US 2697546 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 2l, 1954 R. M. BERGSTEIN CONTAINER INCORPORATING NONFIBROUS FILMS 5 Sheets-Sheet l Filed June 9, 1948 JI. Cw
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Dec. 21, 1954 R. M. BERGSTEIN 2,697,546
CONTAINER INCORPORATING NONFIBROUS FILMS Filed June 9, 1948 C5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. /offr M 5511763 rev/v.
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Dec. 2l, 1954 R, M BERGSTEIN 2,697,546
CONTAINER INCORPORATING NONFIBROUS FILMS Filed June 9, 1948 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 iill.
flraza! United States Patent O CONTAINER IN CORPORATIN G NONFIBROUS FILMS Robert M. Bergstein, Wyoming, Ohio, assignor to The Bergstein Packaging Trust, a trust composed of Robert M. Bergstein and Frank D. Bergstein Application June 9, 1948, Serial No. 32,009
4 Claims. (Cl. 229-34) A principal object of my invention is the provision of boxes or other containers made of paper or paperboard and incorporating in their structure non-fibrous films, by simple and inexpensive procedures, and with savings in the cost of the articles produced.
By non-fibrous films I mean anyof those relatively thin, flexible, films of plastic materials, usually transparent, of which there are a wide variety. Exemplary films are those made of ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, chlorinated rubber and the like. The chemical composition of these films is not a limitation on my invention, and any of them may be employed. I shall hereinafter describe my invention in connection with the employment of ordinary cellophane, it being understood that the teachings hereinafter will apply equally to any available non-fibrous film material.
The association of cellophane with paperboard in the manufacture of cartons is not new. Filled and closed cartons are frequently wrapped in cellophane; but this requires wrapping machinery in the hands of the carton user. In the case of window cartons, i. e. cartons having portions of one or more walls cut away to provide a view of the contents, it has long been the practice to associate a sheet of cellophane with the inside surface of the carton panel containing the window. So-called window machines are available on the market for associating sheets of cellophane with the inside surfaces of panels in boxboard blanks, prior to the folding and gluing of the blanks. However, in many instances it is preferable to have the non-fibrous film associated with the outer surface of the boxboard for various reasons. In some instances it is capable of providing better protection in this way. It is also known that an external covering of cellophane or the like adds a sheen to a package, and enhances the appearance of printing on boxboard surfaces seen through the cellophane covering. It has hitherto been suggested that boxes might be made with external coverings of cellophane by printing sheets of boxboard, cutting window holes in appropriate places in such sheets and then laminating to the boxboard sheets layers of cellophane, after which the laminated sheets could be cut and scored for the formation of the desired cartons.
The last mentioned procedure has a number of serious disadvantages. The manufacturing operations are increased in number, and hence the cost of the containers is unduly great. It is difiicult to laminate a non-fibrous, transparent film to a piece of boxboard by an adhesive effective all over the surfaces of each without clouding or impairing the transparency of the non-fibrous film, and without the production of visible patches of adhesive lying beneath it. Moreover if the under surface of the non-fibrous film is first coated with adhesive, there is a problem of inactivating this adhesive over windows or cut-outs in the paperboard sheet.
An object of my invention is the provisionv of containers incorporating non-fibrous films with the elimination of all of the disadvantages set forth above.
It is an object of my invention to provide containers incorporating non-fibrous films which can be made complete in the box factory, and require no equipment on the part of the box user other than that equipment norrnally required for the closure and sealing of cartons. In the case of cartons which can be set up and closed by hand, of course, no equipment on the part of the user is required.
It is an object of my invention to provide containers incorporating non-fibrous films which can be made and 2,697,546 Patented Dec. 21, 1954 sold as knocked down or collapsed structures with savings in storage space and the cost of shipment.
It is an object of my invention to provide a mode of manufacturing containers incorporating non-fibrous films requiring no equipment other than the standard equipment of the box factory, including a standard window machine as known in that art.
