|Publication number||US2691291 A|
|Publication date||Oct 12, 1954|
|Filing date||Aug 2, 1949|
|Priority date||Aug 2, 1949|
|Publication number||US 2691291 A, US 2691291A, US-A-2691291, US2691291 A, US2691291A|
|Original Assignee||Albert Henderson|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (65), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1954 A. HENDERSON 2691291 BUILDING 0F PRECAST CONCRETE SEGMENTS Filed Aug. 2, 1949 3 Sheefs-Sheet 1 IN V EN TOR.
Oct. 12, 1954 A. HENDERSON 2,691,291
BUILDING OF PRECAST CONCRETE SEGMENTS IN VEN TOR.
Oct. 12, 1954 A. HENDERSON 2,691,291
BUILDING 0F PRECAST CONCRETE SEGMENTS Filed Aug. 2, 1949 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. H4 BERT HENDE RSOA/ Patented Oct. 12, 1954 BUILDING OF PRECAST CONCRETE SEGMENTS Albert Henderson, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Application August 2, 1949, Serial No. 108,131
This invention relates to the art of building houses, apartments and other structures wherein these structures comprise multiples of a common precast reinforced concrete segment which are cast substantially in a horizontal position, then later erected in a vertical position in abutting end to end relation. The segment is a one piece concrete casting having spaced walls supporting a roof and a floor and in some cases I use only one wall, the roof and floor projecting from the wall in cantilever fashion.
Another object of this invention is to avoid the use of segments that are too large or unwieldy. To this end I form the building with a plane of division along its longitudinal axis and use two similar shaped segments that abut at said plane, and thus provide a complete cross sectional unit of a building, the two segments being secured together at the longitudinal joints by welding together reinforcing rods that are embedded in each segment. All segments may have their reinforcing welded together at all the joints.
Another object of this invention is to provide multiples of a segment, each of which has short portions projecting from an inner wall to provide one half of a hallway floor, roof and duct, so that these segments when erected provide two rooms with a hallway therebetween.
Another object of this invention is to install concrete partitions, door frames, doors, windows, plaster or stucco work while the segment is in a horizontal position so that they act as bracing when the hardened segment is being hoisted to a vertical position.
Another object of this invention is to provide a precast concrete end enclosure or wall for the segments which can be made detachable by using bolts so that the building may be made longer without destroying materials.
Another object of this invention is to provide a precast concrete segment having a side wall, two end walls, partitions, a roof and a floor, all integrally cast in one piece and assemblying it with another similar segment in longitudinally abutting engagement and securing the two segments together at their longitudinal joints.
Another object of this invention is to provide similar segments for a house and using the same similar shaped segments for a porch for the house.
Another object of this invention is to provide a false gable roof portion to provide valleys where a series of assembled gable roof segments are connected with a series of transversely disposed similar shaped segments.
Another object of this invention is to provide a precast concrete chimney and fireplace made in one piece which can be attached to the side of a segment or to the precast concrete end wall or I may cast the chimney and fireplace integrally with the segment or with the end wall.
This invention will greatly reduce current high building costs and provides fireproof, bug and rodent-proof housing for the low income group which cannot afford the prices asked for houses built by present methods. This type of house eliminates many high priced building materials.
A complete understanding of the invention may be obtained from the following detailed description and explanation which refer to the accompanying drawings. In the drawings Fig. 1 is a perspective elevation of my precast concrete segment for small buildings.
Fig. 2 is a perspective elevation of my precast concrete end wall for my segment in Fig. 1.
Fig; 3 is an elevation of assembled segments and end walls.
Fig. 4 is a plan of assembled segments and end walls.
Fig. 5 is a perspective elevation of assembled segments with porch.
Fig. 6 is an elevation of my small segmental buildings side by side.
Fig. 7 is a perspective of two half segments.
Fig. 8 is a front elevation of two segments, one being disposed within the other.
Fig. 9 is a front elevation of a segment for a multi-story building.
Fig. 9a is a longitudinal sectional view through an assembly of segments as formed in Fig. 9, showing the segments in section on the line IXAIX-A of Fig. 9;
Fig. 9b is an enlarged View showing the manner in which the reinforcement members are welded together at the center lines of the segments.
Figs. 10 and 11 are a side elevation and plan of a longitudinal segment.
Figs. 12 and 13 are fragmentary front and side elevation of the end wall and chimney and fireplace.
Fig. 14 is a front elevation of two similar sloped segments.
Referring in detail to the drawings and, for the present to Fig 1, precast concrete building segment I is made in one piece and comprises spaced walls 2, floor 3, and roof 4, and gutters 5.
I put gable roofs on my small building segments so that the concrete in the roof is always in compression, thereby eliminating the necessity of 3 roofing material, as concrete in compression never cracks.
The reinforcing in flat roofs may be prestressed so that the roof concrete is always in compression thereby making unnecessary the application of roofing material such as shingles, tile, etc. A prestressed reinforced concrete roof never leaks. The roof and walls of my segments may be sprayed with colored elastic coating.
