US 2696754 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 14, 1954 P. o. MAMocK 2,696,754
FOLDING sTEREoscoPE Filed July 28, 1951 2 sheets-sheet i BY n fort-:Sy
P. O. MAMOCK FOLDING STEREOSCOPE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. /DCzu O./77Q/11oO'/r Dec. 14, 1954 Filed July 28 1951 United States Patent @nice 2,696,754 Patented Dec. 14, 1954 FQLDING STEREOSCOPE Paul 0. Mamcck, Baltimore, Md.
Application July 28, 1951, Serial No. 239,098
2 Claims. (Cl. Sil- 29) The present invention relates to a foldable stereoscopic device for use in viewing various types of stereoscopic black and white or colored pictures, photographs, -color scenic cards and the like for purposes of producing a three dimensional effect to the pictures, etc. when viewed i through the device.
An object of the present invention is to provide a postal card type of foldable self contained stereoscope having self contained stereoscopic pictures, and means whereby the device may be conveniently mailed as a scenic postal card or the like.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a foldable stereoscope of the present type having a cheap and simple body structure made from heavy paper stock or light card board, having the outer face of one of its wall members imprinted with the facsimile of a postal card and the inner face or the reverse side of said wall comprising a stereoscopic picture or the like imprinted thereon or attached thereto. Thereby providing a postal card having a stereoscopic scene or picture on its reverse side together with a stereoscope, all in a single self contained postal card type of unit.
, Still another object of the invention is to provide a stereoscope like the present structure comprising novel means for readily adjusting the lenses or eye pieces to the distance from center to center of the pupils of the eyes of the respective operators of the device, for purposes of giving the viewer a clear uniform three dimen- Sonal picture.
Another object of the invention is to provide means whereby a number or set of stereoscopic pictures may be conveniently supported within the structure at viewing distance from its respective lenses for readily viewing the respective pictures in a progressive manner when the stereoscope is in .an open and unfolded position,
and thence when in folded position to provide a shallow type box member for protectively enclosing the pictures for convenient mailing like a scenic postal card.
With these and other objects in view, the invention consists, in the novel construction and arrangement of parts to` be, hereinafter described, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims, it being understoody that various changes in the form and structural details may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention or sacrificing any of the advantages thereof.
ln, the accompanying drawings Figure 1 is a perspective view of the stereoscope shown in unfolded or operative position.
Fig-ure 2 is a sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of Figure l.
Figure 3 is a sectional view taken on the line 3-3 of Figure 2, illustrating the rear structure of the lens board and: lens assembly.
Figure 4 is a sectional View, taken on the line 'li- 4 of Figure 3.
Figure 5 is still another sectional view, taken on the line 5-.-5 of Figure 3 showing the folded portion of the len-s supportingy board.
Figure 6 is a detail view of one of the lens members used in the stereoscope, shown in elevation.
Figure 7 isa sectional View taken on the line 7--7 of Figure 2, showing the reverse side of the post card portion of' the invention and the stereoscopic picture inrpressed thereon andA shown inl a somewhat diagrammatic `marmer inl this instance..`
Figure 8 is a full size plan View showing the post card type of stereoscope in a partly open or unfolded position.
Figure 9 is a perspective view of the invention showing the device in a partly open position.
Figure l() is a rear view of the device.
Figure 11 is a front View of the invention, showing the postal card face of the device.
Figure 12 is an end elevational view of the invention, shown in folded or closed position suitable for mailing.
Referring to the drawings by reference numerals, each of which represents the same or similar parts throughout the various views in the drawings, the invention or post card stereoscope comprises a protective cover or body structure l, which for purposes of economy may be made of thin cardboard, heavy paper, or the like, and stamped from a single piece of material and having suitable scorings for purposes of folding and forming the various elements identified with the cover or body structure I. ln this respect the body member I comprises a rear wall 2, having an outer face 3 on which may be impressed or printed as shown at 3 in Figure 11 the necessary indicia to meet the post oice requirement of a postal card as indicated. The inside face 4 of the rear wall 2 has impressed or printed thereon a stereoscopic picture as indicated diagrammatically at 4', thereby providing a postal card having a stereoscopic picture on its reverse side, together with a self contained stereoscope formed thereto for viewing the stereoscopic picture 4 on the reverse side of the card and to be hereinafter described.
The upper portion of the wall 2 is provided with a tongue 5 as shown that may be threadedly engaged in the slots 6, as shown in Figure 10, formed in the bottom wall or stiffening cover flap 7, for purposes of retaining the elements of the stereoscope in a closed or folded position for compactness in handling or convenience in mailing. For purposes of holding and retaining the stiffening member 7 in an operative position, whereby the foldable elements of the stereoscope will be held in an operative or distended position, and to prevent this member from swinging downwardly into an inoperative position, the side walls 8 and 9 are each provided respectively with inwardly disposed tongue members 10 and 11 formed from the respective wall members and projecting in the path of the stiifening member 7, and engaging the under surface of this member as shown particularly in Figure 1.
