US 2693805 A
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1954 G. v. TAPLIN ETAL APPARATUS FOR ADMINISTERING THERAPEUTIC AGENTS Original Filed March 8, 194'? IN VEN TOR. GEORGE V. TAPLIN FREDERICK BRYAN ATTORNEY United States Patent ()fitice Patented Nov. 9, 1954.
APPARATUS FOR ADMINISTERING THERAPEUTIC AGENTS George V. Tapiin and Frederick A. Bryan, Los Angeles, Calif.
Original application March 8, 1947, Serial No. 733,280. Divided and this application November 26, 1949, Serial No. 129,624
8 Claims. (Cl. 128-266) The present invention relates to apparatus for administering therapeutic agents and more particularly to apparatus for administering therapeutic agents in micropulverized powdered form. The present application is a division of our pending U. S. patent application Serial No. 733,280, filed March 8, 1947, now Patent No. 2,533,065, issued December 5, 1950.
In our prior application, we have described how absorbable therapeutic agents such as, penicillin, streptomycin, etc. may be administered by inhalation of these agents in micropulverized powdered form. This method of administration has many advantages over prior conventional method of administering these therapeutic agents by injection or by nebulizing solutions of these agents.
One object of the present invention is to provide simple, inexpensive apparatus for administering therapeutic agents in powdered form which can readily be operated by the patient himself without efiort.
Another object of the invention is to provide apparatus for administering therapeutic agents which will be light in weight and of a size than can be readily carried around in the pocket of the patient.
A further object of the invention is to provide an insufflator for administering a measured amount of a powdered therapeutic.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an insufiiator for administering a powdered therapeutic which will insure easy and proper operation at all times.
Other objects of the invention will be apparent hereinafter from the specification and from the recital of the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Fig. l is a sectional view of a piece of apparatus built according to one embodiment of this invention for administering a therapeutic agent in powdered form, and having an air bulb for producing the air stream that picks up the therapeutic powder;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the apparatus shown in Fig. l but illustrating how, by removal of the air bulb, the apparatus may be employed for inhaling the therapeutic substance through the mouth;
Fig. 3 is a sectional view showing how the apparatus of Figs. 1 and 2 may be adapted for use with a face mask;
Fig. 4 is a sectional view of an air-bulb operated piece of apparatus built according to another embodiment of the invention; and
Fig. 5 is a sectional view of a further modification of the invention showing a disposable combined container and inhaler.
Fig. 1 shows a very simple form of apparatus constructed according to this invention for administering a powdered therapeutic agent. Here, denotes a container that may be made of glass or of a suitable plastic. The open end of this container is closed by a rubber stopper 11. This stopper has two holes in it. Through one of these holes there passes a tube 12, which extends downwardly a considerable distance into the container. This tube is formed exteriorly of the container with an enlarged portion forming a chamber 14, and beyond this chamber the tube terminates in a reduced end portion 15. The tubular end 16 of a suitable rubber air pressure bulb 17 may be connected to the end of the tube as shown in Fig. 1. Through the other hole in the stopper 11, there passes a tube 20, which has its end turned at an angle below the stopper 11, as denoted at 21. Exteriorly of the container, this tube 20 is formed with an enlarged portion 22; and it terminates in a reduced end portion 23. The enlarged portion 22 of the tube 20 has an opening 24 formed in one side thereof, to provide an air vent. The tubes 12 and 20 may be made of glass, or of plastic, or of a suitable metal, such as copper.
The insufliator described may be used for administering any powdered therapeutic agent, for instance, finely powdered penicillin. The powdered agent, which is to be administered, is placed in the container 10. It is here denoted at P. A suitable dehydrating substance, such as anhydrous calcium sulfate, denoted at D, is placed in the chamber 14 of tube 12. This preferably is employed in the commercial form in which it is mixed with a litmus agent so that it will turn from blue to pink, when it has picked up all the moisture which it can hold.
in use, if a person wants to administer the penicillin, or other therapeutic agent to a patient, or if the patient wishes to administer it to himself, the end 23 of tube 20 may be placed in one nostril of the patient, and the bulb 17 is alternately squeezed and released. Thus, a stream of air, is forced through the dehydrating substance D, down through the tube 12 into the container 10. The pressure of this air, forces the powder D in the container up through the tube 20 and out through the end 23 of this tube in a form like smoke; and the patient inhales this therapeutic smoke.