These and other objects of my invention which will be set forth hereinafter or will be apparent to one skilled in the art upon reading these specifications I accomplish by that procedure and in those constructions and arrangements of parts of which I shall now describe certain exemplary embodiments. Reference is made to the accompanying drawings wherein:
Figure 1 is a plan view of the paperboard blank for one element of a two-piece box, with which has been associated a sheet of non-fibrous film such as cellophane.
Figure 2 is a sectional view taken along the line 2-2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2 showing the application of adhesive to marginal portions of the paperboard blank.
Figure 4 is a similar view showing the blank with longitudinal marginal portions infolded.
Figure 5 is a similar view showing the blank with the side walls infolded.
Figure 6 is a partial perspective view of the blank with the side walls infolded.
Figure 7 is a longitudinal section of the blank taken along the lines 7-7 of Figure l.
Figure 8 is a similar view showing the application of adhesive to end tabs of the blank.
Figure 9 is a similar View showing the blank with the end tabs and marginal extensions of the end walls infolded.
Figure 10 is a partial perspective view showing one end of the completed folded and glued blank.
Figure l1 is a perspective view showing the box elemelr in set un or erected condition.
Figure 12 is a plan view of a blank of paperboard with which has been associated a sheet of non-fibrous film. Figure 13 is a sectional view taken along the line 13-13 of Figure 12.
Figure 14 is a similar View showing the application of adhesive to a lateral marginal portion of the blank.
Figure l5 is a similar view showing the blank in completely tubed condition.
Figure 16 is a perspective view showing the tubed blank with a bottom liange folded over and adhesively secured.
Figure 17 is a perspective view of the same structure taken from the other side or face side.
Figures 18 and 19 are respectively plan views of pieces of boxboard with which sheets of non-fibrous film have been associated, the first of these figures showing the structure immediately after such association, and the second of these figures showing the structure after it has been subjected to the action of cutting and scoring dies.
Figure 20 is a plan view of another form of carton blank with which a sheet of non-fibrous film has been associated.
Figure 2l is a transverse sectional view of the same structure taken along the line 21-21 of Figure 20.
Figure 22 is a similar View showing the application of adhesive to the glue flap.
Figure 23 is a similar view showing the structure in completely tubed condition.
Figure 24 is a partial perspective view of the erected tubed structure of Figure 23 with parts broken away to show their relationship.
Figure 25 is a sectional view of an erected tubular carton showing an alternative mode of adhering the glue flap.
Figure 26 is a plan view of a paper or paperboard blank having a sheet of non-fibrous film adhered thereto.
Figure 27 is a sectional view thereof taken along the line 27-27 of Figure 26.
Figure 28 is a similar view showing marginal portions of the blank infolded and adhesively secured.
Figure 29 is a partial perspective view of the structure of Figure 28 showing a bottom flap with an application of adhesive.
Figure 30 is a perspective of a completed envelope structure formed from the elements indicated in Figures 26 to 29 inclusive.
Briefly in the practice of my invention I associate a sheet of non-fibrous film with the face side of a paperboard or other sheet or blank. This association may be readily accomplished by passing the blank through any of the standard window machines of commerce;A applying to face portions of the blank desired areas of adhesive, and then positioning on the blank a sheet of non-fibrous film tov cover the desired area of the blank,which in normal" practice will comprise a plurality ofl panels or' wallsl the blank elsewhere. The tightening action which I have just described isan important' feature of my invention andresults in a final structure smoothly covered with the nonfibrous film although the major portion of the area of that film is not in adhesive union with or laminated to the blank itself.
