US 2693096 A
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Nov. 2, 1954 J. H. QUINN YARN TREATING APPARATUS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 27, 1951 INVENTOR JAY H. Q Ul N N ATTORNEYS Nov. 2, 1954 J. H. QUINN YARN TREATING APPARATUS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 27, 1951 JAY H. QumN ATTORNEYS United States Patent fiti ce 2,693,096 Patented Nov. 2, 1954 YARN TREATING APPARATUS Jay H. Quinn, Reading, Pa. Application June 27, 1951, Serial No. 233,905 2 Claims. (Cl. 66-'125) This invention relates to the treatment of yarns such as nylon, silk, cotton and others in knitting operations. More particularly my invention relates to improved yarn lubricating and wetting apparatus and solutions therefor to condition yarns for passage from the cones through the intermediate parts to the needles of knitting machines in the production of improved quality of knitted 'oods.
g In the knitting of nylon stockings and the like single or mono-filament and multiple filament nylon yarns are in general used to form the various parts of the knitted article, such for example as the main body and the toes, heels and tops full fashioned nylon stockings.
The single or mono-filament yarn is unsized, and since it is abrasive and tends to rapidly wear and cut mach ne parts such as carrier tubes, eyelets, guide rods, and the like with which it contacts in passing to the needles it has been the practice to lubricate such mono-filaments strands by passing them from the cones over wick oilers of well known design prior to contact with knitting machine parts. Such oilers are handled and adjusted manually and are subject to accidental disarran'gement with resultant unavoidable variations in yarn tension. This results in undesirable differences in stocking lengths from head to head on the same machine, and lowers the quality of the goods produced.
The multiple filament yarns are twisted together and generally sized with a polyvinol alcohol to hold them together in their passage from the cones through the knitting machine. When used with wick oilers for the mono-filament yarns, such sized yarns are passed through separate large open topped troughs which in such operations contain a Water solution of wetting agents to soften the sizing and to provide necessary lubricity, and stitch lock for the knitting operation.
To avoid the variations in length due to the use of wick oilers for themono-filament yarn, some mills run both the mono and multiple filament yarns through the large open troughs, with some oil added to the solution to provide the necessary lubricity for the monofilament yarn. The added oil tends to prevent proper locking of the stitches normally provided by the wetterl sizing which results in sleazy second grade products, and in imperfections such as fisheyes or relatively enlarged holes in the fabric.
Such troughs for both of the foregoing typesof operation are provided for each section of the knitting machine and contain considerably more solution than .is necessary to treat the few strands of yarn passing through them. Dirt from the atmosphere deposits ,in them and contaminates the solution, and as the sizing is water soluble some of it accumulates in .the troughs in operation, further contaminating the solution which becomes gu'mi'ny and dirty with sludge formation due to evaporation. Also because of externalcontamination and oxidation, undesirable unsanitary mildew, bacterial growths, and fungus forms in the troughs. In addition, as the yarns pass through the open troughs, the solution tends to spray over the adjacent machine parts, resulting in undue corrosion and requiring more or less frequent cleaning and servicing of the machines, with lowered production, .lowered quality of goods, .and increased production costs.
Because of the foregoing disadvantages of the .prior ,yarn treating arrangements and methods, various yarns treating expedients have been proposed including passage of the yarns through individual tubes. as f r example shown in U. 8. Patent to Heuer No. 1,269,604 in which solution is fed into individual strand wetting tubes through a multiplicity of feed holes. The passage of the yarn through the tubes in such devices causes circulation of solution between the tubes and the container in which they are immersed with excessive treatment of the yarn, stripping of the sizing in the tubes and contamination of the solution. As a result, such devices have not been successful in replacing either the prior open troughs or wick oilers.