Segment may have duct 3a. cast integrally to it and have opening 32; in the floor communicating with duct 3a. The duct can convey a heating and airconditioning means and it may be used for piping or electric wires. Door frame 6 is made from structural steel and is embedded in the concrete wall. The frame is placed in the form, then the segment concrete is cast around it and the reinforcement. The frame is thus securely held and provides excellent bracing for the wall which has lost much of its cross section and strength due to the door opening. I may install the door l while the segment is in a horizontal position. Window 8 also has its frame placed in the mold before casting the segment. This braces the wall and compensates for the loss of cross section in the concrete wall so that when the segment is tilted up to a vertical position the walls will not crack. This is very important especially in multistory buildings.
The segment lengths are from i to 6 feet and the side walls must be very stiff. Holes 9 through the segment are for tie bolts to clamp the segments together. Insulation board Hi is placed in the form and the concrete is cast against it, thereby bonding the insulation board securely to the segment. The insulation board It may extend all around the inside of the segment and may form the inside walls or core of the mold for the segment. If a separate core is used in the mold then it could be quickly and easily extracted without having to collapse the core. The board ill would hold the green concrete in place while the core could be quickly removed to be used for making another segment.
Gasket H fragmentarily shown in Fig. 1 may be made of sponge rubber, asbestos or insulation board. It is applied to the segment before erection and it may be placed in the bottom of the mold and the concrete of the segment cast on it. This would prevent leakage in the mold and also bond the gasket II to the segment. The gasket extends all around the segment including below the gutters 5.
Fig. 2 shows the precast concrete end wall 12 for enclosing segment i. This end wall also closes on the gutters 5, duct 30!. and also the space below the floor. The width of the end wall is wide enough to extend from outside of gutter to outside gutter. Holes 13 are provided for bolts to secure the end wall to the segment.
Door opening id and window opening l may be provided where required. In some cases I may cast the end wall l2 directly to the segment after the segment is cast.
Figs. 3 and 4 show assembled standard segments 1 and l and end walls 12 in one building in connection with other assembled segments and end walls I2 disposed transversely to each other and having false roof portion It resting on some of the segments to provide a valley at the junction of the two sets of assembled segments. False roof It may be made from precast concrete in two pieces, each piece having a lip which fits into the gutters of the segments on which the false roof rests. The false roof is set in a mastic bed and will stop any leaking of water under the false roof I6.
Tie bolts ll tie the assembled segments and end walls together.
Fig. 5 shows a building made up of my segments I and end wall l2. Porch I8 is also made up of standard segments I. I may fashion a porch end wall trim and porch rail from end wall 12. I may apply the standard segments sideways against several of the end to end arrangement of the segments to form a side porch.
Fig. 6 shows two of my segmental buildings 19 and 20 in side by side relationship, end walls l2 being provided with door and windows. The end walls l2 abut side by side and cover the space between the two buildings under their gutters. I may provide openings in some cases in end wall l2 so that gutters could drain through the end wall.
Fig. 7 shows segment 2| made up of two halves 22 and 23 and are secured at their longitudinal center line by bolts 24 at lugs 25. W'indow open ing 25w has grooved upper and lower members 25b cast integrally to some of the segments where light is required.
Fig. 8 shows segment 26 made up of an outer segment 21 and inner segment 28. The segments have air space 29 and segment 28 rests on and is positioned by insulating cushions 30. This type of building would be shockproof.
Figs. 9 and 90. respectively show a multi-story building segment 31 and an assembly of such segments to form spaced rooms 32 with hallway 33 therebetween and ducts 34 disposed above the floors. The building 31 is made up of two oppositely disposed precast concrete segments, the segments being similar and having supporting walls 35 and floors 36, and inner walls 3?. A roof 38 is formed integrally with the walls 35 and 31, as are the floor 36 and. ducts 34 and their walls 39. Balconies 40 may be cast integrally with the segments. The reinforcing lla embedded in the concrete of the roof floors, walls and duct may be welded .at the joints of the segments such as at 4| as shown more clearly in Fig. 9b. Longitudinal partition 42 and cross partition 42a are made of concrete and may be installed while the segment is in a horizontal position. Door openings 43 may be provided in the partitions and walls 35 and 31 where required. Plaster coat 44 may be applied to the segment when it is also in a horizontal position as it will help to stiiien the segment. Outside coating 45 may be a veneer hardening elastic colored coating. Removable covers 46 are used on the ducts. Tie rods Mb in holes 9a hold the segments assembled, as do the rods H in Fig. 3.
Figs. 10 and 11 show a longitudinal precast concrete segment '47 having end walls t8, partition walls 49 and a side wall so, a floor 5|, and a roof 52 with a gutter 53, all of which are cast in one piece. Door opening 54 is provided where required. Windows 55 may be provided in wall '50. Two of the segments 4'! make up an entire building and are fastened together at the longitudinal vertical mid plane of the building.
'Figs. 12 and 13 shows an end Wall fragment 56 and chimney and. fireplace 5'! detachably secured to the end wall or to a segment. The chimney and fireplace may be cast integrally to the end wall or to the side of a segment, openings being provided in the end wall or segment wall to accommodate the fireplace.