The foldable side walls 8 and 9 may be respective end extensions of the rear wall 2 as shown, the front ends of these side walls are respectively provided with small flap like members 12 and 13, see Figure 3, which in turn are xedly engaged by cementing or the like to the respective ends 14 and 15 of the lens carrying board 16 and provide the folding supporting means therefor.
The lens carrying board 16, which may be made of a material similar to that of the rest of the body structure, such as a light cardboard or the like, has pivotally engaged thereto by means of rivets 17 as shown, a pair of adjustable plastic or the like lens members 18, positioned partly within the circular viewing openings 19, and normally spaced from center to center a distance equal to the approximate average pupilarly distance between the eyes of the average adult person, when each of the lenses is in its normal center position. It will be noted the openings 19 in the lens board are larger than the convea portions of the lenses that project therethrough, thereby allowing clearance for the lenses to be adjusted either towards or away from the center of the stereoscope for purposes of adjusting the plastic lenses to the pupilary distance between the viewers eyes as indicated at 19. To this end each of the lenses is provided with a vertical or upwardly extending adjustment arm 20 positioned in the lense board slots 21. These slots limit the movement or adjustment of the lenses. For purposes of holding the upper portions of the lens members in a snug and frictional manner,` whereby they will tend to normally remain in the position of adjustment set by the iewer or operator, the upper portion of the lens board is bent downwardly or folded back against itself as shown in the drawings, and held in said folded position by rivets 3 23 or the like. Thereby causing the lens ange 24 and arm to be frictionally engaged by the folded portion of the lens board. This fold also tends to provide desirable stiifening means for the board member to maintain alignment of the lenses. The lens flanges 24 provides means whereby vision interfering light rays cannot break through around the lens proper in view of the clearance 19 of the board openings 19 around the respective lenses. In this instance the respective lens flanges 24 being suiciently wide to keep the lens board clearance openings 19 fully covered or overlapped irrespective of the adjusted positions of the respective lenses. The lower portion of each of the lenses is provided with an eye extension portion 25 for the respective supporting and pivotal rivets 17, as shown in detail in Figure 6.
For purposes of providing storage or packing space for additional steroscopic pictures or cards as indicated at 26 and shown particularly in Figures 8, 9 and l2, the foldable side walls 8 and 9 and the cover ilap 7, are each provided with elongated panel portions 27, 28 and 29 respectively for purposes of forming a shallow box like structure for the extra stereoscopic pictures or cards, particularly when the stereoscope is in a folded or closed position as shown in Figures 8, 9 and 12. In this respect the said side walls 8 and 9 and cover aps 7 are each scored for forming fold lines as indicated respectively at 8', 8, 8', 9', 9, 9"' and 7', thereby providing means whereby these elements may be readily folded to a closed compact position for mailing as shown in Figures l0, ll and l2. In this respect the tongue member 5 may also be scored as indicated at 5', to enable this member to more closely conform to the top thickness of the closed assembly when threading the tongue into the slots 6 as shown.
With reference to Figures l and 8 it may be readily seen the manner and necessary steps to close the stereoscope are indeed simple. In this respect the small tongue shaped protrusions 10 and 11 of the side walls 8 and 9 respectively, are pushed back into their respective openings, the cover flap 7 is lowered far enough to clear the side walls S and 9; these walls are then pushed inwardly along their respective scored lines 8 and 9 causing the lens board to move rearwardly thus causing these elements to fold against each other in a compact manner; as seen in Figure 9, the cover flap 7 is then folded over the closed assembly and the fastening tongue member 5 is threaded into the cover ap slots 6 as shown in Figure 10.
Another important object of the invention is to provide self contained means within the structure of the device of means for increasing and concentrating light rays to be directed on the stereoscopic picture being viewed, whereby a much cleaner and sharper outline of picture detail is obtainable. In this respect the bracing panel or cover flap 7 is provided with a light reflecting surface 35, comprising in the present instance of a sheet of highly polished or bright surfaced aluminum foil as indicated at 36, and which may be xedly engaged to the surface of the bracing panel member 7 in the manner shown by cementing or the like. It is also understood this surface of the bracing or cover panel 7 may be covered with a high lustre type of aluminum paint or gilt.
With particular reference to Figure 2 of the drawings it will be noted the 18 degree angular position from the horizontal of the bracing panel member 7 and its light reflecting surface tends to direct the reected rays of any overhead source of light to the picture surface 4 of the rear wall member 2 or the stereoscopic cards 26 positioned against the rear wall 2 as shown. This is an important feature of the invention and has proven in actual reduction to practice to raise the brilliancy of the picture to a comparatively high degree over that which is obtainable without this means for concentrating the light rays on the pictured surface. It will also be noted the reflected rays are impinged upon the picture surface at such an angle as to prevent these rays from being reected or bouncing back to the lenses and thereby cause a glare to the viewers eyes.