By my present invention 1 eliminate the foregoing disadvantages of the present yarn wetting and lubricating apparatus and procedures through the use of a combination of novel tubular wetting and lubricating arrangement with a novel solution which properly wets and lubricat'es sized multiple filament and unsized mono-filamen-t nylon yarns, providing the necessary wetting and lubricity for both types of yarns. Substantially uniform yarn tension is provided resulting in substantially equal lengths of knitted goods throughout the various machine sections 61' heads, with substantial elimination er sleazy goods due to unlocked stitches, and of fisheyes and the like in the finished products. I
It is accordingly a primary object of my invention to provide novel improved yarn treating apparatus which may be built initially into knitting machines, or incorporated as attachments in existing machines to replace the present constructions and techniques for treating yarn of all deniers and sizes prior to knitting. This I accomplish by means of a closed system for the treating solution which substantially prevents evaporation, maintains a substantially constant solution concentration, provides desirable wetting and lubricity, and precludes formation of sludges, fungus and the like, with resultant economy of use of solution.
A further object of my invention is to provide an enclosed self cleaning yarn treating system in which no residues are formed by evaporation, thus eliminating the need for the frequent cleaning of the apparatus as required with present yarn treating devices to remove accumulated dissolved size and sludges formed by evaporat-ion.
Another object of my invention is to eliminate the prior open troughs, and the prior trough solutions for wetting thread in knitting machines with their attendant, evaporation, subsequent sludge formations, external conca-urination and bacterial growth.
With the prior troughs it is necessary to pass each strand of yarn thru several eyelets which wear rapidly and rnust be frequently replaced increasing the costs of operation and maintenance and limiting the machine production". It is a further object of my invention to passage theyarn strands through individual U-tubes .in one operation.
A further object of my invention is the provision of novel apparatus for the controlled uniform treatment of yarn in which all of the solution is used for the treatment of yarn with no substantial loss by evaporation or spraymg over the machine parts. This I accomplish by utilizing' separate -U-tubes for the wetting and lubrication of each strand of yarn, with each U-tube constantly fed through a single opening from a solution supply tube mam'taining a flow in one direction only. The supply tube is continuously filled from an inverted vertical container of solution which maintains a constant solution level in the tubes, thus assuring proper uniform treatment for each strand of yarn.
:Still another object of my invention is to eliminate wicks and Wick oils for lubrication of yarns in knitting machines :with their attendant manual handling which makes uniform tension of the yarn from head to head of the prior knit-ting machines practically impossible. This I accomplish by providing treating apparatus in which the var-ioustypes of yarn are automatically pulled through a single solution with no outside manipulation necessary so that the tension is constant.
Excessive wett'ingo'f the sized yarn will loosen the size in the yarn with the result that itis stripped fromthe yarn by the physical friction of the knitting process. This removal of size by stripping is detrimental both to the machinein which the loosened size lodges, and to the per- 3 fection of the knitted stitch. A still further object of my invention, accordingly, is to provide a novel solution to wet and lubricate both sized and unsized yarn, the formula of which is adjusted to prevent excessive penetration of the wetting action into the sizing, and which contains a lubricant to minimize wear on the knitting machine parts as the yarn passes through. Since my single improved solution performs both lubrication and wetting, I eliminate the prior troughs and wick oilers with the prior separate trough solution and wick oils.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a novel combination of wetting apparatus with a novel solution for treating yarn which results in a firm stitch formation with resultant production of superior quality knit goods with control of fabric length, and regularity of the courses in the fabric.
Further objects of the invention will appear from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments thereof, and from the scope of the appended claims:
As shown in the drawings:
Figure l is a perspective view of a portion of a nylon hose knitting machine provided with a preferred embodiment of my improved wetting apparatus.
Figure 2 is a side elevation showing a plurality of my improved wetting devices illustrated in Figure 1 connected to the treating liquid supply.
igure 3 is a sectional view taken along line 33 of Figure 2.
Figures 4 and 5 are enlarged details of a portion of the device of Figures l3.
Figure 6 is a perspective view form of wetting device.
Figure 7 is an end view of the modified form of Figure 6 with a portion thereof in section.
Figure 8 is a perspective view of a portion of another modified form of my improved device.
Figure 9 is a transverse sectional view of the modified wetting device of Figure 8.
