US 2697887 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 28, 1954 R. KERSHAW AUGER TYPE BALLAST EXCAVATOR 5 Shets-$heet 1 Filed Dec. '7, 1950 Dec. 28, 1954 R. KERSHAW 2,697,887
AUGER TYPE BALLAST EXCAVATOR Filed Dec. 7, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Dec. 28, 1954 R. KERSHAW AUGER TYPE BALLAST EXCAVATOR Filed Dec. 7, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Dec. 28, 1954 R, s w 2,697,887
AUGER TYPE BALLAST EXCAVATOR Filed Dec. 7, 1950 5 ShegtS-Sheet 4 28, 1954 R. KERSHAW 2,697,887
AUGER TYPE BALLAST EXCAVATOR Filed Dec. 7, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 United States Patent AUGER TYPE BALLAST EXCAVATOR Royce Kershaw, Montgomery, Ala.
Application December 7, 1950, Serial No. 199,643
Claims. (Cl. 37-104) This invention is a ballast removing device, adapted particularly for use in ballast stripping, ballast cleaning, reballasting, and retimbering of railroad track.
In these operations, it is customary to remove all of the ballast between the railroad cross ties the entire width of the latter to a predetermined depth below the bottoms of the ties. In the best interests of the railroad, it is preferable to remove this ballast with the two rails of track in place, in order that traffic may continue notwithstanding these operations. Various methods in accomplishing these objects have been tried; such as, removing one rail and stripping the ballast from beneath it, and then removing the other rail for similar operation, either with mechanized equipment or hand labor. It has also been proposed and tried to leave the two rails in place and mechanically stripping some of the ballast and removing that ballast inaccessible to the mechanized equipment by hand. These results have not been entirely satisfactory from the standpoint of time consumed and labor used, as well as from the standpoint of eflicient stripping operation.
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It 1s the primary object of the invention to provide a power operated equipment for effectively removing or cleaning the ballast between adjacent cross ties to a predetermined depth, and from under each of the rails of the track without the necessity of removing the rails.
A further object is to provide a machine for the purposes stated, capable of simultaneously removing that portion of ballast under each rail between adjacent cross ties as well as to provide a machine capable of being easily and accurately gauged as to its depth of operation.
A further object of the invention is to provide a machine capable of being operated from the rails of a track, embodying means whereby the machine may be moved upon the track and accurately positioned for operation, the machine and its several operative parts being so constructed, assembled and arranged as to permit one man to operate the machine in all working positions, travelling positions, as well as in the removal of the machine from the track when occasion requires.
A further object of the invention is to provide a ballast removing machine of the character generally stated embodying means of simplified construction to facilitate its easy and quick removal from the track, as well as its ready application to the track for operation.
With the foregoing objects in view, together with others which will appear as the description proceeds, the invention consists in the novel construction, combination and arrangement of parts, all as will be described more fully hereinafter, illustrated in the drawings, and particularly pointed out in the claims.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a top plan view of a ballast removing machine embodying the invention,
Fig. 7a is a similar view showing the hydraulic system for controlling the movements of the ballast removing means.
Generally stated, the invention resides in a car or vehicle adapted to travel upon the rails of a railway track and equipped with a suitable motor to drive the car along the track as well as to supply the necessary motive power for the mechanical devices for bringing about the ballast stripping operations. This motor is also utilized to supply the power required in removing the car from the rails as well as to apply it thereto. The car or vehicle is light but of sturdy construction and fully capable of withstanding the loads and stresses to which it will be subjected. The construction and arrangement of the various parts is such that practically all operations of the machine may be controlled by a single operator positioned upon the car.
The means for moving the car or vehicle backwards and forwards upon the rails, as well as for operating the several mechanical structures employed in the complete operation of the machine, may take various forms. These several mechanisms, however, are all powered preferably by a single prime mover or energy source located upon the car. In the present instance, hydraulic means are utilized for operating the propelling mechanism as well as for actuating the other mechanical struc tures. Inasmuch as the illustration of the various tubes, pipes or hose which of necessity must be employed in the complete arrangement might tend to confusion, these connections have been omitted from the main figures of the drawings, but a complete layout of these power connections is disclosed in Figures 7 and 7a, and a full description of the same will be set forth following the detailed description of the several mechanical structures.
