US 2693895 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
NOV. 9, 1954 ELMENDORF 2,693,895
SHIPPING CONTAINER Filed June 19, 1950 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 -16 ,15 I Invenzar 15 N ""1 ,m IrmznZ/mendorf-- 1 ii f y 0mm Nov. 9, 1954 A. ELMENDORF 3 SHIPPING CONTAINER Filed June 19, 1950 i 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Nov. 9, 1954 A. ELMENDORF 2,693,895
SHIPPING CONTAINER Filed June 19, 1950 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Jnvenzar 2 .126??? Zimendorf "6y P LW NW .F/farnew.
Nov. 9, 1954. A. ELMENDORF 2,693,895
, SHIPPING CONTAINER Filed June 19. 1950 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 jnuen for Jrmz'i? .iimefidarl ylbbm JZ/arn 6y;
United States Patent SHIPPING CONTAINER Armin Elmendorf, 'Winnetkmlll.
Applicatiomlune 19, =1950,'.SerialNo. 168,956
-7 Claims. (Cl. 211-17) The .invention relates to .an improvement in containers, and, particularly, .inshipping containers. One purpose is toprovide .a:shi pping container in which a veneermaterial, known by the tradename of filly-Veneer, is employed, such veneer-being anii'nvention' and development of the present applicant.
Another purpose is to provide a :shipping'. container which maybe shipped flat, and lisfleasily' assembled.
Anotherpurpose is to provide a shipping-container in which the sides are adequately reinforced by clea'ts, and the bOX sides are made of one,pieee of box boardxwhich can be bent to a right angle at the box edges, with-.the corners reinforced with steel strapping which cannot buckle up and snag other boxesin shipment.
Another purpose .is to ;provide 'animproved corner structure for shipping containers.
Anotherpurposerszto provide .an improved reinforcing v structure for the corners of shipping containers made of Ply-Veneer or of othersuitableimaterials.
'Otherpurposes will appear from time to time in the course of thespecification and claims.
l illustrate-my invention moreor' 1ess-.diagrammatical1y in the accompanying drawings wherein:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of .an embodiment .of my invention;
Figure 2 is an end elevation'of 'the'st'ructu're of Fig ure 1, with partsbroken'away' and with the top shown in open position; v
Figure 3 is asection, on-an-enlarged scale-, on the line 3-3 of Figure *1;
Figure 4 is a perspective view illustrating the knockeddown assembly of'the structure o'fFigure 1;
Figure 5 is a section, on an enlarged scale, onthe line-55 ofFigure-4;
Figure 6 is a section, on an enlarged-scale, on -the line 6-6'of Figure '1;
Figure 7 .is'a'parti'al' plan view 'of a 'variant'form of construction;
.Figure'S is. a section 'onthe line 8--8 of Figure '7',
Figure '9 is 'a view :similar 'to Figure 8', of another variant form of-construction;
Figure 10 is a'perspective View of a knocked-down structure1of an: opentopped containermade inaceordanee with my inventi'on;
Figure 11 is a perspective view of the -container of Figure 10; and
Figure 12 is apartial plan view, similar' 'to Figure 7, of another format my invention, with a difierent'rein forcement.
Like parts are indicated bytlikeasyrnlzaols throughoutthe specificationand drawings.
Referring to the drawings, 'itwill be understood that the invention may :be applied to containers, such ."as
shipping containers, of different: sizes, shapes .=and-%proportions.
Whereas my invention may. be applied? to *aawideivariety no tendency"to buckle whena: container in which theboard; .is used is subjected-to. moisture.
.lnconsidering thev container .of Figures 1 and' f'ollow ing-,I illustrate .it asformedinone piece, which includesfourlarge connectedpanels .A, .B, C, 'D and a closure panel'or small .fl'ap E,...lorming a single piece or shell. The fivepanel's may .be.'formed of a single piece or sheet of my composite veneerand paper or :fiber material, or
of fiber-hoard: or of :anyiothe'r suitable box board. Theknocked'-down..formf,.as shownfin Figure 4,.ma-ybe. shipped When-assembled into the completed layers 2' and'3, in which the wonder other, solid 'filler is omitted. As 'a result, the sheet can readily be bent,
as shown inFigure 2, to .form-a rightangle in which the outer bend or. outer ,part of the material is in tension, whereas the inner part 'of the material is in compression, as -wi 11 later "be discussed in greater detail. If conventional fiberboard or the like is 'used', the' usual scored fold or'bend' may be used.