Referring to the drawings wherein like reference numbers indicate like parts, 10 (Figure 1) indicates the frame of a nylon hose knitting machine, only a portion of which has been shown. The knitting machine is provided with a conditioning box 12 which houses cones of multiple filament nylon yarn 14. The yarn strands are lead over tension rods 16 mounted in frames 17 supported from the main frame of the knitting machine 10 over the top of conditioning box 12. From tension rods 16, yarn 14 passes through guide members 18 into my improved treating device embodying the main liquid supply and support pipe 20 of brass or substantially U-shaped tubes 22. In this embodiment, pipe 20 forms a solution reservoir structure through which tubes 22 extend and by which they are supported. The mono-filament yarn from suspended cones 24 is fed directly into U-shaped tubes 22.
In Figure 2 of the drawings a plurality of my improved treating units are shown connected together by tubing 24. The same arrangement and numbers of U-tnbes is repeated for each section of the machine, assuring uniform style of knitting in each section. The treating liquid is fed by gravity from a liquid supply consisting of a bottle 28, inverted and having its open end positioned within a cup shaped container 30. Bottle 28 may be arranged as shown at the end of a series of treating units or between adjacent units as desired (not shown). A short section of tubing 32 is welded or otherwise secured to the lower outside portion of container 30. A section of flexible tubing 34 having one end fitted upon tube 32 and the other end fitted upon one end of the end treating unit as illustrated, allows the liquid in container 28 to continuously fill the treating units to the desired level in operation. This level is maintained by any constant level device of well known construction positioned within cup such as is used in feeding solution to the present troughs (not shown). Bottle 28 and cup 30 are supported upon a shelf 36 (Fig. 1) which is connected in any suitable manner upon the frame of knitting machine 10. Bottle 28 is secured further by an encircling band 38 which is also fastened to knitting machine 10.
Tubes 22 pass through and are secured in pipes 20 by welding (Figure 5) or in any other suitable manner. Each tube 22 has a metering opening 42 of predetermined size (Figs. 35) through which liquid from pipe 20 flows to fill tubes 22 to the desired level 44 above the opening as the fluid is withdrawn by the yarn strands feeding into of a portion of a modified other suitable material for the knitting mechanism. The outer ends of tubes 22 have replaceable stainless steel or porcelain eyelets 46 mounted therein which can be removed and replaced to facilitate threading of the yarn through the tubes. The openings through eyelets 46 are restricted in size to prevent loss of liquid by spraying as the yarn passes through the level of treating liquid in the tubes in the knitting operation.
The rounded edges of eyelets 46 present smooth long wearing replaceable surface over which the yarn may pass without injury to it or to the edges of tubes 22- The outer end of the outermost wetting pipe 20 is sealed closed as at 48.
In operation the yarn strands passing through tubes 22 are completely submerged in the constant level of solution in the lower section of tubes 22 which is maintained by flow of liquid into the tubes through openings 42 which are of a size to meter the solution and maintain the level of the solution in the tubesconstant as the yarn passes through the tubes to the knitting area in operation of the machine without return of the fluid with the main body of fluid in pipe 20. The level of the liquid within tubes 22 is suflicient to wet the yarn to the desired extent and to properly soften the sizing on the multiple-filament strands. Since the flow of fluid through openings 42 is into tubes 22 only, comparatively no contamination of the main body of solution in pipe 20 occurs, and since the system is substantially closed substantially no evaporation occurs in operation of the device. Furthermore the solution flow into the tubes is metered so as to provide proper treatment without the drawing or spraying of solution from the tube ends over the adjacent machine parts, and the internal diameter of tubes 22 is such that the movement of yarn through the tubes keeps the tubes clean.
While my improved apparatus has been disclosed in separate connected units of a length to service each machine head, if desired it may be built into a single unit for a complete machine by extending pipe 20 throughout the length of the machine. Also for large machines the container 28 may be centrally disposed between tube units.