More specifically, the supporting vehicle includes longitudinal side sills 10 connected at their ends by cross or end sills 11. It will be understood that longitudinal and cross sills will be provided in such number as to provide a rigid body as well as to aiford ample support for the various mechanisms carried by the vehicle. The vehicle body is supported by traction wheels 12 mounted upon axles 13 disposed near the ends of the vehicle body. The traction wheels 12 are of the usual flange type and are spaced apart such distance as will enable the same to travel upon the standard gauge railroad track.
The vehicle has mounted thereon for vertical movement a frame which supports the ballast clearer mechanism. This frame includes lower substantially horizontally disposed beams 14, one at each side of the vehicle frame as shown, disposed longitudinally of the vehicle and pivoted Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken transversely across a railway track of conventional form and illustrating in front elevation and mounted thereon a ballast stripping machine embodying the invention,
Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the improved ballast stripping machine,
Fig. 4 is a detail fragmentary sectional view, on a slightly enlarged scale, and illustrating the manner 1n which the vertically movable frame may be mounted,
Fig. 5 is a similar view disclosing the mounting of the ballast treatment carrier members,
at their rear ends as at 15 to the side sills of the said vehicle frame. The frame also includes similar upper beams 16 maintained at all times in parallelism with the beams 14. The beams 16 are substantially identical in construction and size with the beams 14, being pivoted at their rear ends as at 17 to the upstanding posts 18 carried by the vehicle body. it will be observed that the pivots 15 and 1'7 for these frame beams are in true vertical alignment.
The forward end of this vertical movable frame supports the ballast clearing mechanism. The said forward ends of the beams 1416 have pivotally connected thereto as 19 and 20 the upright connector bars 21, the pivots 192G being in true vertical alignment.
The connector bars 21 have secured to their lower ends the ballast clearer frame 22. This frame is of elongated rectangular formation and is disposed transversely of the vehicle as well as the track bed, being of such length as to project at its ends beyond the ends of the ties 23. The ballast clearer frame includes the spaced parallel main sills 24 connected by transverse plates 25 in suitable number and disposed at such intervals as to lend rigidity and strength to the frame as well as to afford means for securing thereto the mechanism which brings about the ballast clearing operations. This frame supports spaced parallel slide bars 26, which bars are parallel with the side sills 24 of the frame. The frame also rotatably supports a power shaft 27 which extends throughout the length of the ballast clearer frame and is disposed centrally thereof. This power shaft is preferably rectangular in cross section and is suitably mounted for rotation in the bearings 28. A sprocket chain 29 passes over a suitable sprocket 30 affixed to the shaft 27, the chain also passing over a sprocket 31 afiixed to the shaft of a hydraulic motor 32 mounted upon suitable supports carried by the ballast clearer frame.
Each end of the ballast clearer frame 22 is provided with a carrier member 33 slidably supported by the spaced parallel bars 26. Each carrier member has depending therefrom a drop bracket 34, the lower end of which carries abearing 35 to rotatably receive and support the outer end of a shaft 36 carrying a worm or auger 37 at its inner end. The drive shaft 27 has aifixed at each end thereof a belt wheel or sprocket 38, over which passes the belts or sprocket chains 39 also passing over sprocket or belt wheels 46 secured to the auger shafts 36.
It is apparent from this construction that operation of the hydraulic motor 32 will,- through sprocket 31, chain 29 and sprocket 3t) rotate shaft 27, and the rotativ'e power of this shaft is transmitted throughpulley 38, belt 39 and pulley at) to the ballast clearer shafts 36. The augers or worms 3'7 operate to draw the ballast or other material in a direction outwardly of the tie ends. The ballast clearer frame and the carrier members supported thereby are so constructed and arranged that the auger or worm shafts 36 are in true axial alignment.