Fig. 14 shows portion of a building 58 made up of two oppositely disposed segments 59 and having light well 60 windows 6| and skylight 62 disposed in the segments. Crane run way 63 is cast integrally to the segment; each segment has floor 64 supporting wall 66 and roof 65 and gutter 61. As the floor 64 may carry a heavy load and it may have too long a span it is shortened and a field cast floor 68 is placed between the two floors of the segments.
The reinforcing of the segment floors and the field cast floor may be welded together and form a tie across the total width of the floor, thereby securely anchoring the tWo segments. The reinforcing on the roofs 65 may be welded at the longitudinal joint 69. The segments 59 rest on field cast footings 10.
To facilitate welding of the reinforcement, pockets or recesses are left in the concrete at the joints to render the reinforcing rods accessible for welding. For example, when the abutting ends of reinforcement lla are welded in Fig. 9, these pockets at 4! are filled with grout or the like, as indicated by the dots.
The placing of insulating boards in the molds and bonding the boards to the spaced walls, ceiling and floor, not only makes the removal of the mold core easy and quicker than extraction under ordinary conditions but no collapsible core is necessary and the insulating boards can easily be trimmed at the joints where the segments meet, so that if the segments do not exactly fit the boards can be made level.
In some cases I may make the segments of reinforced gypsum and I may set forms in the mold and cast the gypsum against the insulating boards, thus eliminating hand trowelling of the interior plastering.
Although I have illustrated and described but a preferred embodiment of the invention with a few modifications, it will be understood that changes in the details of construction disclosed may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the appended claims.
1. A multi-story building that comprises pairs of oppositely-disposed concrete castings, each of which castings extends across one-half the width of the building, the pairs being alined with one another in directions longitudinally of the building, in abutting relation along transverse vertical planes and each casting having spaced integral vertical walls perpendicular to said planes, for the full height of the building, and floor members integral therewith, to form rooms, one vertical wall of each casting being disposed in a plane parallel to the longitudinal center line of the building and spaced laterally from said line, to serve as one wall of a hallway, and shelf-like extensions integral with the hallway walls and extending crosswise of the hallway space, to form a floor therefor.
2. A multi-story building that comprises pairs of oppositely-disposed concrete castings, each of which castings extends across one-half the width of the building, the pairs being alined with one another in directions longitudinally of the building, in abutting relation along transverse vertical planes and each casting having spaced integral vertical walls perpendicular to said planes, for the full height of the building, and floor members integral therewith, to form rooms, one vertical wall of each casting being disposed in a plane parallel to the longitudinal center line of the building and spaced laterally from said line, to serve as one wall of a hallway, shelf-like extensions integral with the hallway walls and extending crosswise of the hallway space, to form a floor therefor, and other shelf-like extensions below the first-named extensions, to serve as conduit walls. a
3. A building having spaced rooms with a hallway therebetween, comprising pairs of precast concrete castings, tie members holding the pairs sequentially arranged in abutting relation longitudinally of the building, the castings of each pair being assembled in relatively-opposed abutting relation, at opposite sides of the longitudinal center line of the building, tie members holding the members of each pair together, and inner and outer side walls formed with each casting, floor and roof members formed integrally with the side walls, portions of the floor members extending in cantilever fashion from the inner side walls toward the longitudinal mid plane of the building, to serve as hall floor members.
4. A building having spaced rooms with a hallway therebetween, comprising pairs of precast concrete castings, tie members holding the pairs sequentially arranged in abutting relation longitudinally of the building, the castings of each pair being assembled in relatively-opposed abutting relation, at opposite sides of the longitudinal center line of the building, tie members holding the members of each pair together, and inner and outer side walls formed with each castfloor and roof members formed integrally with the side walls, portions of the floor members extending in cantilever fashion from the inner side walls toward the longitudinal mid plane of the building, to serve as hall floor members, and the roof members extending to the longitudinal mid plane of the building for edgeto-edge engagement with one another.
5. A building having spaced rooms with a hallway therebetween, comprising pairs of precast concrete castings, tie members holding the pairs sequentially arranged in abutting relation longitudinally of the building, the castings of each pair being assembled in relatively-opposed abutting relation, at opposite sides of the longitudinal center line of the building, tie members holding the members of each pair together, and inner and outer side walls formed with each casting, floor and roof members formed integrally with the side walls, portions of the floor members extending in cantilever fashion from the inner side Walls toward the longitudinal mid plane of the building, to serve as hall floor members, and ledge-like projections extending inwardly from the inner walls, in vertically-spaced relation to the hall floor members, to thereby serve as conduit walls.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,392,402 Cottman Oct. 4, 1921 1,411,005 Dula Mar. 28, 1922 1,697,070 Knight Jan. 1, 1929 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 144,913 Great Britain of 1920 743,766 France of 1933 754,815 France of 1933 397,695 Great Britain of 1933 536,572 Great Britain of 1940 919,044 France of 1947 588,623 Great Britain of 1947
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|U.S. Classification||52/79.9, 52/206, 52/27, 126/500, 52/79.14, 52/11, 52/18, 52/220.2, 52/79.7|