The folding which accomplishes this tightening is a. folding inwardly of lan articulated panel on both sides of I the intervening panel or panels over which the film lies so that a double tensioning or tightening action is obtained. The folding may take different forms for different blanks as will now be understood by the skilled worker in the art. In some instances the sheet of non-fibrous t film will be doubly tightened in but one direction across the blank; in other instances as where the blank is subt jected to two directional folding, ythe sheet of non-fibrous Y t film will be doubly tightened in'both directions, as will will normally be formed in multiples on large sheets,
which are then separated, and the scrap removed, in the ordinary way. The blanks will then be sent individually through the window machine, which is a machine equipped with means to deposit sheets of non-fibrous film upon the carton blanks, usually as they pass beneath a depositing wheel. For the adhesive union of the nonfibrous film to the paperboard blank a glue printing apparatus will be located ahead of the depositing roll. l
Then the assembly will be sent through a carton folding and gluing machine wherein other gluing means are employed to deposit adhesive upon parts of the blank which are subsequently to be folded and secured together, all as is well known in the art.
The blanks may be of boxboard or paperboard of suitable weights and qualities, or in the case of particular articles such as envelopes, they may be of paper.
In my practice. the blanks are run through ythe window 1 machine in a different fashion, however, i. e. with their outer surfaces uppermost; the adhesive is deposited upon these outer surfaces, and the sheet of non-fibrous film is also so deposited as to overlie the outer surfaces of the blanks.
It is within the scope of my invention to pass through the window machine sheets of paper or boxboard intended for the formation of a plurality ofy alignedycar tons or envelopes. been printed as desired, and if they are to contain-windows, appropriate cut outs will be provided. After a sheet of non-fibrous film has been deposited upon such sheets of paperboard or paper they may subsequently be treated in a cuttingr and scoring press for the'forma tion of a plurality of blanks. This expedient is one which I employ, however. only in instances where a non-fibrous film associated with a particular blank is to be itself of irregular or non-rectangular shape, or where it is necessary for some other reason to form cuts in the nonfibrous film. In all other instances I prefer to handle the blanks individually in the window machine after they have been completely formed by printing, cutting and scoring operations.
In practicing my invention. the sheets of non-fibrous film are not laminated to the blanks by an all over coating of adhesive. Instead l prefer to adhere the sheets to the blanks only at marginal portions. This does not preclude. in instances where it may be desired, the deposition of adhesive substance about the margin of a window opening so as to secure the nou-fibrous film to this margin. Unless the carton or other structure is to contain granular or powdered materials, however, this expedient is not required.
In the usual practice of my invention the size of the sheet of non-fibrous film deposited upon the blank is very nearly as large as the blank itself. The sheet of nonfibrous film will in any event cover major portions of a plurality of panels of the blank, which panels are articulated together. In some instances the sheet of nonfibrous film deposited upon a blank will be greater in are?l than the blank itself.
In the practice of my invention I apply a sheet of cellophane or the like to a blank so as to span at least one panel thereof. securing margins of the sheet to other parallel articulated panels, and then by folding the outlying panels with respect to the intermediate panel or panels I tighten or draw the cellophane sheet around the intermediate panel or panels. This action is possible be* cause the sheet of non-fibrous film is adhered to the blank at its margins, and is free or substantially free of These sheets will have previously and 14 as at 25 and 26. The next operation will be the 1 The side walls have extensions 12 and 14, and the end walls have extensions 15 and 16, provided centrally with articulated tabs 17 and 18. The main panel 1 may be provided if desired with 19a. The paperboard blank itself is a known form of blank for a two-piece box.
The blank is next sent through a window machine with its outer printed surface-uppermost, and a sheet 19 of cellophane or other non-fibrous film is associated with it. l have indicated this sheet as extending into the areas of the side and end wall extension elements' 12, 14, 15 and 16 and adhered to these elements by means of stripes of adhesive indicated at 20, 22, 23 rand 24. The sheet is also shown as extending somewhat beyond the edges of the corner connecting webs 8, 9, 10 and 11'. The blank and associated non-fibrous film is shown in section in Figure'Z.
