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Publication numberUS2695264 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 23, 1954
Filing dateDec 28, 1950
Priority dateDec 28, 1950
Publication numberUS 2695264 A, US 2695264A, US-A-2695264, US2695264 A, US2695264A
InventorsRichard W Eustis, Weikart John, Wilfred O Taff
Original AssigneeStandard Oil Dev Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Visbreaking of heavy hydrocarbonaceous materials
US 2695264 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 23, 1954 w. o. TAFF :TAL VISBREAKING OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONACEOUS MATERIA Fild Dee. 28, 1950 m. 1M E lmv mm Mw Hl l LD 5E T No 9 AW s .am i im W D .E E F p o C Q m M o L W n| bo L @c V .l 5. 9

y 2,695,264 Patented Nov. 23, 1954 VISBREAKING -OF I-IEA/"Y: HYDROCARBONA'- 5 CEQUSTMATERIALS:

Wilfred 0. Talr and John^Weiliart, Cranford, and Richard W; Eustis, Fanwood, N. J., assignorsto StandardOil Development Company, a corporation of Delaware Application-December 28,4- 1950,-Serial N o. Y203,112 I s Claims. (ci.Vv 1961-50) to 'a method of Vtreating 15 More specifically, the in vention pertains The present invention relates hydrocarbons.

In relningcrude'oihthe'first stepfisnormally a simple distillation orl topping to produce distillate fractions and "a heavy residue. In-orderto'obtain-rnaximum yields of high quality; motor fuels-, allffractions boiling above distillationboiling"above about 800i F: doesnot,A as such, represent a feed stock suitable forcatalytic-icrackm fatory catalytic cracking feedstocks from'these residues; viscosity reduction or visbreaking. is :one of the mostwidely used.

Visbreaking involves atreatment of reduced crude" or 45 the like at temperatures of about 780-950 F. and pres= suresof vaboutl -200-1500 p; -s.- i. g.V at *feedfrates of--1-75 volumes per hour of oil at 60 F.; per'cracking volume above 750 F. to produce bya mild'type of thermal: crackingrabout 5-'15 vola per -cent of gasoil, about 5 -15 vol. lper cent. of gasoline and about 85-70 volrpercent-'of 50 heavy 'fuel' oil. Specific :conditions 'Within'thef'ranges specified depend onrthe. type of the visbreaker'feed; The

fining. The presentinvention provides: anaoperation'of; this type.

It is, therefore, the principal object of this invention 75 to provide improved means -forvisbreakingvheavyfpetroleum residues lof the type specified, permitting the: production tof maximum yields Tof motorand distillate' fuels andrelatively small..yields. of ahighnualty. heavy, fuel'ioil.

the subsequent description of the invention whereinrefmore-severe than those of Other lobjects and advantages willzfappearvfrom l 80:

2 Y erence will benracle to the.acccunpanyingl drawing;.th`e s xngle .figure of which isl .a (semidiagrammatical illustra? tion of a1system-su-1tabletocarryout a preferred-,embodit hasrnowf been found that the-thermal Azcracking :sevof the*` visbreaking foperationmay; be.- substantially t hezzonejin' \vhichit'is separatedY` from hghtenvlsbreakerv products".v Tar..l temthe effluent of 'the visbreakingzone `from"visbreaking temperatures of .about'78`0'950` F; depending; onzthe type "of'feed'rto'a tempera-tureof about .500g-'800 F: prrorfto f Whenoperatng'in"this manner, the'gasolme -yield-fobtained-finvthe visbrea'king process vitself -rnayibe increasedy by abouti-'10%' on-'feed 'the same' n on feed-of high quality loWfsediment-fuel 1Aoil'. An increase inf'the gasolinefyieldfof 2.-'l-0%ffonifeedinay represent, depending on the type of feed, a 20-100% increase `in` gasoline yield. Visbreaking fori this purpose include temperatures of about 780- 950 F., pressures of about 200-1500 p. s. i. g. and visbreaker feed rates of 1-75 volumes per hour of oil at 60@ F. per cracking volume above 750 F. As in conconventional operation, with- 1n the ranges specified. Particularly, the temperature maybe about 20-50 F. higher than that conventionally used-for-the same feed,

typesuofnoperations,v when incorporated into the rprocess of the invention: The @tube i and tanlc type arrangement providing extensive"soakingsspaceifor the feed-.at Jvis'f` breaking .conditionsnafords definitely less significantim#y provements.