It will be noted the respective top edges 38 and 39 of the side walls 8 and 9 respectively are also angularly disposed for about 1S degrees to the horizontal, moving in a downwardly direction from the top edge of the rear wall 2 to the top edge of the lens carrying front panel 16. These downwardly directed top edges of the respective side walls and the upwardly directed light reflecting bottom wall 7, together with the narrow lens panel 16 and the comparatively larger rear wall structure all cooperate to produce the focusing chamber 40 that converges in a horizontal plane as shown particularly in Figure 2 of the drawing, thereby producing a structure of this type of a minimum size with the focusing chamber 40 allowing a maximum of incoming direct light to strike the stereoscopic picture, this together with the incoming light rays that do not strike the picture directly but rather the bottom light reflecting angularly disposed bottom wall 7, these light rays are not lost, as noted in other stereoscopic devices, but reflected and projected to the picture surface as indicated diagrammatically in Figure 2, thereby producing a brilliant effect to the pictured surface, bringing out detail and intensifying the contrasting of various shadings of black and white and contrasting colors.
The present invention provides a cheap means for viewing three dimensional pictures for pleasure, education and business purposes such as advertising and the like, where it is desirable to show in an attractive way progressive steps of illustration in various fields of interest.
The drawings and specifications disclose the preferred form of my invention. However I desire not to be limited to the details of the disclosure, and it is understood various changes may be made in the structure without departing from the spirit of the invention as set forth in the claims.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. A folding stereoscope comprising a folding body structure including a lens carrying front panel member, a rear wall structure substantially twice the height of the front panel member having means for supporting stereoscopic pictures comprising a pair of scored side wall members formed integral therewith at each of the respective ends thereof and inwardly foldable at their respective scored portions and xedly attached at their respective front ends to each of the respective ends of the front panel member thereby foldably engaging the front panel with the rear wall at each of their respective ends, bracing means for keeping the side wall `.members distended in normal operative position and for causing the respective front and rear panel and wall members to be held in normal operative position whereby said members are held in a substantially fixed unfolded position, said bracing means comprising a bottom wall member foldably attached at its back portion to the bottom of the rear wall member and extending forwardly to the front panel member and between the said side wall members, yielding means for engaging the underside of the bottom wall member and supporting it at an angle so that the plane of its top surface will be at an angle to the horizontal in such a manner that the plane of the bottom wall will be directed from the bottom of the rear wall in an upward direction to the bottom portion of the front lens panel member, the respective top edges of the side walls also assuming the position of being at an angle to the horizontal, and being directed downwardly from the top edge of the rear wall to the top edge of the lens carrying panel at substantially the same degree of angle as that for the plane of the bottom wall, said walls forming a viewing chamber having a horizontally converging region.
2. A folding steroscope comprising a folding body str ucture including a vertically positioned front lens carrylng relatively narrow panel member of predetermined height and a rear wall panel having a greater predetermined height that is substantially twice the height of the front panel member, scored and inwardly folding side wall members formed integral with and extending from each side of the rear wall panel in a forward direction, the side walls each comprising a plurality of panel areas next to the said scorings, the respective front ends of the side wall members being fixedly engaged to the respective opposite ends of the lens panel in a manner whereby the top and bottom edges of the narrow front panel are positioned with equal distance in a vertical line from the respective top and bottom edges of the higher rear wall panel for purposes of vertically centering the smaller panel with the larger panel, the respective side wall members each having downwardly disposed top edges directed from the respective top corners of the rear wall panel in a forwardly direction to the top corners of the front panel respectively; an angularly disposed bottom wall panel formed integral with the bottom edge of the rear wall panel and directed forwardly in an upwardly directed angle to a point in juxta-position to the bottom edge of the front panel, and positioned between the side wall members, the bottom wall angle and the angle of the top edges of the side Wall members converging in the direction of the front lens panel, the width of the bottom wall being substantially the same as the front lens panel for purposes of bracing and retaining the respective end panels and side walls in an unfolded normally operative position, the side Walls each having bottom wall positioning means extending from the plane of their respective inner surfaces for engagement with the underside of the said bottom wall to keep the same in normal operative fixed position between the side walls, the said side and bottom wall members combining with the front and rear wall panels to form a viewing chamber having a horizontally converging region.
References Cited in the file of this patent Number l5 Number UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date Bridge Nov. 19, 1907 Colwell Dec. 15, 1908 Couden Apr. 10, 1917 Tolles et al. July 1, 1919 Kindelmann et al Mar. 5, 1935 Crumrine May 5, 1936 Branson Feb. 20, 1940 Branson June 8, 1943 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date France Feb. 29, 1904 Austria May 25, 1921 Great Britain Jan. 5, 1922