnectionwith a column taken on line' 8-8 of' Figure 4.
. Figure 9."is a detail' oflan end'connector of one of the' ro'ofstressing cables.
Figure 1'0 is a section of' a. connector taken, on* line. lD-lll in Figures).
Figure" 11 is a typical section of: roof framing serving a's a prelminary shelter.
Figure 12'is an el'evation of the hut serving, as a preliminary. shelter.
Figure- 13" is apart plan. view of the base channel* ring* at' the point of its connection with a rib taken' on line l3-l3 of Fig. 11. showing fast'eningt of'th'e' rib to the channel ring.
Figure 14 isa' part sectional view ofa rib and,
the* channel rin'g: taken on' line M-l l of Fg. 13.
Figure 15 sa. part plan view of the base channel' ring' and' the hut covering taken on line [5 -45 ofFg; 12.
Figure: 1'6 is a part. sectional" view of the hut covering" and' the base channel' ring taken on line Hi -46 of' Fig'. 15.
Figure' 1'7 is a: part, elevational view of' the bottom of the* dome" coverin'g taken on line H-IT of Fi 1'6.
Figure 18' is' a* front elevation View of a com'- pl'eted hut for cold* climate. v
Figure' 19" is atypical sectional' view of the hut in* very c'old'weather covered with snow for additional' insulation.
. Figure 20 is' a partial side elevation showing outrigger framing and horizontal fastening of hut covering Sections.
Figure' 2`1 is an elevation of the canopyoutrigger which may-be' used where required, taken on line- 2|'--2l of Fig; 20. l
Figure 22' is* a typical sectional plan of a hut* constructed for permanent occupancy.
Figure 23 is a typical sectional elevation view of a permanent hut.
Inall' Views simil'ar numerals or' numerals and lett'ers refer* to Similar parts.
short' vertical columns la and the roof ribs' la, allof metal tubing, form a continuous rigid' frame; The spl'i'ce is made slightly below the eave line* on line X-X approximately* 4.5 feet off' the floor'for* a', 20* foot hut. The `columns are supported and frameinto' circular holes Sa, of. main bearing channel ring 6. The columns are braced by ring angles- 5, which run completely around except for a door Opening. Columns la and ribs lc are joined through tube connector lb, which is welded to the column below but is open above. Ribs lc are braced by ring angle 4 which runs completely around the hut. Both angles l` and 5 are spliced about every feet. A typical splice would consist of a short stub angle welded to one end of the ring angle, and would have two welded stud bolts at the connecting end. All that is necessary for making the connection is slipping the free end of the next ring angle over these bolts and tightening the bolt nuts. This is shown in a similar connection in Fig. 3. The ribs are additionally braced and also prestressed by cable ties 2. The ribs frame into circular eye ring angle sa, through studs 3b. The end of the rib bears against the face of the angle sa, as cables 2a are made taut. Each hut is equipped with a ventilator 3, having a slightly inclined circular peaked roof 36. Ventilator 3 frames into eye ring angle tu, and is fastened with bolts 30. A complete hut is equipped with wooden floor of plywood %a and llb resting on sleepers 9. The Iloor may be sectionalized and prefabricatecl,
Figure 3 is a part plan view of the base channel ring G. This channel ring is bolted down through plywood ring block 1, with bolts Be, and spliced about every 10 feet with stub splicing channel (if, welded on one side and bolted on the other through welded stud bolts Sy.
Tube columns la drop through keyhole slots fia, b, such slots permitting looking lug ld to slip by. The bottom of the column rests on clip bearing plate 60 shown more in detail in Fig. 14. The column is rotated about 60 to lock it in position. The same system of looking is used for angles 4 and 5, the keyed holes being shown as la and lb in Fig. '7. This obviates bolting and adds to speed in erection, particularly under adverse frigid conditions. Ribs lc are also practically assembled without bolts, since the lower end drops in sleeve socket lb and the upper end is held in position by stud bolts 3b. In assembling these ribs, ring angle 4 has to be loose and the splice nuts are not tightened until all the ribs are in position. Metallic wire cables 2 are then threaded through hexagonal holes le. These holes are lined with thin metal siding welded to the body of the metal tubular ribs. Cables 2 are terminated with metallic connectors za; of hexagonal section. These connectors are swedged on the cable. The extreme ends of the connectors have a threaded shank Zb to receive nut 20. After the cables are threaded, they are made taut by screwing the nuts 20 down shank Zb'. A tension in the cables of about 100 lbs. is required. This tightening of the cables has several effects which are very important. It pulls all the ribs to bear against the face of angle sa. It prestresses the ribs and induces a negative moment in the ribs. It braces the ribs against side buckling. Finally it causes the whole framing to act as a unit.