I find .it advantageous .to provide a supporting frame for the'board. :ThiSTrame may be -ikprmedby. cleats or reinforcements 5,..fo'r exampleof wood, which are secured to the various panels A, B, C and D. With reference to Figures 2 and 3, T; illustrate cleats or boards 5, .the opposed, ends of which may :be iormed as mortise :and tenon 'tointerpenetrate and 'to strengthen each other. Aswilljbe-clea -for example, from Figure 5, the adjacent ends o'fop'posed cleats 5" are spaced apart, when the 'form or assembly is in the flat, by a break -or separation 4', generally smaller'thanthe gap in the veneer in the com- ,posite board. The larger gap in the veneer provides spaeefor the 'folded pa'p'e'r or 'fiber' at'the inner surface oftth corner.
Whenthe form or assembly is spread out for shipment or 'storag'e, as shown in'Figur'e -ttherpanels A, B,-C, D .and Ermay be substantially orcornpletelyfiat, with their variousclea'ts "5 spaced'apart at the ends,'and with their opposed mortise-andtenon elements open, 'but readyfor entry. Whereas -I haveshown the cleats as in mortise and tenonform, it'willrbe understood that-any other suitable'ieridiformation' may bexemployed. For example,'they may be 'mitered, or. they may be square-ended, with space: allowed to permit the vpanels to be 'bent'at a degree: angle in relation to each other. However, :the mortiseand tenon form is advantageous as providing substantial support against itransverse strain endwise' of the box, 'or-at anaangle-to the sides of the box.
=Whereas lmay formthe 'box ends inany suitable way, I finditi advan-tageouszto employ end panels VP and H, the ends obwhich extend beneath the-c leats 5a of'the'panel .B. be panels IF-and I-I- amay be :scorred 'along'the edges of the cleats Savfor easy hendingyor a hinge structure may be employed, such as is *sh'own in "Figures '3 'and '6, innconnect ion with an interruption in the Ply-Veneer structure.
Thus,- in" order to assemble the structure of Figure 4, toproduee thecontainerof Figures l,- 2 and 3', all that isfinecessary is-iorthe user to bend thepanels' along their hinges, while "causing :the rnortises and tenonsto interpenetrate. The closure ma'y be completed by securing the flap-4E, as 'shown in. Figure l, 'forexampleby driving in suitable nailsor--securing members 10 throughrthefiap E- and into the cleats of the:panels'-.=Azor 33. :If additional Fireman 9, 1954,
securing means. The result is a strong adapted to resist strain and wear.
Whereas the above described structure may be employed, under, some circumstances, without additional reinforcement, I find it advantageous to employ a metal element or strap at the corners. I illustrate, for example, an element which may be a thin steel strap narrower in width than the cleats. It may be recessed into the surface of the veneer core, and preferably extends around the full perimeter of the box. It may be recessed into the outer surface of the veneer before the outer layer of paper 3 is applied, or it may be pressed into the paper and veneer in the process of applying the paper in a press.- When the parts are bent into the corner position, as shown, for example, in Figure 3, one of the steel strapsor members 20 is located at each end of the container. The strap 20, upon being flexed, is under tension, but the fiber structure within it, at each corner of the box, is held under substantial compression. Securing means, such as the nails 15, may be driven readily through the thin metal members or steel straps 20, as shown in Figure 3.
In the form of Figures 7 and 8 I illustrate a corresponding strap 21 as applied exteriorly to a layer of kraft paper or fiber 3a, which corresponds to the layer 3 of Figure 3. The metal strap or element 21 may be covered by an additional outer paper or fiber strip or layer 22. I
The form of Figure 9 diifers from the form of Figure 8 in that the same reinforcing structure is shown as applied to a dilferent box side material. The member 23, for example, may represent fiber-board, to the exterior of which a metal strap 24 is applied. It, in turn, is covered by an outer layer 25 of paper, fiber, or the like. It will be understood that, as to the reinforcing and corner structures of Figures 7 to 9, they will be understod as being applicable to the formation of the container of Figure 1 or the knocked-down form. or assembly of Figure 4.
