US 2698700 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 4, 1955 M GROSH 2,698,700
Filed April' 27, 194e IN V EN TOR.
United States Patent O TOY PISTOL Martin L. Grosh, Westerville, Ohio, assiguor, by mesne assignments, to Kilgore, Inc., Westerville, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Application April 27, 1948, Serial No. 23,451
2 Claims. (Cl. 222-79) This invention relates to pistols, and more particularly to a toy pistol adapted to discharge fluid under pressure.
One of the objects of this invention is to provide a light weight, economically constructed, and efficiently operating toy pistol adapted to discharge a jet or squirt of fluid under sufllcient pressure to carry a substantial distance, and to repeat this operation a large number of times Without requiring the piston to be refilled.
Another object of the invention is to provide a water pistol constructed to utilize substantially the entire interior of the pistol casing as a storage chamber for fluid, which has a pumping mechanism for discharging this fluid mounted within the fluid chamber, and which operates automatically in response to a trigger-pull to discharge the fluid with a squirting action.
It is also an object to provide a pistol of the character described constructed to eliminate fluid leakage from the interior of the pistol casing, particularly around the trigger mechanism and muzzle.
It is another object to provide in a pistol of the type set forth a nozzle for squirting fluid under pressure which is quickly and easily removed from the muzzle for cleaning purposes, and thereafter replaced without requiring the use of special tools and skill.
An additional object is to provide a pumping mechanism for a water pistol constructed to operate within the fluid chamber of the pistol, and which provides for fluid leakage past the piston being returned to the fluid reservoir.
Further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings wherein a preferred form of embodiment of the invention is clearly shown.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a full size side elevational view illustrating the pistol as seen from the left-hand side thereof;
Fig. 2 is a front elevational view of the pistol shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a view, partly in elevation and in section, taken on the center line of Fig. l and illustrating the interior of the right-hand side member with the pump assembly mounted therein;
Fig. 4 is a side elevational view showing the interior of the left-hand side member; and
Fig. 5 is an enlarged vertical sectional view taken on the center line to illustrate the construction of the nozzle.
Referring further to the drawings, the pistol illustrated comprises in general a casing formed from a pair of interengaging right and left-hand side members 11 and 12. In the preferred form the members 11 and 12 are cast from plastic material. A resin such as polystyrene, for example, has been found to be suitable for this purpose. The use of such material is preferred in the construction of these members since it does not corrode from contact with water. Furthermore, this materail absorbs very little water and consequently deformation from Water absorption is negligible.
The right-hand member 11 is formed with a recessed edge or groove 13 extending substantially around the periphery of this portion of the casing as shown in Fig. 3. A raised rib 14, spaced inwardly from the outer edge to register with groove 13, is formed on the lefthand member 12 and extends substantially around this portion of the casing as illustrated in Fig. 4. Thus, when the right and left-hand members are fitted together, the rib 14 is received within the groove 13. The two halves can then be sealed together to form the enclosed pistol casing as seen in Figs. 1 and 2. It is to be noted that the members 11 and 12 are each hollowed out so when Joined together substantially the greater part of the interior of the pistol casing 10 can be used as a fluid chamber 15. Such a chamber holds a sufcient volume of fluid to provide for a large number of discharges before requiring refilling.
As seen in Figs. 3 and 4, members 11 and 12 form complementary parts of the pistol casing. In forming the right hand member 11, for example, raised supportin g members or ribs as illustrated at 18, 19 and 20, Fig. 3, are cast as integral parts of the casing. These members are each formed with a central groove which provides a seat for receiving and retaining the pumping mechanism 25 in position. Member 11 is further provided with a groove opening 26 at the top which is adapted to align opposite a similarly formed groove 27 in member 12 to provide a fluid inlet for filling the interior of casing 10 with liquid. A rubber plug 28 is inserted to close this opening when the casing has been filled with fluid. This plug is easily pulled out for refilling purposes and returned to provide a closure member preventing the spilling or leakage of fluid from the interior of the casing 10. At the muzzle or nozzle end the members 11 and 12 are formed with grooves 29 and 30 which align opposite each other to provide a seat for the outer end of the spaghetti tube forming outlet pipe 31. Similarly formed grooves in both members, as indicated at 32 in Fig. 4, also provide a seat for the cylinder end of the pumping assembly 25.