The combined' blank'and sheet of non-fibrous film may then be sent through an ordinary carton `folding and gluinfr machine'in the opposite position, i. e. with the re-y verse side ofthe boxboard up. In Figure 3 I have shown stripes of adhesive applied to the side wall extensions 12 infolding of the side wall extensions as shown irl-Figures 4 and the adhesive attachment of theseextensions to the side wallsy themselves.' thus providing double thickness upper edges for the side walls, and tightening the-cellophane as explained above. selves are folded'inwardly as shownin Figures 5 and 6. The result of these folding operations is to tensionthe sheet 19 of non-fibrous film across the main panel 1 and side walls 3 and 4 of the blank.
If the folding and gluing machine being employed is a straight line machine, the blanks folded as in Figures 5 and 6 will next be sent through the machine in the transverse direction, or if the machine being employed is a right angle machine'the folded' blanks will pass to second section, there to Y be folded transversely. As shown in Figure 8 the first step will be the application of areas of adhesive 28 and 29 to the tabs 17 and 18 on the end wall extensions, which tabs are then folded inwardly, again tighteningthecellophane in a direction transverse the first direction. The end wall extensions 15 and 16 are next folded inwardly'as shown in Figure 9, the result being the adhesive attachment of the lfolded tabs 17 and 18 tothe end walls 5 and 6 as willtbe clear from the drawing.
An end` of the `completely foldedand glued, knocked.,
down box is shown in Figure 10. All outer surfaces of the box are covered with the tightened `non-fibrous film 19. This film also covers thecorner connecting webs `8,
The box is exceptionally neat and attractive in appear` ance. `It willl be 'evidentfthat the teachings ofthis invenf' tion are applicable tov` a wide variety *of one-piece and 'Y a cut out'or window openingA its Next the side walls them-H two-piece boxes, as will now be apparent to the skilled worker in the art.
In Figure 12 I have illustrated an envelope structure comprising a blank cut and scored to present a main panel 30, side-wise articulated panels 31 and 32 and end panels or tabs 33 and 34. This blank may be made of paperboard or, since the ultimate structure will be in the form of an envelope, it may be made of paper. The main panel 30 may be provided, as desired, with a window opening 35.
In a window machine a sheet of cellophane or other non-fibrous film 36 will be deposited upon the blank. It will be of a size to cover the main panel 30 and major portions of the side panels 31 and 32. Preferably also it will cover a portion at least of the bottom ap 34, and it will be adhered marginally to these several elements as bv areas of adhesive 37, 38 and 39.
The blank treated in this fashion will next be sent through a carton folding and gluing machine. As shown in Figure 14 adhesive will be applied to a margin of one of the side panels as at 40, and the side panels will next be folded over and adhesively secured at their interlap as shown in Figure l5. 'This forms a flat tubular structure and tensions the cellophane or other non-fibrous film about the panel 30 and portions of the side panels which in their joined condition form the back of the envelope. In a right angled operation the bottom iiap 34 will be folded over and adhesively secured to the back of the structure as illustrated in Figure 16.
An envelope-like container is formed in this fashion with its entire front surface and portions of its rear surface covered with tensioned film. In use, articles of merchandise will be inserted in the envelope through its open end as will be apparent in Figure 16, whereupon the top ap 33 may be folded over rearwardly and adhesively secured to the rear of the structure. While I have shown the flap 33 free of the non-fibrous film, it is Within the scope of my invention to treat this flap as ap 34 was treated.
It will be noted that it is undesirable to have the sheet of non-fibrous film extend beyond the ends of the side and top and bottom fiaps of the main blank. In instances where the window machine is unable to form or handle sheets of cellophane of non-rectangular shape, it is within the scope of my invention, as illustrated in Figures 18 and l9 to associate a sheet 41 of non-fibrous film with a sheet 42 of suitable material for the blank, adhering the non-fibrous film at its edges to the sheet 42 as indicated at 43 and 44 and elsewhere where it is desired that the non-fibrous film belattached to flap members, as at 45. Then the composite sheet illustrated in Figure 18 can be sent through a cutting and scoring press to form two or more envelope structures as illustrated at 46 and 47 in Figure 19. These structures upon being cut apart, can be sent through carton folding and gluing equipment and treated as hereinabove described.