The ballast clearer frame 22 is provided with a pair of hydraulic rams indicated at 41 and 41. These rams include conventional cylinders as shown firmly anchored or secured in the longitudinal center of the ballast clearer frame, the pistons 42 and 42' of said rams extending outwardly from their respective cylinders and are connected at their outer extremities with the carrier members 33. It is apparent, therefore, that the application of hydraulic pressure to these rains will cause the pistons thereof to move outwardly or inwardly, depending upon the direction of pressure within the ram cylinders, to move the carrier members 33 upon their supporting slide bars 26. The construction and arrangement of this mechanism is such that retraction of the pistons 42 and 42 to their inner limits will move the augers or worms 37 inwardly so as to be in substantially meeting engagement with each other midway of a tie. The operation of the rams may be simultaneous or they may be operated independently of one another as will he hereinafter described.
The main frame, which includes the bars 1416, can r'ies an upstanding yoke, the arms 43 of which are pivoted to the said bars 14-16 inwardly from the forward ends of the latter. The lower ends of the yoke arms 43 are pivoted as at 44 to the lower bars 14, while pivots 45 connect intermediate portions of said yoke arms with the upper bars 16. The transverse bar 46 of said yoke has secured intermediate its ends and depending therefrom one end of a piston 47 of a hydraulic ram which includes the cylinder 48. The lower end of this cylinder is pivoted as at 49 to the vehicle frame 10, as shown in Fig. 3.
It is apparent from the foregoing that application of hydraulic pressure to the lower end of the cylinder 48 will force the piston 47 in an upward direction, carrying with it the yoke including the bars 4643, whereupon the entire frame and all of the mechanism carried thereby will be moved in an upward direction. Due to the pivotal connections of the bars 14 16, these bars will be maintained in parallelism throughout the upward and downward movements of the frame, and the connector bars 21 will at all times be maintained in true vertical position. In this manner, the ballast clearer frame 22 will at all times be maintained in true horizontal position. Application of pressure to the upper end of cylinder 48 will force the main frame downwardly, causing the angers or worms 37 to move into engagement with the ballast or the earth beneath the same. The degree of downward movement of these angers will be accurately gauged by an operator occupying the seat 49.
The vehicle is also equipped with means for facilitating the application of the vehicle to the rails of a railway track or its removal therefrom, which means preferably employs hydraulic pressure for its motivation. To this end, the vehicle frame has arranged thereon in its longitudinal center and in its center of gravity a hydraulic jack indicated at 50. This jack includes the cylinder 51 securely afiixed in inverted position upon the vehicle frame, and in which operates the piston or ram 52 having an enlarged foot or pedestal 53 pivoted to its lower or free end. The construction is such that when it becomes necessary to remove the car and the equipment supported thereby from the rails of a track, the vehicle is brought to rest in such position that the ram 59 will be disposed immediately above one of the ties 23. Application of hydraulic pressure to the upper end of cylinder 51 of the ram will cause the piston 52 to move downwardly until the foot 53 rests upon the tie, and continued pressure will cause the entire vehicle to be lifted free from the supporting rails of the track. As soon as the elevation is sufficient to clear the flanges of the wheels 12 from the rails, the vehicle may be rotated to substantially 90 degrees and then lowered upon an auxiliary laterally disposed track (not shown), so that the vehicle may be wheeled clear of the main track. A reverse of the operation just described is carried out when it is desired to place the vehicle upon the track.
The power source for moving the car or vehicle upon the track, as well as for operating the various mechanisms above described, includes a prime mover in the form of an internal combustion engine 54, preferably located at the rear of the vehicle and above the supporting axle thereof. As has been stated heretofore, the means for transmitting the power from the motor 54 to the several mechanisms involved in the structure may vary,- but in the present instance hydraulic means is employed. As shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings, the power shaft 55 of the motor projects forwardly therefrom and has securely attached thereto belt or sprocket wheels 56 and 57. The sprocket wheel or pulley 56 has passing thereover belts or chains 58 which engages with pulley 59 aflixed to the shaft 60 of a double hydraulic pump 61 secured near one side of the vehicle.
The sprocket or pulley 57 has passing thereover chains or belts 62 which engage with a sprocket or pulley 63 aflixed to the shaft 64 of a single hydraulic pump 65 located preferably on that side of the vehicle opposite to the location of the double hydraulic pump. It will be understood that when the motor 54 is in operation the shaft 55 will drive its pulleys or sprockets, whereupon the double and single hydraulic pumps are set in operation.
