US 2693195 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 2, 1954 l. P. FRIEDER ErAL 2,593,195
PORTABLE SHELTER Filed July 3., 1952 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTORS oMqRD F /EDER FILTER S. /NKEN Y f/rToP/VEY L. P. FRlEDl-:R :TAL 2,693,195
PORTABLE SHELTER Nov. 2, 1954 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed July 3, 1952 NVENTORS LEONA/2D F femmv WALTER .A mKE/v ATTORNEY NOV- 2, 1954 1 P. FRIEDER Erm. 2,693,195
PORTABLE SHELTER v Filed July 3, 1952 sheets-sheet s INVENToRs LEONARD A? FQ/EDER. WALTER s. F/NKEA/ HTTORNY United States Patent" PORTABLE SHELTER',
LeonardP: Frieder, Great Neck, andfWalter S. Finken, Brooklyn, kN. Y.; said Finken assigner to said Frieder,
Application July, 1952, SerialNoa29f75006 9 claims.. (ci. 13s-3),
Ourfinventionrelates.-to a portableshelter, and more/1 particularlywtoa portable shelter of irnprovedconstruction capable-.of beingl erected of'comparatively, great= shelteL-especially-if the tent is to .bea large-one. Then,I too;. the structural members of the tents of the prior art arezpawkward'to handle-and. require comparatively large means .forytransporting the same. l
Aigreatgmany types of portable'sh'elters are commg into demand for military purposesinview of operations` in ,cOldclimttteszv Shelters are required not onlyfforthousingand messing personnelbut also for the storage of equipmentV and.particularlyy for large aircraft. For this Purpose ity is,irxlplative.L thatthe shelter have. an unob-v structed oorgarea..
In Oury-Patent No.v 2,511,974, issuedlune 20, 1950, wehayedisclosedahangar tent adapted to housecomparatively ,small aircraft.,
One-object. of ,our invention isrto provide aportable shelter adapted tobe disassembled into acomparatively small space andwhichmay be rapidly and expeditiouslyy erected to .provide-arhangar for a large aircraft.v
Another object of our invention 1s to provide a.port. able shelter employing multipleroof trusses y.supported by.. catenaries,
Afurther object of ourvinvention is to provide a portable shelter having catenary supported roof trusses in which, the catenaries are provided Withcompression members to-.resist mward thrustupon the tentpoles.
Sillfanother object of our invention isto providea..
ter whereby.bending moments-A due to: the weight of the curtains are;4 minimized.,
Other ,and further objects of ourinvention will appear from .thefollowing description.
In the. accompanying drawings which, form part of fthe.- instant. specification, and 1n which lllejefereiicev nu. meralsare used-to indicate like` parts in ,the various.
Figui-el is aperspectivefviewz of a portableshelterwith .part of, the canvascovering broken away showingonef embodiment of our-V invention.
Figure, 2 is a fragmentary sectional view taken; onthe,
Enel-.12, of Figure 1 showingan intermediate roof tr us s,. Figure 3 is a fragmentary sectional view takenon-,the linefS-,f of..Figure 'l showing an end roof, truss.
Figure,4is a yfragmentary sectional viewv drawn ,on ,an1
enlargedjjscale taken along thev line 4-.4 of Figure l.
Figure 5 is a sectionalviewfdrawnfonan enlarged scaleA taken, alongthe, line 5 5 of` Figure,- 4.
Figurefisa fragmentary sectional view drawn/ion,
an enlarged scale. showing themethodof, mounting theend roof trussesontheshelter poles and, the; manner, of-mounting the ,side curtain-supporting,cable.
`Eigtire? is asfragmentary.perspective vieW;d rawn o11= an ,enlarged scale, showing the -catenarycompressionmem:
bers and?, the, mode ot, mounting the intermediate-' truss membersnrithe .catenaries..
Portablenshelters :ofv the-prior art generally comprise tents:u Thesetents maybe of various` sizesbut always, requireg-:tent'poles ata plurality of intervalswithm they Referring., new tqfthe;e drawings, our portable.: shelter f rf' 2,693,195 1C@ gfnged, Ney. a, 1954 consistsofi a framework-Which' mayfbe'disassembled"andi readily transported from placetoplace.- The framework is adapted when erectedtobe coveredbycanvas orany; other appropriate covering to form the desired shelter..