A baflle 25 is secured in any suitable manner to the tube 12 some distance above the lower end thereof, so as to prevent the powder P from being expelled from the container in lumps or gobs. These might irritate the throat, and would be wasteful of the medicine. The bathe is circular and there is but a slight difference between the diameter of the battle and the internal diameter of the container, so that the only way in which the particles of powdered penicillin can reach the tube 20 is around the periphery of the baffle.
The vent 24 in the tube 20 admits of an additional current of air being drawn into the tube 20 as the stream of powder and air passes through that tube. This additional air stream serves to keep the powder stirred up and agitated and further insures that it will pass out of the end 23 of the tube 20 in the desired form of smoke. If the vent were not provided, too much powder might be expelled from the end 23 of the tube at one time; and this would be wasteful.
The same piece of apparatus shown in Fig. 1 can be used without change for inhaling the penicillin, or other therapeutic agent, through the mouth. Thus, after removing the tube 16 and air pressure bulb 17, the patient, part of whose head is denoted at H in Fig. 2, can place the end 23 of the tube 20 in his mouth M and suck air through the end 15 of the tube 12, through the dehydrating substance D, into the container 10, and thence draw the powder suspended in air through the tube 20 into his mouth. In this case, an additional current of air is usually not required, and the patient can close the vent 24 with his thumb.
The same piece of apparatus can be used, also, without substantial change, in connection with a face mask where it is desirable to employ such a mask in the administration of a therapeutic substance to a patient. In this case, the end 23 of tube 20 is inserted into an opening formed on the projecting portion 30 of the face mask F (Fig. 3), and there is a rubber flap valve 31 applied over the end 23 of tube 20. The face mask F itself, which is shaped to fit the contour of the face, has a further rubber flap valve 32 secured to it at any suitable point. The rubber flap valve 31 permits the powdered penicillin and air to be drawn into the face mask as the patient inhales. It closes when the patient exhales. The rubber flap valve 32 allows the air to be exhausted from the mask when the patient exhales.
Another form of apparatus built according to the invention is disclosed in Fig. 4. This comprises a tube 50 made of glass or plastic, one end of which is closed by a bottom cap piece 51. If the tube 50 is made of plastic, this cap piece may be made of plastic, also, and it may be secured in the tube 50 simply by friction. Secured in the tube 50 by friction or in any other suitable manner, about midway of the height of the tube is a partition member 52. This divides the tube 50 into a lower and an upper chamber. The lower chamber is adapted to contain the dehydrating agent D. The partition member 52 has a central opening or duct 53 formed therein. On top of the partition member 52, there is placed a thin layer of fine glass wool 54 which acts as a filter. On top of this layer of glass wool, within the tube 50, there is mounted a cup-shaped powder receptacle or medicament vial 55 with the bottom of the receptacle or vial facing toward the air inlet 53. This receptacle is adapted to hold the powdered therapeutic agent P. There are several equi-spaced holes or conduits 56 drilled longitudinally in the sidewall of the receptacle or vial 55 from the bottom of the receptacle or vial upwardly for the greater portion of the height thereof. These holes or ducts 56 communicate with short, helical or skew ducts 57, which lead rearwardly into the interior of the receptacle. There is a gasket ring 58 placed on top of the receptacle or cup 55, and the receptacle or vial is secured in the tube 50 by the upper cap or vial retainer member 60 which threads into the tube 50. The cap or retainer member 60, which forms a closure for the vial, has a central opening therein; and in this there is mounted a short tube 61 having a duct 63 extending axially therethrough. The bottoms of the cap or closure member 60 and of the tube 61 are made to spherical shape, as denoted at 62, so as to provide a dome-like or spherical top for the chamber in which the powder P is contained.
There is a right angular duct 65 drilled or otherwise formed in the bottom end cap 51; and there is a short tube 66 mounted at one side in this end cap and having a duct 69 therein which communicates with the duct 65. An air pressure bulb 67, having an engaging portion 68 may be secured to the tube 66, by pushing the portion 63 over the outside of the tube 66.