In Figure I have illustrated a paperboard blank for a folding tubular carton having a series of body walls 48, 49. 50 and 51 and a glue flap 52 in articulation. Short flaps 53, 54, 55 and 56 are shown articulated to the ends respectively of bodv wall panels 49 and 51, while the bodv wall panel 50 is provided with closure flaps 57 and 58 having tuck elements 59 and 60. The carton is thus in the form of the well known tuck-end tubular carton. The principles of this invention are applicable to other knock-down tubular cartons having other forms of end closure as will be evident. The panel 50 may be provided with a window 61 if desired.
To the face side of the blank of Figure 20, in a window machine. I apply a sheet 62 of cellophane or other non-fibrous film adhering it at its edges to the glue flap 52 and the body wall 48 by areas of adhesive indicated at 63 and 64. The combined blank is thereupon sent through a carton folding and gluing machine, and with the application of adhesive as at 65 to the glue flap 52, it may be tubed in the ordinary way as shown in cross section in Figure 23. The result of this tubing operation will be to tension the cellophane or other nonfibrous film across the body wall panels 49, 50 and 51.
The glue fiap 52 may be adhered to the inside marginal portion of the body wall 48 as shown in Figures 23 and 24 or to the outside marginal portion of the body wall 48 as shown in Figure 25. In either instance a knock-down tubular carton is produced the outer sur faces of the body walls of which are covered with tensioned non-fibrous film at least as lto the panels which are desired to be so covered. It will be obvious in Figure 2O that the widthwise dimension of the sheet of cellophane or the like may be increased until it covers the body panel 48, if this be desired.
In Figure 26 I have shown a blank of paper or paperboard comprising a main panel 66, articulated side panels 67 and 68 and articulated end panels 69 and 70. A sheet 71 of cellophane or other non-fibrous film is deposited upon this blank so as to cover the main panel 66 and extend at least partially across the side panels 67 and 68 to which it is marginally adhered by areas of adhesive 72 and 73. This structure is shown in cross section in Figure 27. The side panels 67 and 68 are narrow; and in the folding and gluing of this structure they are simply folded back and adhesively secured to the rear surface of the main panel 66, as shown in Figure 28. This folding tensions the sheet of non-fibrous film as hereinabove explained. As a next operation, the lower end flap 70 is folded forwardly and adhesively secured to the lower edge of the sheet of non-fibrous film as will be evident from Figures 29 and 30, the application of adhesive to the lower or bottom ap being indicated at 74 in Figure 29. The resultant structure is an envelope adapted for the display of merchandise. The panel 66, reinforced at its edges by the side flaps 67 and 68 forms the back of the envelope, while the main portion of the non-fibrous lm 71 forms the front portion. The merchandise is inserted between the front and rear portions of the envelope, after which the top flap 69 may be folded over forwardly and adhesively secured to the top marginal portion of the non-fibrous film. In this way there is formed a display envelope in which the entire front element or panel is formed of the non-fibrous film and is transparent for display purposes, excepting for the relatively narrow top and bottom marginal portions lapped by the flaps 69 and 70.
From the above teachings in which I have set forth certain exemplary embodiments of my invention, it will be evident how the principles of it can be applied by the skilled worker in the art to envelope, container and carton structures of a wide variety of forms. Advantages of the method herein set forth are cheapness and simplicity, arising from the use of known and available apparatus as well as from the specific construction of the articles themselves. The articles are knock-down or collapsed structures of completely fabricated form, requiring no manipulations on the part of the user other than those inherent in the erection, closing and filling of ordinary cartons, containers and envelopes and the like, and requiring no apparatus in the plant of the user beyond apparatus normally present for these functions. Yet the cartons or containers are ones in which the advantages of an external surfacing of non-fibrous film over desired panels is fully attained with all of the advantages inherent in such external surfacings.