The framework is supportedfby four corner tent poles indicated generally by the referencenumeral 101 Each of -the poles comprises-three'verticalimembers 12; 14 and 16 secured in triangular position by ai base plate 18,' any upper plate- 20 andan intermediate, plate 2.2. The ver,- tical members may be formed of,tubes of steel or aluminum. The bonding-of the-vertical tubes by the plates provides a triangularl column which islight in weightv but is able to resistbending moments. The` member 16 extends above the members12and 14, and the front'` catenary, indicated generally by the reference numeral` 24, is-secured betweenthe two members 16A oftlie left front and right frontcorner-columns. Similarly, the rearcatenary member,- indicated" generally, by theref-l erence numeral 26, ,is secured betweenthe members i( the left rear and right rear corner columns. To, the members 16 We` secure the guy'ropes 28 and 30, there being AoneI pair for eachcorner column. The guy. ropes 28 are in the same plane as the catenarymemberzlat the rear and the catenarymember 2,4uattl-1efront.v The. guy ropes 30 lie in a plane generally normal `to theplane, in which the guy ropes 2S lie. Theendsofthe guy ropes are secured tothe ground by suitable stakes 32.` The guy ropes may be provided with appropriate turn buckles 3 4', adaptedto adjust the tension upon individual.` guy ropes..
Across the front ofthe tent the catenary which is indicatedgenerally by the referencenumeral 2l4'is shown in greater detail in Figure-7, to which reference is-now had. It comprises a wire cable 3,4which` is anchored in any apt manner-to thememb'ers 160i, the yfrontcorner columns. The wire 34 carriesa shoe 36 '.lwhichv forms the endof a demountable crescent truss sueltas Ashown in our copending application SerialNo. 213,246, tiled February 28, 195,1, The truss-comprises a pluralityof rigid tubular.
members 38 adapted, to interit to, form anY elongatedI curved rigid tmssmember indicated lgenerallyin lFigure 1 by the reference numeral 40. A pairof flexible members 42` andl 44 extend from end to end of theV rigid truss member. The flexible members areheld, in spaced-position by a plurality of, spreader members. 46; The spreaderfmembers are secured tothe rigid tru-ss member 4u bv tie members 48 which ,tie-'the spreader members-46.
to the curved rigid'trussmemher.- The trussv member; of course, Ais formed in sections so that-it can be readily demounted.
Referring again to Fi`guref7; thevv catenary-wire 3'4`1extends through a plurality of tubesStli As canv b'e seen` by reference to Figure 1, the right-hand tube Sti-extends between the right-handv corner column member 16 and the shoe 36-of the vright-hand:intermediate truss. The in termediate member50 extends betweenA the shoe 36- of the right-hand intermediate truss ,andl the, shoe 36 ofthe left-hand intermediate truss. SOeXtends lbetween the left-handmember 16 of the front corner column and the-leftfront'truss shoe 36; In a' similar manner, the rear catenary member-36jis formed of a-catenary wire which carries the lshoe of the rearends of the intermediate trusses and the tubular compression members 50 similarlypositionedin the, rear-as,- in the front. The intermediate crescent trusses-are thus supportedlby apair of'catenaryflexible members which conveniently may bewirecables. it is to `be understood;- of..course, thatfthey may be made ofmylon--or-'any other exible, material suciently'strong to carry the load. The useV of -the compressionmembers Sduaround the catenarycables'transfcrs a` portion'of 'the-load to the conipression :membersand thus :.relievesthe corner columnsof part of/the'bendingrmornent occasioned by the thrustupon'the'catenary; It-will'be readily: appreciated that buttorfthe compression members the load transmittedto the catenary cables by the trusses .wouldztend to draw the'upper portions of the corner columns towardeach other. hisload, of course, would havetobe taken by.