To use the apparatus of Fig. 4, the patient alternately squeezes, then releases the bulb 67. This forces air through the tube 66, and duct 65 into the lower chamber containing the dehydrating substance D. The dehydrating substance removes the moisture from the air. The dried air passes out of the lower chamber through the duct 53 in the partition member 52, and through the filter 54 into the ducts 56 formed in the cup-shaped member 55. Thence it flows through the ducts 57 rearwardly into the interior of this cup. The skew or helical inclination of the ducts 57 causes air flowing into the upper chamberto create a turbulence and force the powder into a spiral path. The spherical dome 62 of the upper chamber helps keep the powder agitated. From the receptacle the air-borne powder is therefore forced upwardly through the duct 63 in the tube 61 to the outer air where it emits in the form of smoke.
The upper chamber of the apparatus is of reduced area because of the use of the receptacle or cup 55. The small surface area increases the emptying eificiency of the powder chamber. The outlet tube 61 is likewise made of small internal calibre to reduce the amount of precipitate on the walls of the tube. The threaded connection of the upper end cap 60 with the tube 50 prevents the powder from seeping out between the tube 50 and the end cap, the thread serving, therefore, as a seal.
The apparatus shown in Fig. 4 is adapted to all the various uses of the apparatus shown in Figs. 1 to inclusive. Thus, on removing the bulb 67, the outlet tube 61 can be placed in the mouth, and the powder drawn directly into the oral cavity. The outlet tube 61 can also be connected to a face mask, in a manner similar to the connection between the outlet tube 20 of Fig. 3 and the facemask of that figure, or, if desired, the outlet tube 61 can be replaced by a right angular tube for this purpose. Various adapters can also be fitted to the outlet tube, for nasal, oral, dental, vaginal use, etc., if so desired.
In some cases it may be desirable to provide an inhaler which contains a single dose of the therapeutic agent, which is to be administered, and which is disposable after use. Such an inhaler is shown in Fig. 5. This comprises a cylindrical-shaped cup or barrel 110, and a cap 111.
The cup or barrel is hollowed out to receive a measured dose of the therapeutic powder P. Ducts 112 are formed in the side-wall of the cup or barrel from the bottom 113 thereof to a point above the level of the powder P in the container. These ducts 112 communicate with inclined ducts 114 that lead rearwardly into the interior of the container above the level of the powder.
The cap 111, which tapers externally upwardly, has a single axial duct 115 formed therein.
The barrel and cap 111 may be made of papiermach or of a suitable plastic. A measured dose of the therapeutic is placed in the container 110 and the cap 111 sealed thereon. Then container and cap are dipped in some suitable sealing material or wrapped in a suitable cellulose cover so as to completely seal and cover the whole container. This sealing covering is designated at 116 in Fig. 8. Strings or wires 117 and 118 may be embedded in this covering so that when they are pulled, the part of the covering, which covers the outside end of duct 115, and the part of the covering, which covers the bottom or outside ends of ducts 112, are removed. Then the inhaler is ready for use.
In use, the patient simply puts the small end of the cap 111 into a nostril or into his mouth and inhales. Air is drawn through the ducts 112 and 114 into the powder chamber; the skew or helical shape of the ducts 1114 creates a turbulence in thepowder; and the powder in suspension is drawn up through the duct 115 into the nostril or mouth.
Apparatus constructed according to the present invention is simple to operate, inexpensive, efficient, foolproof, and with it measured doses of different therapeutic agents may be administered either in a hospital or at home in a period of a few minutes without any of the disadvantages or inconveniences of prior apparatus for administering therapeutics.
While the invention has been described in connection with the administration of penicillin, the device may be used, as already indicated, for the administration of any other absorbable therapeutic agent in powdered form, as described more particularly in our current application No. 733,280 above mentioned.
While the invention has been described, therefore, in connection with particular embodiments thereof and particular uses therefor, it will be understood that it is capable of various further modifications and uses; and this application is intended to cover any variations, uses, or adaptations of the invention following, in general, the principles of the invention and including such departures from 'the present disclosure as come within known or customarypractice in the art to which the invention pertains and as may be applied\to the essential features hereinbefore set forth and as fall within the scope of the invention or the limits of the appended claims.
Having thus described our invention, what we claim 1s:
1. Apparatus for administering a therapeutic agent having a chamber adapted to contain a dehydrating agent, a second chamber adapted to contain a powdered therapeutic agent, an intake duct for conducting air to one end of the first chamber, a ported partition between the two chambers, a filter in the second chamber seated against said partition, said apparatus having a plurality of ducts therein, each of which terminates at one end of the opposite side of the filter and each of which at its opposite end is directed rearwardly of the second chamber, whereby air is conducted into the second chamber to create a turbulence in the powder, and an outlet duct leading from the second chamber for conducting the powder suspended in air therefrom, said second chamber having a relatively small surface area, and said outlet duct having a relatively small internal diameter.