In Figures 10 and 11 I apply my invention to an opentopped box, such as is customarily used for shipping apples and other fruits. Since an upwardly bulged top or cover is ordinarily employed, which does not, of itself, form part of my invention, 1 do not illustrate it, but merely the open-topped box or container itself. It will be understood that the knocked-down form of Figure 10 may be made of the composite material of Figures 1 to 8, or may be made of any other suitable material, such as the fiber-board indicated in Figure 9. In any event, the form of knocked-down structure includes panels X, Y and Z, each with its appropriate cleats 5x and Sxx. Hinged beneath the cleats Sxx of the panel Y are hinge panels M and N, with their cleats 70, 71. The panels M and N may be hinged like the panels F or H, as shown in some detail in Figure 6, in connection with the form of Figures 1 and following. Whereas the structure can be shipped readily, fiat, in knocked-down form, it is very easily assembled. If the panels X, Y and Z are bent at right angles to each other, as shown in Figure 11, the lower corners of the box are formed by the mortise and tenon structure shown at the opposed ends of the cleats, or square ends or mitered ends may be used. The panels M and N are then swung into vertical position. The outer ends of the cleats of panels Z, X are cut back, as at 72, to leave space for the end portions of the cleats 70, 71. The parts may then be nailed or otherwise secured together, and a strong box is provided into which fruit or other materials can be filled. After the container is filled, then any suitable top member, such as the usual slat cover, may be nailed, stapled, or otherwise applied. In hinging the end panels F and H or M and N, I may omit the filler shown, for example, at 100 in Figure 6, under the overlying cleat.
It will be realized that whereas I have described and claimed a practical and operative device, nevertheless many changes may be made in size, shape, number and disposition of parts without departing from the spirit of my invention. I therefore wish my description and drawings to be taken as in a broad sense illustrativeor diagrammatic rather than as limiting me to my specific showing herein. It will be understood, for example, that all forms of container herein shown may he made of the composite material shown in Figures 1 and following, but may also be made of fiber-board or other suitable structure, ideally material. I may provide the closure structure as herein shown, without employing a reinforcing metal corner, but I prefer to employ the'peripheral metal reinforcements such as are shown at 20 in Figure 3, 21 in Figures 7 and 8, 24 in Figure 9, and 75 in Figure 10. It may be a matter of choice whether the metal reinforcement is received in a recess, as in the form of Figures 1 and following, or is covered by an outside layer of material, as shown in Figures 7, 8 and 9. It will be understood, also, that whereas I illustrate flat metal strips or straps, wires may be employed, or any other suitable metallic reinforcements, as illustrated in Figure 12.
The use and operation of my invention are as follows:
I illustrate two types of container herein, both of which are formed from knocked-down structures in which a plurality of panels are hinged to each other, and may be shipped or stored flat. I find that an advantageous structure consists of a multi-layer sheet in which veneer is confined between inner and outer or upper and lower layers, having the general characteristics of kraft paper, fiber, or the like. A practical way of forming the hinges is to leave a space or gap in the veneer between the paper layers. This corner structure is well shown, for example, in Figure 3. Each panel has cleats or reinforcements 5 or 511, secured to it, which connect, abut or interpenetrate at the corners to provide a strong reinforcing structure. I further prefer to employ a metal strap, such as a flat steel element, which is bent around the corners at the ends of the box, and which thus provides an outer compression member which maintains the corner structure within it under substantial compression. As will appear, for example, from Figure 3, the steel strap 20 maintains the fiber element 2 in compression. The result is a structure of great strength which will resist shock and strain, but which is light and sightly. It will be understood that the corner structure may be employed with other materials, such as fiber-board. It will also be understood that the structures herein shown may, under some circumstances, be employed without the metal reinforcement, although I prefer its employment. Cord or twine might be used.