the guys 28; lIn order to lessen the load upon the guys A third' tubular member It willbeobserved 'by reference-tm tubular members 50. It is of advantage to reduce the load upon the stakes. lt is not known in advance the character of terrain in which our portable shelter is to be erected. A stake must be designed for average conditions and should have a sufcient factor of safety. In some terrains the holding power of the soil may be low. Then, too, rain may frequently reduce the holding power of the surrounding soil. For wind and snow loads sudden stresses may be encountered and if the entire load were taken by the stakes, failures are apt to be encountered. Our use of compression members in conjunction with the catenary prevent excessive loads from being placed suddenly upon the tent column or pole guy rope stakes. The positioning means 52 may advantageously take the form of disks 52 tted in the tubular compression members 50. The disks are provided with openings for the passage of the catenary cable 34. lt is the purpose of disks 52, which position cable 34 within tube 5% at intervals, to reduce the slenderness ratio from thatof the predetermined column length between the abutting ends of each tube to shorten the length intermediately unsupported. The degree of support given by each disk 52 increases in proportion to the tension exerted or applied to the catenary wire 34. It is clear that as increased tension is applied to catenary wire 34, its rigidity increases in the arrangement described. This rigidity, in consideration of the tensile strength of cable 34, permits of a light wall tubular compression member that would normally be too weak to support the degree of compression to which the total length of tubes Sit are subiected.
The end or side crescent arch trusses, indicated generally by the reference numeral 54, are of a ditferent construction in that only one ilexible member 56 is used instead of two. The spreader members are. not employed. The rigid arcuate member 58 is sectional and when assembled spans the shelter from front to back, as can readily be seen by reference to Figure l. The exible member 56 is tied to the rigid member 58 by means of tie members 60. The lateral or end arches are made in this manner in order that a flush surface may be presented for the end curtain 62. A plurality of purlins 64 extend between trusses, as can readily be seen by reference to Figures l and 4. Any appropriate means for securing the purlins to the trusses can be employed. As can be seen by reference to Figure 4, the rigid member of the intermediate truss carries a transverse member 66 and the rigid member 58 of the end truss S4 carries a member 68. The purlin 64 is secured between members 66 and 68 by means of bolts 70 and 72.. The purlins may be made of aluminum or plastic and may advantageously have a T-shaped cross section, as shown in Figure 5, with a tapering web '74.
In its broadest aspect our framework comprises four corner columns between which extend catenary cables. These catenary cables carry intermediate crescent arches spaced from each other by appropriate distances. The columns themselves carry the end crescent arches. These crescent arches may be considered as costal members or costal trusses. The purlins 54 extend at right angles to the costal members and are intercostal members. The roof is therefore formed by a plurality of costal trusses the end trusses of which are supported by the columns and the intermediate trusses of which are supported by catenary cables carried by the corner columns. These trusses are tied together intermediate their ends by a plurality of intercostal members.
It will be observed that the intermediate trusses are supported by catenary cables while the end trusses 54 are supported from the members l2 of the corner columns. Since the support of the intermediate trusses through the catenaries is exible, we provide a floating means for supporting the end trusses. This can readily be seen by reference to Figure 6. The tubular rigid member 5S of the end truss is supported by a shoe 76 which rests upon the top of the tubular member 12 of the corner column, there being one shoe for each end. The top of the tubular member carries a threaded plug 78 provided with a slot 80. The top member 82 of the column is likewise formed with a slot 84. Through these slots we position a bolt 86 which slidably secures the end of the shoe 76 to the top of the column. It will be observed that the column is free to move inwardly with respect to the truss shoe a limited distance. The shoe carries a depending portion 8S which in turn carries a pivot pin 90 around which is pivoted a lever 92 intermediate its ends.