Modifications may be made in my invention without departing from the spirit of it. Having thus described my invention in certain exemplary embodiments, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. A collapsible box structure formed from a paperboard blank having a rectangular main panel, side wall panels articulated to opposite side edges of said main panel and hinged extensions on the outer side edges of said side wall panels, a substantially rectangular sheet of non-fibrous film overlying and covering the upper surfaces of said main panel and said side wall panels and adhesively secured along opposite marginal edges to the upper surfaces of said hinged extensions but free of attachment to said main panel and said side wall panels, said extensions and the portions of said sheet of nonfibrous lrn adhesively secured thereto lying in rearwardly infolded condition with said extensions adhesively secured to the under surface of said box blank, with said sheet of film thereby permanently pretensioned across the upper surface of said main panel and said side wall panels.
2. A process of making a collapsible paperboard box structure surfaced with non-fibrous film, which comprises providing a paperboard blank having a rectangular main panel, side wall panels articulated to opposite side edges of said main panel, and extensions articulated to the outer edges of said side wall panels, depositing a rectangular sheet of non-fibrous film on the upper surface of said blank, said sheet covering the said bottom panel and said side wall panels and overlying said extensions, and adhering said sheet marginally to the upper surfaces of said extensions, said sheet being free of attachment to said blank in the areas of said main panel and said side wall panels, and thereafter folding said extensions rearwardly through substantially 180 and adhesively securing them in the folded condition to the under surfaces of said side wall panels, whereby to apply pulling forces to said sheet of non-fibrous iilrn acting to permanently pretension it across the upper surface of said main panel and said side wall panels.
3. A process of making collapsible box structures surfaced with non-fibrous film, which comprises providing a paperboard blank having a rectangular main panel, side and end wall panels articulated to the edges of said main panel, and extensions articulated to the outermost side edges of said side and end wall panels, depositing a rectangular sheet of non-fibrous film on the upper surface of said blank, said sheet covering said bottom panel, said side and end wall panels, and overlying said extensions, adhering said sheet marginally to the upper surfaces of said side and end wall extensions only, said sheet being free of attachment to said main panel and said side and end Wall panels, and thereafter folding said side wall extensions rearwardly through substantially 180 and adhesively securing them in the folded condition to the under surfaces of said side wall panels, whereby to apply pulling forces to said sheet of non-fibrous film acting to permanently tension it across the upper surfaces of said main panel and said side wall panels, and during the erection of said box structure, infolding said end wall extensions through at least substantially 180 and securing them in the infolded condition to further tension said sheet of non-fibrous film.
4. A carton construction formed from a paperboard blank having a main panel, side and end wall panels articulated to said main panel, and hinged extensions on the outer edges of said side and end wall panels, a rectangular sheet of non-brous film overlying and covering the outer surface of said blank, said sheet being adhesively secured along marginal edgesto said hinged extensions only but free of attachment to said main panel and said side and end wall panels, said side wall extensions and the portions of said sheet adhesively secured thereto lying in rearwardly infolded condition with said last named extensions adhesively secured to the inner surfaces of said side wall panels, said carton structure being in the erected condition with said side and end walls extending perpendicular to said main panel, and with said end wall extensions folded through substantially and lying in face-to-face contact with the inner surfaces of said end walls.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 737,692 Alger Sept. 1, 1903 1,867,556 Moll July 19, 1932 1,923,065 Clemens Aug. 22, 1933 1,933,516 Rosen Oct. 31, 1933 1,955,893 Scott Apr. 24, 1934 1,978,626 Gault Oct. 30, 1934 2,105,270 Scheley Jan. 11, 1938 2,226,089 Anthony et al. Dec. 24, 1940 2,284,604 Brooks May 26, 1942 2,290,104 Larson .Tuly 14, 1942 2,414,763 Palmer Ian. 2l, 1947 2,479,456 Arthur Aug. 16, 1949 2,502,481 Roper Apr. 4, 1950 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 476,900 Great Britain Dec. 17, 1937