The left-hand member 12 is also formed with raised supporting members or ribs, as seen at 33, 34 and 35 in Fig. 4. These members are positioned to align opposite the members 18, 19 and 20 when the two halves are joined, and thereby form means for retaining the pump assembly 25 in position within the pistol casing 10. It will be seen also from reference to Figs. 3 and 4 that the casing members 11 and 12 are so formed as to provide an enclosed guideway 36. This guideway, when members 11 and 12 are joined, is closed on three sides so that fluid from the interior area 15 of the casing 10 does not enter the same. The guideway is open on the lower side or bottom only. This opening 37 is in the form of a slot in which the upper end of the trigger 38 is free to reciprocate. As seen in Fig. 3, the upper end of the trigger 38 is formed with an inwardly extending shoulder portion 39 which is hooked over and slides along on the lower edge of the guideway 36. To complete the outer portions of the casing 10, a front sight 40 is formed on the side member 12. The trigger guard 41, Fig. l, is formed when the side portions 42 and 43, Figs. 3 and 4, of the guard are joined together.
The pump assembly, indicated generally at 25, is provided for discharging fluid from the interior chambers 15 under pressure. Such fluid is discharged as a jet or squirt and with sufficient force to carry for a distance of approximately 20 feet. This assembly in the preferred form is cast from plastic material. Resins such as butyrate and cellulose acetate, for example, has been found to be suitable for the main portions of this assembly.
The pumping mechanism utilizes a cylinder 50. This cylinder, when formed, is open at one end, for example, the right-hand end as seen in Fig. 3. The other end of the cylinder is closed about the outwardly projecting sleeve 51. Also formed in this end of the cylinder, below the sleeve 51, is a drainage port or outlet 52. In assembling the pumping mechanism, prior to placing it in position as seen in Fig. 3, a thin, circular, flat plate 55 is placed in the cylinder 50. The diameter of this plate is slightly less than the inside diameter of the cylinder 50 so that the plate can be moved freely back and forth. In the position shown the plate is resting in contact with the open inner end of sleeve 51. A circular leather piston 56 having a slip fit with the inner surface of the cylinder is inserted next to the plate 55. To hold the piston upright a brass grommet 57 is placed on the other side. Grommet 57 in turn is held in position by means of a stainless steel coil spring 58 which is received over the inwardly extending collar portion of the grommet. The other end of the spring is retained in the collar 59 which is formed as a part of the top piece 61.
Cylinder 50 is sealed to the top piece 61 which is formed from a molded plastic casting. An orifice 62 formed in the side wall of casting 61 communicates with the interior of cylinder 50 through the collar 59. Mounted within casting 61 in a position above the orifice 62 is a fluid check valve 63. This valve is formed from a small brass cage 64 having a stainless steel ball 65 retained therein. The cage is formed with a restricted passage adapted to be opened and closed to the ow of fluid therethrough depending upon the seating of the ball 65. At the upper end casting 61 is provided with an orifice 66 and the open end sealed with a cap 67.
The outlet pipe 31, which is also formed of plastic material, has its inner end sealed to pipe 61, being received within the collar 68 provided to secure alignment with the orifice 66. The outer end of pipe 31 is sealed in the grooves 29 and 30, and thus communicates to the exterior of the casing 10, i. e., to the atmosphere. Closing the outer end of pipe 31 is a nozzle 70 shown most clearly in Figs. 3 and 5.
In the preferred form the nozzle is threadedly connected to the outer end of pipe 31. A satisfactory nozzle for this pistol is formed from a brass screw, for example, having a slotted head 71. The exteriorly threaded shank 72 of the screw is provided with a central bore 73 enlarged at the inner end and communicating with the open slot in the head through a restricted passage 74. Passage 74, in the preferred form, has an inner diameter of about .O25 of an inch. With this construction, it will be readily apparent that the threaded connection with the outer end of pipe 31 permits the nozzle 70 to be removed and replaced easily and quickly when it is desired to clean the same. It is thus a simple matter to remove the nozzle, for example, in the event it becomes clogged, and run a needle or fine wire through the passages 73 and 74. The nozzle is then screwed back into position in the end of pipe 31, and no special tools or skill are required for this operation.
A bottom piece 80 formed from a plastic casting, for example, is sealed to the lower end of tube 61. A second fluid check valve 81 is mounted within this piece in a position below the orifice 62. This valve is identical to valve 63, also having a brass cage 82 with a stainless steel ball 83 retained therein. The lower end of tube 80 is open and covered with a piece of copper screen 85. This screen forms a filter preventing foreign particles, which may be contained within the fiuid in chamber 15, from being drawn up into the interior of the nozzle and piece 80.