The bottom portion of the lever 92 is formed ,with a projection 94 which abuts Vthe post l2. To the upper arm 96 of the lever we attach the curtain wire 93. It will be readily understood that the weight of the curtain upon the curtain wire will tend to rotate the lever 92 in a clockwise direction, thus thrusting the upper portion of the column outwardly. It' the curtain wire were supported directly from the post 12 the weight of the curtain would tend to pull the top of the post 12 inwardly. The weight of the curtain is, of course, carried by the shoe 76 through the depending portion 88. It will also be observed that as the truss 54 deects under a load the ends of the truss are free to move outwardly. This outward movement would tend to tauten the curtain wire 98 and in turn to rotate the lever 92. The applied force of the curtain rod is caused to react upon the pole l2 in an equal and opposite direction and the shoes 76 are free to move as the end truss deflects under the load. The front and back curtains of the tent are carried by transverse curtain wires itil), as can readily be seen by reference to Figure 1. In order to transmit torsional stresses upon the roof to the corner columns we provide diagonal tension wires 02, lil-4, N6 and 10S. Wire 102 extends from the center of intermediate truss 40 to the front right corner column. Wire 104 extends diagonally from the center of intermediate truss 49 to the right-hand rear corner column. In a symmetrical manner wires 106 and w8 extend from their respective corner columns to the center of the left-hand intermediate truss.
The structure shown in Figure l is fifty feet deep, twenty-one feet high and sixty feet wide. It will be seen that we have provided an unobstructed oor area of three thousand square feet. Our shelter could remain portable even though it were constructed of a depth of one hundred fifty feet, that is, if the length of the trusses were one hundred fifty feet. We have found that in our construction a ti ass in excess of this length cannot practicably be made and remain readily portable.
.In use, let us assume that the crescent trusses have been disassembled and that all parts are in conveniently portable packages. The dimensions of the shelter are known. A site is chosen and the four corner columns erected. The guy ropes are then placed in position and secured to stakes which have been driven into the ground at the appropriate positions determined by the position of the corner columns. The front and rear catenary cables are then strung and the lateral or end trusses are then placed in position. The intermediate arches are then placed in position, it being understood, of course, that the shoes for these arches are already in position on the front and rear catenary Wires. The center intercostal members or purlins may then be placed in position and the diagonal cables 102, 104, 166 and M38 placed in position. The remaining purlins, or intercostal members, are then secured between the trusses. The side curtain wires may advantageously be placed in position at this time, thus completing the erection of the framework. Preferably the curtain wires are mounted on all four poles and the guy lines are adjustably secured to the poles prior to mounting the crescent trusses. The roof-covering 1MB is then positioned over the roof. This covering may advantageously be provided with tying tapes (not shown) secured to the roof-covering for tying around the purlins at predetermined positions. The side curtains are then draped over the side curtain wires and the rear curtain placed in position over the rear curtain wire. The front curtain may be equipped with means for rolling it (not shown) as is well understood in the art. It is further to be understood that any of the side curtains may be provided with entry ilaps to admit personnel. It will be seen that our shelter is quite strong and adapted to resist wind and snow loads. All of the members are adapted to flex under applied stresses. An elongation of the intermediate trusses due to snow loads, for example, is readily accommodated for by the exible suspension of these members by the catenary cables. The oating positioning of the end shoes of the outboard trusses permits a flexing of these members. The compression members 50 limit the moments applied to the top of the corner columns by the catenaries. The entire structure, therefore, is iiexible, though sufficiently rigid to retain its shape and perform its functon. The flexibility of the structure prevents failures even though our shelter may be subjected to sudden large forces due to high or gusty winds. Since the areas involved are great it will be readily appreciated that the wind load is large. In addition, the load upon the roof under heavy snow would be great. A heavy roof load would also be imposed by ice which forms on the roof during certain conditions such as freezing rain followed by low temperatures.
It Will be seen that we have accomplished the objects of our invention. We have provided a portable shelter adapted to be disassembled into a comparatively small space for rapid and expeditious erection to provide a hangar for a large aircraft. We have provided a portable shelter employing multiple roof trusses the intermediate ones of which are supported by catenaries. We have provided catenaries for supporting roof trusses equipped with compression members for resisting inward thrust upon the tent poles. We have provided a shelter having improved tent poles adapted to resist bending moments. Our shelter has end trusses provided with iloating mounting means for suspending the side curtains.