Having :setl'fortli its fobje'cts and general fnatureyf invention will be bestunderstood from'thefmor'edetailed description hereinafter read with refcrenceftofthefdraw ing.A The fsystem illustrated.y thedrawingfhessentially af-'a'shtower V15'fprovicledfwith a'tar pot "21 'and atar pot quench circuit 29, 33, 35. e functions and coaction ofi-these-elements will be presently described in connechydrocarbonaceous residues.

In operation, a virgin crude distillation residuum boiling3above about 800 F. may be supplied from line 1 by feed pump 3 via line 5 to visbreaking coil 7 substantially at the' temperature at which it is recovered from the crude still, sayrat about 500-750 F. Coil 7 is arranged in furnace: 9 in such a manner as to provide a preheating sectionfmaintained at about 700-850 F., a heating sec- Y 3 d tion maintained at about 780-950 F. and a relatively similar temperature distribution. Other modifications short soaking section maintained substantially at the within the spirit of the invention will appear to those temperature of the heating section. The feed is heated skilled in the art. in coil 7 to the temperatures mentioned in the order in The advantages afforded by the present invention will dlcated at a pressure of about 100-1500 p. s. 1. g. C011 5 be further illustrated by the following comparative exdmeusions and oil feed rate are so correlated that the perimental data Two different crude residua were oil residence time at visbreaking temperatures exceeding treated in a pilot plant designed and operated substan- 750 F. will be about 0.8-30 minutes, corresponding to tially as described above with reference to the drawing. an oil throughput of about 75-2 volumes of liquid oil per These feed stocks had the following inspections.

volume of visbreaking coil per hour (v./v./hr.). 10 Table I The visbroken product is withdrawn at visbreaking pressure and a temperature of about '780950 F. in mixed vapor-liquid phase via line 11 wherein it is preferably quenched to a temperature of about 500-800 F. by the addition of product tar from line 13. For this 15 Resduum Residuum A. B

purpose about 0.5-1.5 liquid volumes of product tar per GvitY, API liquid volume of residuum feed may be supplied through gsfsgrfggffog at 210 F 2g 43(1)?) line 13 at a temperature of about 400-650 F. as will Surinam,percent f f: 3 03 2, 71 appear more clearly hereinafter. The quenched product Conradson Carbon. wt. prcen 15.7 19.7 is flashed by means of pressure release valve 14 into a 20 10 mfgvcmm DStuaton 513 698 lower portion of the baled section of tiash tower 15 at 5%, i F 879 93o a temperature of about 450-800 F. and a pressure of FBP. F 948 948 Recovery, wt. percent 13. 0 7. 0

about 1D0-200 p. s. r. g. Stripping steam is admitted to flash tower 15 via lines 17 at a point below the feed point of line 11 to aid in the removal of distillate prod- 25 The tar recovered from the tar pot in each case was ucts including gasoline and gas oil which leave tower 15 blended to a constant Saybolt Furol viscosity of 175 overhead through line 19 to be further worked up in seconds at 122 F. with the same gas oil range iiux stock conventional fractionation and catalytic cracking equipin accordance with accepted conventional practice. ment, not shown. These fuel oil blends were then tested for their sedi- Heavy tar of a boiling range suitable for inclusion in ment characteristics by the same filtration procedure at heavy fuel oil is collected in tar pot 21 and handled the same conditions and the sediment removed was retherein as follows. Product tar is withdrawn via line 23 ported as weight percent. Fuel oil blends indicating and passed to storage at a rate of about (16S-0.95 liquid sediments in excess of .5% are considered unsatisfactory volumes per liquid volume of residuum feed, controlled from sedimentation characteristics. by valve 25 which is operated by conventional level con- 35 The visbreaking experiments were carried out at a trol means 27 such as conventional ball float or diiferenvisbreaking coil pressure of 350 p. s. i. g., a throughput tial pressure controllers. The tar level in tar pot 21 is of 15 v./v./hr. in the visbreaking coil section mantaine so adjusted that a substantially constant tar hold up and above 750 F. and a ash tower pressure of about l0() a tar residence time of about 0.5-5 minutes, preferably p. s. i. g. Other reaction conditions and the results obclosely approaching the lower limit, is provided at the tained using residuum A are tabulated below.