With reference now more particularly to the diagrammatic views shown in Figs. 7 and 7a, the hydraulic systems will now be described. In Fig. 7, it will be observed that the pump 61 contains separate cylinders 66 and 67 which are supplied with fluid from the tank or reservoir 68 through tubes or hoses 69 and 70 respectively. The tank 68 is positioned upon the vehicle in close proximity to the pump 61 as shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings. The flow of fluid passes from the cylinder 66 through the lead line or hose '71 to a hydraulic control valve 72. A pressure gauge 93 is located in this line for obvious purposes. The valve 72 may be equipped with a pressure relief (not shown), set to a desired working pressure of the system. The valve represented generally at 72 is in three sections, 73, 74 and 75 respectively, which sections operate different units of the machine, and the sections beingcontrolled by separate three position levers indicated at 76, 77 and 78. When a lever is in the center or neutral position, no fluid is furnished to the unit controlled by said section, in which event the fluid passing through the valve 72 will pass back into the tank or reservoir 68 through the pipe 79. When a lever is moved to one side of neutral, a supply of fluid under pressure is furnished to one side of an operating unit to move the latter in one direction, while movement of the lever to the reverse operative position will permit the flow of fluid in a reverse direction to that unit, as will be understood.
The lever 76 of the control valve section 73 governs the flow of fluid to and from hydraulic ram 41, which controls the sliding movement of one of the auger carriers 33. The flow lines from control section 73: are indicated at 80 and 81, these lines connecting with opposite ends of the ram cylinder 41.
Lever 77 governs the flow of fluid to and from the ram 48 governing the vertical movements of the main frame. The tubes or hoses 82 and 83 connect the said control valve section 74 with opposite ends of the ram cylinder 48.
The lever 78 controls the flow of fluid to and from hydraulic ram 50 which is the centrally disposed jack utilized in moving the car to and from the rails. The
leads connecting control valve section with opposite ends of the said ram 50 are indicated at 84 and 85.
Fluid is also fed from hydraulic fluid reservoir 68 to pump section 67 by means of hose 70, as has been heretofore stated. This pump section 67 supplies fluid under pressure to hydraulic control valve 36 which comprises two control valve sections 87 and 88 respectively, by means of hose or pipe 89, the latter being equipped with a conventional pressure gauge 90 for obvious purposes. The return line for the hydraulic control valve 86 is indicated at $9. The operations of the hydraulic control valve sections 87 and ii? are governed by levers 91 and 92 operating in precisely the same manner as the levers 76, 77 and 78. Hoses 93 and 94 establish pressure communication between control valve section 87 and the ends of hydraulic ram 41', governing the movement of piston 42 in the cylinder thereof to control the movements of the second auger carrier 33. Operating lever 92 controls the flow of fluid to and from hydraulic pump 98, the flow lines being indicated at 95 and 96. This pump 98 also has a return line 97 back into hydraulic fluid supply tank 63. The pump section 67 drives hydraulic fluid motor 9? (see Fig. l), the shaft of which has secured thereto a sprocket wheel 99, over which passes a chain 100 engaged over a sprocket 101 aflixed to a jack shaft 102 rotatably secured in the vehicle frame transversely thereof. The jack shaft has affixed thereto a pair of sprockets 103, over which pass sprocket chains 104 engaged with sprockets 105 aifixed to the axles 13 of the vehicle.
It is obvious from this construction that operation of lever 92 will govern the supply of hydraulic fluid from pump section 67 to the hydraulic fluid motor 98 to bring about operation of that motor so as to propel the car along the track.
Fig. 7a of the drawings shows the single hydraulic pump 65 supplied with hydraulic fluid from the tank 106 by means of tube 107. This pump supplies fluid through tube 108 to hydraulic control valve 109, a pressure gauge 110 being located in the line for obvious purposes. The return line from the valve 109 is indicated at 111. The valve 109 is provided with a three way operating lever 112, operating in the manner as described in the other levers to govern the flow of fluid pressure through lines 113 and 1145 to drive hydraulic motor 32 to rotate auger drive shaft 27. The motor 32 is provided with a return line 115 leading back into the hydraulic supply tank 106.