It will be understood that certain features and subcombinations are of utility and may be employed Without reference to other features andv subcombinations. This f is contemplated by and is within the scope of our claims.
It is further obvious that various changes may be made in details within the scope of our claims without departing from the spirit of our invention. It is therefore to be understood that our invention is not to be limited to the specific details shown and described.
Having thus described our invention, what we claim is:
1. In a shelter a pair of front columns, a pair of rear columns, a catenary cable carried by and extending across the front columns, a catenary cable carried by and extending across the rear columns, an intermediate roof truss supported by the catenary cables, a pair of outboard roof trusses supported by and extending between the respective front and rear columns and a covering carried by the roof trusses.
2. In a shelter a pair of front columns, a pair of rear columns, a catenary cable carried by and extending across the front columns, a catenary cable carried by and extending across the rear columns, a readily demountable intermediate roof truss supported by the catenary cables, a pair of readily demountable outboard roof trusses supported by and extending between the respective front and rear columns and a covering carried by the roof trusses.
3. In a shelter a pair of front columns, a pair of rear columns, a catenary cable carried by and extending across the front columns, a catenary cable carried by and extending across the rear columns, a pair of readily demountable intermediate roof trusses supported by the catenary cables, a pair of readily demountable outboard roof trusses supported by and extending between the respective front and rear columns and a covering carried by the roof trusses.
4. In a shelter a pair of front columns, a pair of rear columns, a catenary cable carried by and extending across the front columns, a catenary cable carried by and extending across the rear columns, a pair of readily demountable intermediate roof trusses supported by the catenary cables, a pair of readily demountable outboard roof trusses supported by and extending between the respective front and rear columns, a tension member extending substantially from the center of one of the intermediate roof trusses to one of the front columns, a tension member extending from said intermediate point to the corresponding rear column, a tension member extending from substantially the center of the other of the intermediate roof trusses to the other front column, a tension member extending from said last named point to the corresponding other rear column and a covering carried by the roof trusses.
5. In a shelter a pair of front columns, a pair of rear columns, a catenary cable carried by and extending across the front columns, a catenary cable carried by and extending across the rear columns, a truss shoe carried by the front catenary cable, a truss shoe carried by the rear catenary cable, an intermediate roof truss supported by the shoes, tubular compression members mounted upon the catenary cables and extending from the intermediate truss shoes to the columns, the construction being such that the tendency of the columns to deilect inwardly under the weight upon the roof truss will be resisted by the compression members.
6. A shelter as in claim 5 in which said tubular compression members are itted with positioning means car` ried therewithin, said positioning means being formed with openings, said catenary cable passing through said openings, the construction being such that said positioning means will maintain the catenary cable substantially coaxial with the tubular compression members.
7. In a shelter a pair of front columns, a pair of rear columns, a catenary cable carried by and extending across the front columns, a catenary cable carried by and extending across the rear columns, an intermediate roof truss carried by the catenary cables, each of said columns comprising three vertical members positioned at the apices of a triangle and means for maintaining the vertical members in said triangular relationship.
8. In a shelter a pair of columns, a pair of shoes, means for floatingly securing said shoes to the tops of said columns for movement transverse to the column axes, a truss supported by said shoes and a pair of levers, means for pivoting the levers to respective shoes intermediate their ends, each of said levers being provided with a lug contacting the respective tent columns and projecting from the lower portions of the levers and a curtain supporting wire having its ends secured to the levers at their respective opposite ends.
9. In a shelter a roof comprising a plurality of costal trusses, a plurality of intercostal members extending between trusses, a pair of front columns, `a pair of rear columns, catenary cables extending across the front columns, catenary cables extending across the rear columns, means for mounting the roof with its intermediate trusses supported by the catenary cables and With its outboard trusses mounted upon said columns and a covering carried by the roof.
References Cited in the 'lile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,481,019 Luebbert Jan. 15, 1924 1,733,004 Bower Oct. 22, 1929 1,781,517 McKeown Nov. 11, 1930 2,958,296 Crow May 8, 1934 2,411,651 Darby Nov. 26, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 465,876 Great Britain May 18, 1937