Table Il Quench to Line Flash Tower s d Ot Gasomeerit Run Temp., Rate Flash TM Pot lind .ggf F. Tenga, vxgif- Tzerltrrlie -f-- e neng ma F?" Tage gg' 1 ssn 796 794 19 15. s 1.8

residuum feed rates here specified. A stream of tar is Comparison of runs F and G indicates that run G which circulated from the bottom of tar pot 21 via line 29 by employed the lower tar pot temperature, 603 vs. 794

means of pump 31 through a cooler 33 and via line 3S F., and shorter time, l vs. 19 minutes, produced a fuel back into the tar pot Z1 at a point above the withdrawal oil of satisfactory sedimentation characteristics while run point of the circulating tar stream. The temperature of F with high temperature and long time conditions in the cooler 33 and the tar circulation rate through line 35 are 60 tar pot produced an unsatisfactory product. It has been so adjusted that the tar pot temperature is maintained previously stated that increased cracking severity deat about 400-650 F. This may be accomplished by grades fuel oil quality as to sediment but this does not circulating about 0.25-5 liquid volumes of tar per liquid qualify the results above since cracking severity as measvolume of product tar through line 35 at a temperature ured conventionally by gasoline yield is constant. In of about 2O0Jf50 F. A third tar stream may be with- 65 order to obtain a satisfactory fuel oil without using the drawn from tar pot 21 and passed through line 13 to process of the invention, the cracking severity and conline 11 to serve as the quenching medium in line 11 as version must be reduced and hence gasoline yields will described above. be reduced and heavy fuel oil yield increased.

The system of the drawing permits of various modi- Another example in which a residuum of diiferent lications. For example, the quench could be added at 70 character was used at the operating condition previously the flash zone rather than in the transfer line to provide cited is summarized in Table III below for residuum B.

Table III Quench to Line Flash Tower a/ Sedi- B 'r P t (iwnii/eilt ar o me Ilg Yield Per- Temp cent o F Tsnp., 'l/lime,

Q S 787 786 17 13. 7 (l) R.- 920 530 0. 77 605 530 1 13. 5 0. 42

1 Too high to be determined using this test procedure. Experiments indicate that this value is in the range of 1-2 0.

is, therefore, a preferred embodiment of the present invention.

It has also been found that superior feed stocks for the purposes of the invention compared to tube-and-tank procedures.

The foregoing description What is claimed is:

1. In the process of viscosity breaking heavy hydrocarbonaceous residues by a thermal treatment carried out at temperatures of about 780-950 F., pressures of about 200-1500 p. s. i. g. and treating times corresponding to feed rates of about 1-75 volumes per hour of feed of 60 F. per volume of reactor space above 750 F.

the improvement which comprises carrying out said treatzone at a temperature of about 400-600 F. said ashing temperature and for a residence time of about 0.5-5

and withdrawing distillate fractions from zone.

2. The process of claim 1 in which said material is quenched to a temperature of about 500-800 F. prior to dashing, by the addition of tar withdrawn from said collecting zone.

3. The

he process of claim 1 1'11 Which said collecting zone temperature and residence times are maintained within the lower brackets of the ranges specified.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,105,122 Kimball et al. Jan. 11, 1938 2,152,147 Nafsinger Mar. 28, 1939 2,187,708 Cibulka et al. Jan. 16, 1940 2,189,016 yMiller et al. Feb. 6, 1940 2,209,154 Downey `Iuly 23, 1940 2,358,150 Cooke Sept. 12, 1944 2,385,325 Bailey Sept. 25, 1945