To reciprocate the piston 56 within the cylinder 50, a piston rod 90 is provided. This rod is connected to the back of the trigger 38, and is adapted to be slidably inserted through the open end of sleeve 51. The inner end of this rod thus contacts the plate 55 and piston 56 on one side while the grommet 57 contacts them from the other side. Spring 58 exerts sufficient force to hold these members against the inner cnd of rod 90.
In assembling the pistol for use, the pumping mechanism is first completed. That is, plate 55, piston 56, grommet 57 and spring 58 are inserted in the cylinder 50. This cylinder is then sealed to the top piece or tube 61 with its open end in alignment with the orifice 62. As previously described, a ball check valve 63 is retained within tube 61 above the orifice 62. The outlet pipe 31 is then sealed to the upper end of tube 61. Its inner end is in communication with the interior of tube 61 through the orifice 66, which is positioned above the fluid check valve 63. The open upper end of tube 61 is sealed with a cap 67. To complete the pumping assembly, the bottom piece or tube 80 is sealed to the lower end of casting 61. As previously stated, this tube is also provided with a ball check valve 81. The lower end of this tube is covered with a screen filter 85 to prevent dirt or other foreign particles from being drawn into the interior of the pumping mechanism.
The pump assembly is then placed in the right-hand member 11 of the pistol casing. As shown in Fig. 3, the pump assembly is supported in position on the ribs 18, 19 and 20. The trigger 38 is mounted with the shoulder 39 sliding in the enclosed guideway 36. The piston rod 90, which is connected to the back of trigger 38, has its inner end inserted through the sleeve 51 and contacts plate 55.
When the left-hand member 12 is sealed to member 11, the ribs 33, 34 and 35 align opposite the ribs 18, 19 and 20 and press against the pump assembly to hold the same securely. The outer end of sleeve 51, retained within the grooves 32, may project slightly from the edge of the casing 10. To prevent leakage from the interior of the casing 10 at this point, the sleeve is sealed to the casing around the groove 32 in each of the members 11 and 12. A similar seal is provided between the casing and the outer end of pipe 31 at the nozzle for the same reason.
In securing the various members of the pistol assembly together, it has been found that where the sleeve 51 is formed, for example, from butyrate and the casing members 11 and 12 from polystyrene a liquid-tight seal therebetween can be obtained by using a solvent, such as, Dow Chemical Company solvent No. 8, or its equivalent, and pressing these members together. The pump assembly members, such as the cylinder 50 and pieces 61 and 80, when formed of butyrate can be joined together by using acetone as a solvent, for example, and applying pressure. Nitro-cellulose cement is used in securing the inner end of outlet pipe 31 to casting 61, where pipe 31 is formed from cellulose acetate, for example, because of the difference in sealing characteristics. Similarly, the outer end of pipe 31 is secured to the casing members 11 and 12 with a liquid-tight seal by using the same solvent as described for the sealing of the outer end of cylinder 50 since these members have different sealing characteristics, i. e., they are cellulose acetate and polystyrene, respectively. The casing members 11 and 12, which are formed of polystyrene, can be secured together so as not to leak liquid from the interior thereof with pressure and methyl ethyl ketone as a solvent.
The pistol assembly is completed by screwing the nozzle 70 into the open end of pipe 31 until the slotted head 71 seats against the casing 10. The interior of the pistol casing 10 is filled with fluid admitted through the top opening in the casing formed by the grooves 26 and 27. When full, the plug 28 is inserted to prevent liquid leaking therefrom.
To operate the pistol when first filled, for example, the trigger 38 is pulled back. Such movement drives the piston rod and piston 56 inwardly against the action of spring 58 which is compressed thereby. This movement of the piston expels air from the cylinder through the oritice 62. When the trigger is released, spring 58 forces the piston 56 back to its original position as shown in Fig. 3. This movement creates a partial vacuum or suction action in cylinder 50 which is sufficient to draw a quantity of fluid from the interior 15 of the casing 10 up through the interior of piece 80, which unseats ball 83 in valve 81, and which enters cylinder 50 through the orifice 62. Then when trigger 38 is pulled back again, this fiuid is discharged from the cylinder back through the oritice 62 under pressure. This movement of the fluid seats ball 83 and closes valve 81. It also unseats the upper ball 65 and opens valve 63 thereby. The uid is then free to enter the outlet pipe 31 by means of orice 66 from pipe 61. This fluid, which is substantially the quantity discharged from the cylinder 50 by the piston and that contained in the pipes between the valves 63 and 81, then discharges through the restricted passage 74 in the nozzle 70 to the atmosphere. Where the piston 56 has a diameter of approximately 3A; of an inch and a stroke of about 1A inch, the fluid is discharged under sutiicient pressure when leaving the nozzle to squirt for a distance of approximately 20 feet. There is such a small quantity of fiuid discharged with each such shot where, for example, the inside diameter of tube 31 is approximately 1A; of an inch and that of pieces 61 and S0 is about W16 of an inch, and the pistol casing of the size illustrated in the drawings, that about to 125 shots can be discharged before refilling is necessary.