Figures 11 and 12 show the top part of the hut assembled on the ground serving as a temporary shelter in very cold weather before the main hut can be erected. The roof ribs frame into the base channel ring and are fastened by rotating key bolts Eid. The dome roof covering lll is fastened to base channel ring 5 by threading rope il through grommets lua and spirally winding it around the channel ring. Additional rope ties may be provided as required to fasten the covering ili to the rib framing. Dome covering Il) as well as side wall covering |2 below is composed of quilted canvas or other woven material and cotton felt about /3" thick. One layer of canvas is on each face. The cotton felt of covering |2 is in the interior serving as insulation. Both coverings o and IZ are joined by lacing rope H through respective grommets lila. In more temperate climates heavy qluilted coverings may be dispensed with particularly on the sides, where a single ply of plain canvas |2b Would be sufcient. This could be made in smaller sectional lengths with Vertical splices made by lacing rope through a double row of grommets. In tropical countries additional protection would be required from mosquitoes and so suitable netting lzc may be provided. This, in general, would be reinforced with canvas strips at intervals. Outriggers 13, in general, would only be provided for warmer climates. These outriggers would support canopy 14. Canopy M is attached to the dome covering by lacing rope through suitable grommets in two strips of canvas lub projecting from the main dome covering. In very frigid weather it may be desirable to provide additional insulation over the hut covering in the form of snow, leaves and twigs. This is shown in Fig. 19, where 15 is such local insulation and 16 is lintel boards carrying insulation at windows lZa. Windows |2a of Plexiglas are generally removable and they are secured in side covering [2. Heating may be provided by space heater IT. Flue pipe Ila eXtends through special ventilator roof 3 f. The framing described and illustrated also lends itself to permanent construction shown in Figures 22 and 23. Typical tubular column framing is covered by suitable metal furring lath and applying suitable stucco a on the outside, plaster za on the inside wi h rock wool or similar insulation is in between. In general the exterior stucco would be painted with elastic paints now on the market. Additional roofing materials may be provided as required. Such permanent hut would be provided with regular windows 2| and door 22. The whole structure would rest on a durable foundation of brick or Concrete 23.
This in general illustrates the main features and the wide adaptability of this hut. The main framing and covering is purposely made in two sections for several reasons.
1. Ease of erection.
2. simplicity of breakdown for transportation.
3. Adaptability to changing climates and seasons.
l. Adaptability for quick protection on establishing a new camp.
In severe cold and snow it may not be feasible to set up an entire hut at landing or on establishing a camp. It is proposed that only the top part be assembled on the ground. This can be done in about ten minutes. The members can crawl in for protection, and the construction of the main and more permanent structure can follow at greater leisure.
For more temperate climate it is desirable to give protection from sun and rain and so a canopy of single ply canvas is added. This is attached to the main roof covering either by snap fasteners or preferably by lacing rope, and is supported on outriggers. For tropical climates all covering is, in general, of single ply canvas with an additional separate layer of mosquito netting reinforced with canvas strips serving as side protection. For beach houses and Outlying farm dwellings permanent construction may be desirable. The hut shown and described is approximately 20 feet in diameter and is intended to house eight men.
Framing, in general, would be of aluminum for lightness. These huts can be made in much larger sizes. They are very strong, highly resistant to earthquakes and windstorms and because of their shape they admrably lend themselves to camoufiage.
The huts, as shown, can be easily transported by air with a minimum of weight and volume. Because of the large area covered in relation to the surfacing `material involved and the large amount of prefabrication, they are basically very economical.
Having described the main features and details, it is within the scope of any engineer, manufacturer or others skilled in the art, to develop other suitable details without departing from the spirit of the invention as defined by the scope of the appended claims.
1. A skeleton framework for a hut which comprises in combination an outer base ring provided with spaced vertical holes, an inner concentric ring, a plurality of radially-disposed elastic arched ribs forming a domed roof structure, converging at the top and secured in said inner ring; the depending lower ends of said ribs being adapted to fit in said vertical holes of said base ring to form a framework for a low temporary shelter, lacing cables attached to said ribs at points intermediate the base ring and the Central ring and forming concentric polygons, and means for stressing said cables in order to stress the ribs and to make the ribs and rings into a structura un't. V
2. A skeleton framework for a hut which comprises in combination an outer base ring provided with spaced vertical holes, an inner concentric ring, a plurality of radially-disposed elastic arched ribs forming a domed roof structure, converging at the top and secured in said inner ring, the depending lower ends of said ribs being adapted to fit in the vertical holes of said base ring to form the framework for a low temporary shelter, vertical stub columns also adapted to fit into the vertical holes of said base ring provided at their tops with sockets fitting the depending lower ends of said ribs, lacing cables attached to said ribs at points internedate the base ring and the Central ring and forming concentric polygons, and means for stressing said cables in order to stress the ribs and to make the elements of the hut into a structural unit; said vertical columns, when inserted in the holes of the base ring and surmounted by the roof framework, providing a framework for a more permanent shelter of greater height.
3. The framework of claim 1 in combination with a circular bracing angle embracing the depending ends of said ribs and means mounted on said ribs for supporting said bracing angle a spaced distance above the base ring.
4. The framework of claim 2 in combination with circular bracing angles embracing said stub columns and means mounted on said columns for supporting said angles at spaced distances above the base ring.
5. An all weather hut comprising in combination an outer base ring provided with spaced vertical holes, an inner concentric ring, a plurality of radially-disposed elastic arched ribs forming a domed roof structure, converging at the top and secu'ed in said inner ring, the depending lower ends of said ribs being adapted to fit in the vertical holes of said base ring, a domeshaped covering adapted to fit over said roof structure, means for securing said covering to the base ring; the said covering and roof structure forming a low temporary shelter; Vertical stubcolumns also adapted to fit into the vertical holes of said base ring provided at their tops with sockets fitting the depending lower ends of said ribs, lacing cables attached to said ribs at points intermediate the base ring and the Central ring and forming concentric polygons, means for stressing said cables in order to stress the ribs and to make the elements of the hut into a structural unit, a side wall covering extending around the stub columns, and means for securing the side wall covering to the dome-shaped covering and to the base ring; the combination of said coverings and said vertical columns surmounted by the roof structure forming a more permanent shelter of greater height.
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|U.S. Classification||135/137, 52/298, 135/906, 52/644, 52/81.2|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S135/906, E04B2001/3252, E04B2001/3241, E04B1/3211|