Whereas I have shown two specific containers, it will be understood that my structure is applicable to a wide variety of different forms and shapes of containers. I find that the hinged end panels, such as are shown in Figures 4 and 10, are advantageous in providing acoutainer which can be shipped readily as a knocked-down .unit, and quickly assembled, with a minimum of time and effort, into a strong and useful container.
1. A box including a composite box board shell constituting at least three connecting panels of a box, the box board consisting of a layer of veneer bonded between two layers of strong paper, the shell being divided by hingeable portions into a plurality of stiff wall panels located at right angles to each other, each said wall panel having at its ends cleats at right angles to the grain of the veneer, the cleats being formed and adapted to engage when the panels are bent at right angles to each other, the edges of the adjacent panels being separated by gaps in the veneer having a width not less than the thickness of the veneer, at least one paper layer spanning each such gap, and continuous flexible metal reinforcing straps extending about each end of the box, generally at the ends of the box, said straps extending about and being aligned with and overlying the cleats, and being located between the outer paper layer and the layer of veneer, and extending continuously around the corner bends of the panels, metal fastening means extending through the straps and the shell and into the cleats, said fastening means being thereby adapted, with the straps, to hold the box structure thus formed firmly together, and end members closing the ends of the space surrounded by the panels.
2. The structure of claim 1 characterized in that the veneer of the panels is separated along the grain into a plurality of closely adjacent but separated wood elements, located in their original position in the veneer, with a separation between adjacent elements of a small fraction of the width of the individual elements, but with the elements sufiiciently separated to take up the expension. of the individual elements due to moisture, and thus to prevent cumulative expansion or buckling of the panels by moisture.
3. The structure of claim 1 characterized in that the flexible metal reinforcing strap is recessed into-the exterior surface of the veneer.
4. The structure of claim 1 characterized in that the composite box board shell includes five connecting panels arranged in series, with one end panel of the series adapted to overlap the opposite end panel when the box is fully closed.
5. The structure of claim 1 characterized in that the composite box board shell includes five connecting panels arranged in series, with one end panel of the series adapted to overlap the opposite end panel when the box is fully closed, the metal reinforcing straps extending through all five panels, and overlapping at their ends when the end panels are overlapped, and box locking means positioned to extend through said overlapping panels and into the cleats of the innermost of the overlapping panels.
6. The structure of claim 1 characterized in that the veneer of the panels is separated along the grain into a plurality of closely adjacent but separated wood elements, located in their original position in the veneer, with a separation between adjacent elements of a small fraction of the width of the individual elements, with the elements sufficiently separated to take up the expansion of the individual elements due to moisture, and thus to prevent cumulative expansion or buckling of the panels by moisture, the composite box board shell including five connecting panels arranged in series, with one end panel of the series overlapping the opposite end panel when the box is fully closed, the metal reinforcing straps extending continuously through the five panels.
7. A shipping container consisting of a foldable blank constituting at least three connecting wall panels of a box, the blank consisting of a layer of wood veneer bonded between layers of strong paper, the blank being divided by hingeable portions into a plurality of stiff wall panels located at right angles to each other when the container is assembled for use, each said wall panel having at its ends cleats at right angles to the grain of the veneer,
continuously around the corner bends of the panels, metal.
fastening means extending through the straps and the veneer and into the cleats, said fastening means being thereby adapted, with the straps, to hold the box structure thus formed firmly together, and end members closing the ends of the space surrounded by the panels.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 206,850 Armstrong Aug. 13, 1878 1,205,925 Norman Nov. 21, 1916 1,217,852 Walker Feb. 27, 1917 1,534,045 Walter Apr. 21, 1925 1,712,493 Elmendorf May 14, 1929 1,964,099 Walstrom June 26, 1934 2,018,712 Elmendorf Oct. 29, 1935 2,039,859 Watkins May 5, 1936 2,106,499 Francisco Jan. 25, 1938 2,262,267 Boeye Nov. 11, 1941 2,294,279 Carnwath Aug. 25, 1942 2,374,539 Guyer Apr. 24, 1945 'Y FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 540,735 Great Britain Oct. 28, 1941