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2105122 *Jun 20, 1933Jan 11, 1938Sinclair Refining CoArt of cracking hydrocarbons
US2152147 *Sep 22, 1937Mar 28, 1939Gasoline Prod Co IncConversion of hydrocarbon oils
US2187708 *Jan 31, 1936Jan 16, 1940Standard Oil Dev CoApparatus for inhibiting tar polymerization
US2189016 *Apr 2, 1936Feb 6, 1940Phillips Petroleum CoProcess for treating hydrocarbons
US2209154 *Jun 15, 1937Jul 23, 1940Sinclair Refining CoManufacture of gasoline and fuel oil
US2358150 *Apr 4, 1941Sep 12, 1944Gulf Oil CorpCracking hydrocarbon oils
US2385325 *Jun 19, 1944Sep 25, 1945Shell DevCatalytic cracking of petroleum oils
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3296118 *Jun 15, 1960Jan 3, 1967Universal Oil Prod CoHydroforming with a platinum catalyst
US3309295 *Jan 12, 1962Mar 14, 1967Exxon Research Engineering CoDistillation of heat sensitive compounds
US3322842 *May 24, 1965May 30, 1967Universal Oil Prod CoRecycle of hydrodealkylation product for hydrogen enrichment
US4389302 *May 15, 1981Jun 21, 1983Kerr-Mcgee Refining CorporationProcess for vis-breaking asphaltenes
US4508614 *May 29, 1984Apr 2, 1985Mobil Oil CorporationVisbreaker performance for production of heating oil
US4522703 *Nov 21, 1983Jun 11, 1985Mobil Oil CorporationThermal treatment of heavy hydrocarbon oil
US4533462 *Jan 6, 1984Aug 6, 1985Institut Francais Du PetroleProcess for the treatment of highly viscous heavy oils at the oil field to effect desalting and transportability thereof
US4778586 *Jun 5, 1987Oct 18, 1988Resource Technology AssociatesViscosity reduction processing at elevated pressure
US7465388Jul 8, 2005Dec 16, 2008Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.Method for processing hydrocarbon pyrolysis effluent
US7674366Jul 8, 2005Mar 9, 2010Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.Method for processing hydrocarbon pyrolysis effluent
US7718049 *Jul 8, 2005May 18, 2010Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.Method for processing hydrocarbon pyrolysis effluent
US7744743Oct 30, 2006Jun 29, 2010Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.Feeding tar to a solvent deasphalter producing a slurry of solvent containing a soluble portion of the tar, and a heavy tar fraction; separating; the overheads are recycled to the solvent deasphalter, cracked
US7749372Jul 8, 2005Jul 6, 2010Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.Passing gaseous effluent through primary heat exchanger, passing cooled effluent through secondary heat exchanger having surface temperature at which part of effluent condenses to form liquid coating, further cooling effluent to condense tar, and separating tar from gas
US7763162Jul 8, 2005Jul 27, 2010Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.Passing gaseous effluent through primary heat exchanger, passing cooled effluent through secondary heat exchanger having surface temperature at which part of effluent condenses to form liquid coating, further cooling effluent to condense tar, and separating tar from gas;quenching-free
US7780843Jul 8, 2005Aug 24, 2010ExxonMobil Chemical Company Patents Inc.can use heavy feeds, e.g., heavier than naphtha feeds, using a primary dry-wall heat exchanger and a secondary wet-wall heat exchanger; optimizes recovery of the useful heat energy resulting from heavy feed steam cracking without fouling of the cooling equipment; light olefin production
US7972482May 24, 2010Jul 5, 2011Exxonmobile Chemical Patents Inc.Treating the effluent from a hydrocarbon pyrolysis unit without employing a primary fractionator in production of light olefins
US7981374Nov 17, 2008Jul 19, 2011Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.Method for processing hydrocarbon pyrolysis effluent
US8074707Jul 14, 2010Dec 13, 2011Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.Method for processing hydrocarbon pyrolysis effluent
US8092671Dec 21, 2009Jan 10, 2012Exxonmobil Chemical Patents, Inc.steam cracked tar of reduced asphaltene and toluene insolubles content useful as a fuel blending stock, or feedstock for producing carbon black, while reducing the need for externally sourced lighter aromatics additives to meet viscosity specifications
US8524070Jul 8, 2005Sep 3, 2013Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.simplified method for cooling pyrolysis unit effluent and removing the resulting heavy oils and tars in the production of light olefins; energy efficiency, apparatus
US20110000819 *Jul 1, 2009Jan 6, 2011Keusenkothen Paul FProcess and System for Preparation of Hydrocarbon Feedstocks for Catalytic Cracking
CN101218321BJun 27, 2006Jun 15, 2011埃克森美孚化学专利公司Method for processing hydrocarbon pyrolysis effluent
WO2007008396A2 *Jun 27, 2006Mar 8, 2007Exxonmobil Chem Patents IncMethod for processing hydrocarbon pyrolysis effluent
WO2007008403A2 *Jun 27, 2006Jan 18, 2007Exxonmobil Chem Patents IncMethod for processing hydrocarbon pyrolysis effluent
WO2007008423A1 *Jun 27, 2006Jan 18, 2007Exxonmobil Chem Patents IncMethod for processing hydrocarbon pyrolysis effluent
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Classifications
U.S. Classification208/88, 196/131, 159/4.4, 208/15, 208/100, 208/106
International ClassificationC10G9/00
Cooperative ClassificationC10G9/00
European ClassificationC10G9/00