The solution in the feeder bottle 28, being supplied to both sized and unsized nylon yarns through pipe 20 and U tubes 22 is compounded to provide adequate lubrication of the mono-filament yarn and wetting of the sized multi-filament yarn, with proper rust inhibiting protection. A typical composition which I have successfully used in combination in my improved treating apparatus, with the production of improved firmly locked stitches in the production of nylon hose, consists of 1% water soluble lubricant of the Ucons of the SO-HB series such as 50HB-260 or 5OHB600; 0.25% size wetting agent such as Sterox; and .04% rust inhibitor of the amine or sulphur compound type, and the remainder water. Ucons are polyalkylene glycols formed by reacting ethylene oxide with glycols to produce different chain lengths depending on the amount of ethylene oxide allowed to react. The numbers of the ucons represent different viscosities obtained from the different chain lengths of the compounds. Sterox is a polyoxyethylene ester formed by reacting ethylene oxide with a fatty acid ester. The composition of the solution will vary somewhat depending upon the constituents of the local water available, but may be readily adjusted in a manner that will be apparent to those skilled in the art to meet local water conditions.
In test operation of my invention in the manufacture of ladiesnylon hose, variations from head to head of a machine are not more than A" either way from average stocking length, the fabric on all hosiery examined was clear of fish eyes sleaziness, the stitch formation was above normal, and elasticity was below average due to firmer stitch formation. The spray present before my invention was applied and the resultant corrosion and gumming of parts was eliminated, and the need for frequent cleaning shut downs of the machine was eliminated.
To replace the strategic material, such as brass and stainless steel, used in form of Figures l5, the modifications shown in Figures 6 through 9 inclusive have been developed utilizing pipes 20 of laminated plastic tubing or of a molded or extruded plastic material and tubes 22 of glass.
The modification if Figures 6 and 7 disclose a treating device in which plastic pipe 20 and the glass tubes 22 are secured together by rubber grommets 50 substantially the shape of a keyhole in cross section. Grommet 50 has a longitudinal opening 52 through which pipe 20 is forced and held in liquid tight relation by the grip of the rubber. A transverse opening 54 is provided in the lower portion of grommet 50 to support tube 22 Opening 42 in this form of the invention is located in the upper surface of glass tube 22 and is positioned in alignment with openings 56 of pipe 20 and 58 of grommet 50 to allow proper flow of the treating liquid into tubes 22.
The modified form of wetting device shown in Figures 8 and 9 employ a grommet 60 which has aligned tubular sleeves 62 integral therewith. The inner ends 64 of sleeves 62 fit into openings 66 of pipe 20 and tubes 22 are positioned within sleeves 62 forming a liquid tight connection and permitting free flow of the wetting solution from pipes 20 through opening 42 and into tubes 22.
The invention may be embodied in other specific forms Without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which come Within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.
What is claimed and desired to be secured by United States Letters Patent is:
1. In combination with a knitting machine having a knitting mechanism and a plurality of yarn supply devices therefor, apparatus interposed between said supply devices and said knitting mechanism for simultaneously wetting 0 and softening sized multiple filament yarn comprising a solution reservoir structure; a plurality of spaced curved wear resistant yarn treatment tubes extending through and supported by said structure, each of said tubes being of a size to receive and guide a single strand of yarn from one of said yarn supply dex ices to said knitting mechanism; each of said tubes being provided with a single metering opening of such size as to permit passage of a predetermined amount of treatment solution from said solution reservoir structure into each of said tubes without permitting substantial circulation of the solution between said solution reservoir structure and said tubes, and means for supplying solution to said structure whereby solution may pass through said structure and the openings of said tubes into said tubes.
2. In combination with a knitting machine, for simultaneously wetting and softening sized yarn comprising a solution supply structure; a plurality of curved yarn treatment tubes each of a size to receive and guide a single strand of yarn through a predetermined quantity of treatment solution; means for securing said tubes to said structure in spaced relationship; means forming a metering passage permitting fluid communication between each of said tubes and said supply structure for directing the passage of treatment solution from said structure into each of said tubes without permitting sub stantial circulation of solution between said tubes and said supply structures.
apparatus References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,269,604 Heuer June 18, 1918 1,776,529 Weinerth Sept. 23, 1930 2,539,953 Hoifecker Jan. 30, 1951