US 2694046 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
NOV- 9, 1954 A. DoRlNsoN LUBRIOATING on. COMPOSITION Filed March 21, "1952 .bmw ESN INVENTOR ATTORNEYS y rr o Ln
United States Patent O M 2,694,046 LUBR'ICATI'NG on. CoMPosmoN Amos Dorn'son, ParkForest, lill., assi'giior to Sinclair- Refining Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Maine My invention relates to a chemical additive for oils .and more particularly to an additive which imparts im proved lubricity and anti-seizureproperties `to lubricating yoils thereby increasing their usefulness and value as ex` 'treme pressure lubricants and cutting oils.
It is essential that a cutting oil or extreme pressure lubricant provide adequate lubrication under conditions of both high speed and low torque and low speed and high torque. In order to impart these essential properties to lubricating oils, it is conventional to incorporate in the lubricating oils small amounts of an additive, such as sulfur-chlorinated fats and oils or sulfur-chlorinated terpene-fat mixtures. I have now found that improved anti-friction and anti-seizure properties may be imparted 2,694,046 Patented Nov. 9, 1954 specifications for No. 2 lard oil call for a maximum of 25 per cent free fatty acid content of the oil, I have thus found that superior lubricant additives may be prepared by sulfur-chlorinating a mixture of alpha-pinche and blends of commercial fatty oils 'of enhanced acidity, provided that the blend of commercial oil has a iinal free acidity as oleic acid ofv at least about 3() per cent.
lnthe preparation of a typical additive of my invention, for example, a mixture representing 100 parts by weight of alpha-pinene 'and 100 parts byweight of ccmmercial oleic acid was heated to about 140 F. and 46 parts by weight of sulfur monochlo'ride added at a rate such that the heat of reaction maintained the temperature at about 140 to 158 F. The reaction mixture was kept at about 140 F. for fro'rn about 3 to 4 hours after the completion of the addition ofthe sulfur monochloride and was then blown with dry air at about 122 F. to purge it of any hydrogen chloride arising from side reactions and decomposition; The miiiture was next blown with air at room temperature for` about 2 hours. About 0.2 per centy of propylene oxide was added to the reaction mixture to stabilize the product against further evolution of hydrogen chloride. l
Other additives were prepared for test purposes using the above procedure but with various fatty substances replacing the commercial oleic acid. The various fatty substances and blends thereof and the compositions of the resulting products are indicated in Table I.
TABLE I Additives prepaed by sulfur-chlorination 'of mixtures of alpha-)ritiene and fatty substances Starting Materials Finished Additive Additive Nn. V S G1 P t P t z z, ercen ercen Terpene Fat par-ts S C1 Alpha-Piume, 100 palts't.. Oleie Acid, 1`0 parts 46 9.07 10.2 do i. No. 2 Lard Oil, 100 parts 43 9. 00 9. 76 -..d'o .3.: f. No. 2 Lard Qil and Oleic 45 9.69 9.10
. ,AeidI 100 parts. v d'o No. 2 Lard Qil and OleieY 45 10. 00 9.03
Aeid,b 100 parts. -.-.-do Methyl Esters of Lard Oil, 100 47 9.47 10.2
l 7.5% oleic acid and 92.5% No. 2 lard oil; final lfree fatty acidity of they blend 27.5%.
b 36.5% oleic acid and 63.5% No. 2 lard oil; nal free fatty acidity of the blend 50%.
to lubricating oils Vby incorporating therein a small amount of a sulfur-chlorinated mixture of alpha-pinene and oleic acid. I
The product of my inventionl is vprepared by reacting sulfur monochloride with a mixture of alpha-pinene and oleic acid. Advantageously the mixture of alpha-pinene and oleic acid contains approximately equal parts of each substance. The improved lubricating compositions of my invention comprise lubricating o'ils, either solvent or acid treated, having incorporated ltherein about 0:5 to about 4 per cent by Weight of the sulfur monoehloridealpha-pinene-oleic acid reaction product.
I have found that sulfur-chlorination of a mixture of alpha-pinene and oleic acid produces an additive unexpectedly superior, when incorporated in lubricating oils used as extreme pressure lubricants or cutting oils, to an additive obtained by sulfur-chlorinating a mixture of alpha-pinche and a neutral fat such as methyl esters of lard oil or prime lard oil. For example, I have found that at concentrations f the order of 0.5 per cent by weight of my novel additive in a heavy lubricating base oil, improved lubricity at moderate loads and superior anti-seizure properties at higher loads are realized. .ln addition, this superior behavior is associated with similar wear at moderate loadings and probably with not more than 5 per cent excess Wear at higher loadings of that induced by sulfur chloride-pinene-neutral fat reaction product additives.