2. A disposable article comprising a hollow cup-like receptacle closed at its bottom and open at its top, a cap for closing the top of said receptacle, said hollow receptacle having a chamber therein adapted to contain a measured quantity of a powdered therapeutic agent and having conduits for conducting air' formed in its side wall which extend from its bottom upwardly for the major portion of its height, and having other conduits formed therein which are directed rearwardly into said chamber and which communicate both with the first-named conduits and with the interior of the hollow member, said cap member having an axially extending outlet conduit extending therethrough and communicating with the top of said chamber, a cover enclosing the whole of said article and sealing the outer ends of all said conduits, and means operable to break said cover so as to unseal the first and third-named conduits.
3. In a powder blower of the type described, a tubular body, a ported transverse partition dividing the interior of the body into two cylindrical chambers, said body having an air inlet at one end, air drying material in the chamber adjoining said end, said body having an air and powder outlet at the other end, a powder receptacle in the chamber adjoining the latter end, the bottom of the receptacle facing toward the air inlet and the receptacle opening facing toward the air and powder outlet, and means for conducting air forwardly to a point beyond the bottom of the receptacle and thence rearwardly of the receptacle into the interior of the receptacle.
4. In a powder blower of the type described, a tubular body having an air inlet at one end and an air and powder outlet at the other end, a receptacle for powder within the body, the bottom of the receptacle facing toward the air inlet and the receptacle opening facing toward the air and powder outlet, and means for conducting air forwardly beyond the bottom of the receptacle and thence rearwardly of the receptacle into the receptacle.
5. In a powder blower of the type described, a tubular body having an air inlet at one end and an air and powder outlet at the other end, a medicament vial fitting within the tubular body with its bottom toward the air inlet and its open end toward the air and powder outlet, and a vial retainer member having a central bore therethrough communicating with the outlet, said blower being provided with means for conducting air from the inlet forwardly of the vial, said blower being provided with ducts communicating with said conducting means which are shaped to turn the air rearwardly of the vial into the interior of the vial.
6. Apparatus for administration of a powdered therapeutic agent comprising a cup-like receptacle, and a closure for said receptacle, said receptacle forming a powder-receiving chamber which is closed at its bottom and open at its top, and said closure covering the top of said chamber and having an air and powder outlet duct extending through it and communicating with the top of said chamber, and said receptacle having air conducting means in its peripheral Wall extending from the bottom of the receptacle toward the top thereof, and air-conducting means for directing air from the firstgamed air-conducting means rearwardly into said cham- 7. Apparatus for administration of a powder therapeutic agent comprising a cup-like receptacle, and a closure for said receptacle, said receptacle forming a powder-receiving chamber which is closed at its bottom and open at its top, and said closure covering the top of said chamber and having an air and powder outlet conduit extending through it and communicating with the top of said chamber, and said receptacle having an air inlet passage in its peripheral wall open at its bottom and extending from the bottom of the receptacle toward the top thereof and a conduit communicating with said air inlet passage and with said chamber and extending rearwardly from said air inlet passage into said chamber to direct air rearwardly into said chamber.
8. Apparatus for administration of a powdered therapeutic agent having a hollow cup-like receptacle having a chamber formed therein for holding a finely powdered therapeutic agent, said chamber being open at its top and closed at its bottom, said receptacle having airconducting means in its peripheral wall extending from the bottom of the receptacle toward the top thereof, and air-conducting means for directing air from the firstnamed air-conducting means rearwardly into said chamber, a closure for said receptacle covering the open top end of said receptacle and having a gas and powder outlet conduit extending through it and communicating with the open top end of said chamber, said closure being shaped to be inserted in a body cavity, and a rupturable covering sealing the outer ends of both said inlet and outlet conduits.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 197,601 Cassidy Nov. 27, 1877 766,867 Bennett Aug. 9, 1904 1,929,154 Sundock Oct. 3, 1933 2,478,715 Schmitt Aug. 9, 1949 2,501,279 Kark Mar. 21, 1950 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 15,864 Great Britain of 1912 16,855 Great Britain of 1894