The several control levers above described are preferably arranged in a bank immediately adjacent to the operators seat 49' so that a single operator may at all times have control of the various mechanisms.
In operation, the vehicle is propelled along the track by the fluid drive motor 98, and it will be understood that during this travel the auger supporting frame will be elevated so that the augers will be clear of the trackway. When it is desired to remove ballast, the vehicle is halted in such position that the augers 37 will be located im mediately above the place of operation, whereupon the proper lever is operated to lower the frame and to bring the augers 37 into contact with the ballast between ties. It will be understood, of course, that the carriages 33 will have been moved to their outward limits to permit the augers 37 to clear the rails in their downward movement. Power applied through motor 32 to shaft 27 will cause the augers to rotate, drawing the ballast outwardly beyond the ends of the ties, and the operator by means of the various levers above described will accurately govern the depth of operation of the augers as well as their movements inwardly toward one another. These augers may be operated independently of one another or simultaneously as desired. It will also be understood that the vehicle may be moved slightly in back and forth directions during the rotative movement of the augers so that all of the ballast between ties will be removed.
By constructing the vertically movable frame in the manner set forth, it is apparent that accurate position and operation of the ballast removing implements may be carried out. The ballast clearer frame is at all times maintained in true horizontal position whether the main frame be raised, lowered or at any intermediate position.
A ballast remover constructed to operate in the manner described enables all of the ballast to be quickly and by simple operations removed from between ties the entire length of the latter without the necessity of manual labor. Moreover, a ballast removing machine constructed and operating in the manner stated, permits of ballast clearing operations without disturbing or removing the rails. A particular advantage in this operation is that the usual railway traflic may continue during the ballast clearing and reballasting operations.
1. In apparatus for removing ballast from between the cross ties of a railroad track with the rails thereof in place, a vehicle adapted to travel on the rails, a frame extending longitudinally of the track and pivoted at one end to the vehicle for its free end to swing vertically and having a portion at the swing end thereof above the rails extending transversely of the track, a pair of carriages mounted on the transverse portion above the rails for reciprocatory movement normally of the rails and parallel to the cross ties, an auger type ballast removing implement on each of the carriages disposed to operate upon ballast between the cross ties below the rails, power means mounted on the transverse portion of the frame operatively connected to rotate the implements in directions to draw ballast outwardly from the center of the railroad track, and other power means on the transverse portion of the frame to reciprocate the implement carriages inwardly and outwardly relative to the longitudinal center line of the railroad track while the implements are rotating.
2. Apparatus as defined in claim 1 in which the auger type ballast implements operate upon the ballast from adjacent the longitudinal center line of the track to the associated ends of the cross ties.
3. In apparatus for removing ballast from between the cross ties of a railroad track with the rails thereof in place, a vehicle adapted to travel on the rails, a frame pivotally mounted at one end on the vehicle and extending over the vehicle longitudinally of the railroad track and having a transverse portion at its free end above the rails adapted to swing vertically, a transversely disposed ballast implement frame mounted transversely on the first mentioned frame and embodying slide members at each side of the implement frame disposed normally of the railroad track above the rails, implement carriages on the slides, a rotary auger type ballast implement mounted on each carriage and directed inwardly of the railroad track below the rails, each of said implements being movable by its carriage between the crossties from a position with its inner end positioned outwardly of the ends of the associated cross ties to a position with its inner end positioned adjacent the longitudinal center line of the cross ties, power actuated means operatively connected between the implement frame and the carriages for reciprocating the carriages and their implements toward and from each other, and power means operatively connected to the implements to rotate the same during reciprocation thereof.
4. Apparatus as defined in claim 3 in which the power means for reciprocating the carriages and their implements comprises a double acting fluid pressure cylinder operatively interposed between each of the carriages and the implement frame, and means to supply fluid under pressure selectively to the ends of said cylinders.
5. Apparatus as defined in claim 3 in which the first mentioned frame comprises upper and lower beams on each side of the vehicle pivoted at their rear ends to fixed pivots in vertical alignment, and in which the implement frame is rigidly mounted on vertically extending connector bars pivotally connected in vertical alignment to the upper and lower beams.
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