I have also found that sulfur-chlorinating a mixture of alpha-pinene and a blend of No. 2 lard oil and oleic acid yields an additive which is superior, when used in lubricants, to one prepared by sulfur-chlorinating a mixture of alpha-pinche and No. 2 lard oil. Since commercial Arun for a full minute at eaclrload level;
The commercial oleic acid used in the preparation of additives I, lli and IV was a low titer, distilled red oil having an iodine value of 93.7. The No. 2 lard oil used in preparing additives Ii, ill, and IV had a free fatty acidity as oleic acid of 21.5 per cent and an iodine 'value of 68.7. The free fatty acidity as oleic acid of the methyl esters of lard oil used in preparing additive V was 2.4 per cent and its iodine value was 78.9.
Evaluation of these additives was made on a Falex testing machine by the method designated as the regular or standard Falex test. in this method the load is applied in 259 pound increments and the machine is allowed to Although additives may be evaluated on a Falex testing machinel by the cutting oil breakdown method in which the load is increased continu'ousl'y at a constant rate, a more severe test than the regular Falex n1e, thodduplicate runs 4tend Since it is desirable to use the testing method with the fewest sporadic errors, tbe results described below are those obtained by the regular lalex procedure, the differences among the various additives being accentuated by reducing their concentrations in the oil blends.
In evaluating additives with the Falex machine it is generally accepted that the lubricity of an additive, as characterized by the slope of the curve at moderate loadings, is a different phenomenon than its anti-seizure properties, characterized by plateau-like regions in the curve. Figure l presents in graphical form the Falex data for 1/2 per cent solutions of additives I, Il, and V, respectively, in a heavy lubricating base oil as well as data for additive I at 1A per cent. Gross visual inspec- `tion is sulicient to perceive the superiority of 1/2 addi- 3 tive I over 1/2% additive V. Also, 1,4% additive I shows substantially the same superiority over 1/2% additive V up to a load of 2500 lbs., when a sudden transition, indicating the onset of incipient seizure, shifts the curve to a new torque plateau at about the same level as the plateau for 16% additive V. The curve for l/2% additive II starts oi better than the curve for 1/2% additive V (compare regions i and ii in the rst-named curve with the sharp rise of region i in the second), but the sudden transitional rise to a torque of 55 lbs/ft. at 1250 lbs. load is suilicient to put 1/z% additive 1I in the same behavior class with 1/2 additive V at loads higher than 1000 lbs. Further, only gross visual inspection of the graph is required to demonstrate the superiority of 1/27/2 additive I over 1/2 additive II at loads greater than 1000 lbs. Table II summarizes the salient features of Figure l.
TABLE II Falex testing of additives ADDITIVE I (36%) Torque` Load Range Average Average Description lbs. Rane, lbs. Torque Slope Plateau A 1, 500-2, 250 28-30 0. 0027 ADDITIVE I (54%) Plateau 0.... 1,7502,500 0.004 35 Plateau D. 3, 500-4, 000 0 Transitian (a) 2, 5002,750 0.108 Transition (b) 2, 750-3, 500 0. 017 Region i 0-250 0. 048 Region ii 250-750 0. 016 Region lli 750-1, 750 0. 010
ADDITIVE 1I Plateau 2, 500-4, 000 47-50 48 0. 0020 Transition (a) l, 000-1, 250 25-55 0.120
1,250-1, 75o -o. oso 45 ADDITIVE III Plateau 1,750-2,750 B7-39 38 0. 0020 Transition. l, 250-1 750 0. 024 Region i. 0-250 0.044 Region il 250-1, 250 0. 014
ADDITIVE IV (15%) 0-250 0.048 60 Region 1i.. Z50-1, 250 0.018
ADDITIVE V Plateau 1,500-4, ooo sii-52 5o o 65 Transition 1, 250-1, 500 52-50 *0. 008 Regioni 0-1, 250 0-56 0. 045
sures and were subjected to the two hour test on the fourball machine to determine their wear characteristics atl TABLE III Timken testing of additives 2% ADDITIVE I Pressure Scar Width, mm. LVIS kgmJsq.
TABLE IV F our-ball resting of additives Pressure Load, kgm Wear, cc. kgil-sq. Ratio Base Oil b 7 0. 0868 1, 400 1:1. 00 2%Additive I- 7 0.0904 1,100 1:1.04 2% Additive V 7 0. 0868 1, 400 1:1.00 Base O11 5..... 20 0.1008 22,000 1:1.00 2% Additive I 20 0.1008 22, 000 1:1. 00 2% Additive V. 20 0.1008 22,000 1:1.00 Base Oil b--.. Y 35 0.1044 36,100 1:1.00 2% Additive I. 35 0.1198 24, 400 1:1.15 2% Additive V 35 0.1044 36,100 1:1.00 Base Oil b... 60 0.1206 46,500 1:1.00 2% Additive 60 0.1434 30,000 1:1. 19 2% Additive V. 60 0.1204 40,100 1:1. 00
Wear with additive divided by Wear with 1005 oil. b Solvent-rened Mid-Continent, oil of S. U. S. at 100 F.
I claim: i l. As a composition of matter useful for the purpose of imparting lubricity and anti-seizure properties to lubricating oils, the product formed by the reaction of about 45 parts of sulfur monochloride and a mixture compris- References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,422,275 Winning et al June 17, 1947 2,606,182 Musselman Aug. 5, 1952