1t will be apparent from the above description of the operation that after the piston 56 has discharged a quantity or shot of uid the spring 58 returns it to the opposite end of the cylinder again as soon as the trigger is released. The filling operation is then automatically repeated and the pistol is ready to discharge another shot of fluid when the trigger is pulled. Any fiuid retained in the tubes 31 and 61 after a discharge is prevented from reentering the cylinder by the closing of the upper check valve 63 in response to each suction stroke of the piston. The pressure stroke of the piston has the reverse effect,
that is, valve 81 is closed by the movement of uid out of the cylinder and valve 63 is opened thereby.
It will be apparent also that any uid that leaks past the piston during the operation thereof will be discharged from the port 52 in the end of the cylinder and ow back into the tiuid reservoir 15. Sufficient air under atmospheric pressure enters the uid chambers to replace the fluid discharged and prevents the pumping mechanism from locking. This air enters the interior of the casing 10 around the nozzle 70, sleeve 51, and the filler plug 28. These members seal against liquid leakage but not against the entry of air under atmospheric pressure. Some air may enter the casing by tlowing back through the nozzle in pipe 31, orifice 66, pipe 61, valve 63, orifice 62, and either through cylinder 50, and out through the port 52 into chamber 15, or through valve 81 and piece 80 to chamber 15.
From the above description it will be further apparent that a water pistol is provided which is eicient in operation, and which is constructed to eliminate leakage from the Huid chamber or reservoir. Furthermore, the pistol is provided with liuid chamber which is formed by the interior of the pistol casing whereby a large number of discharges can be obtained without frequent relillings being necessary. Also, the construction of the pistol provides for a filter screen to protect the pumping mechanisrn from foreign particles in the tluid whereby long and eficient operation is assured, and an easily removed and cleaned nozzle which permits the pistol to be refilled from puddles or pools which may contain mud or the like.
While the form of embodiment of the present invention as herein disclosed constitutes a preferred form, it is to be understood that other forms might be adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims which follow.
l. A water pistol comprising a hollow casing having a barrel simulating section and a grip section, said casing comprising complementary side members hermetically sealed to one another along the adjoining edges to form a sealed Water chamber; a water pumping assembly within the casing including a pump within the grip section of the casing; and means extending through the casing for manually actuating the pump, each of said side members having inwardly extending ribs, the inner ends of the ribs providing seats engaging parts of the water pump assembly for retaining said pump in operative position in the grip section upon application of force to the pump by said means.
2. A water pistol comprising a hollow casing having a barrel simulating section and a grip section, said casing comprising complementary side members sealed to one another along the adjoining edges; a Water pumping assembly within the casing including a pump within the grip section of the casing, tubing leading to and from the pump, the tubing leading to the pump having the inlet end thereof adjacent the bottom of the casing and the tubing leading from the pump being disposed in the barrel section, each of said side members having inwardly extending ribs on the barrel and grip sections, the ribs on the side members of the barrel section confronting one another and the ribs on the side members of the grip section confronting one another, the ends of the ribs being arranged to engage the tubings, at least one of the ribs on each section having a groove for receiving the tubings for locating and holding the tubings in position.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 401,413 Clark Apr. 16, 1889 825,270 Gulliford July 3, 1906 927,040 Hamilton July 6, 1909 1,410,026 Monosmith Mar. 21, 1922 1,979,014 Schleif Oct. 30, 1934 2,069,076 Majewski Ian. 26, 1937 2,123,737 Lewis July 12, 1938 2,159,894 Hines May 23, 1939 2,387,233 Clapp Oct. 23, 1945 2,435,527 Arpin Feb. 3, 1948 2,527,614 Arpin Oct. 31, 1950 FOREIGN PATENTS 589,451 Great Britain June 20, 1947