US 2699509 A
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C59 DHETZES E.LQE
Gehe .RIZ-Eff C. B. LEE ET AL ELECTROMAGNETIC TYPE HAIR CLIPPER Jan. 11, 1955 Filed Feb. 15, 1951 Jan. ll, 1955 c. a. LEE Erm.
ELECTROMAGNETIC TYPE HAIR CLIPPER Y 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. l5 1951 Jndwma/ 5215112515 E. le@
Een; MNE/"f United States Patent O ELECTROMAGNETIC TYPE HAH! CLIPPER Charles B. Lee and Gene M. Nelf, Racine, Wis., assignors to John Oster Manufacturing Company, Racine, Wis., a corporation of Wisconsin Application February 15, 1951, Serial No. 211,066
11 Claims. (Cl. 310-29) This invention relates to electromagnetically powered hairclippers wherein the movable blade is reciprocated by an armature which is intermittently drawn toward the pole of an alternating current electromagnet against the tension of a spring incorporated in the mounting of the armature, the periodicity of the resulting vibration of the armature being governed by the frequency of the alternating current used to energize the electromagnet; and has as its purpose to provide an improved clipper of this type.
With a view toward facilitating assembly of the c1ipper during manufacture this invention provides an irnproved manner of mounting the armature so that its assembly with the rest of the structure is accomplished by merely dropping the armature down into the lower half of the sectional housing or case in which the instrumentalities of the clipper are assembled and which also serves as a handle for the clipper.
Another object of this invention is to provide an improved resilient mounting for the armature which is so designed and constructed that all parts thereof, with the exception of that portion thereof which provides the spring proper, are reinforced against dellection or exure of any kind, and so that a single relatively stit leaf spring provides the entire spring action, an advantage of this construction being that by the simple eX- pedient of reducing the thickness of the leaf spring it is possible to adapt the clipper to operation with voltages of different frequencies.
A still further object of this invention is to provide an improved manner of mounting the electric switch for the clipper whereby the securement of the complementary housing sections of itself fixes the switch in position in a manner whereby the opening through which the switch actuator protrudes is tightly closed to assure against the ingress of hair into the body or housing of the clipper.
With the above and other objects in view, which will appear as the description proceeds, this invention resides in the novel construction, combination and arrangement of parts substantially as hereinafter described and more particularly defined by the appended claims, it being understood that such changes in the precise embodiment of the hereindisclosed invention may be made as come Within the scope of the claims.
The accompanying drawings illustrate one complete example of the physical embodiments of the invention constructed according to the best mode so far devised for the practical application of the principles thereof, and in which:
Figure 1 is a side elevational view of a clipper embodying this invention, parts thereof being broken away and in section;
Figure 2 is a top plan view of the clipper with the upper half of its housing or case removed;
Figure 3 is a cross sectional view through the clipper on the plane of the line 3-3 in Figure 2;
Figure 4 is a cross sectional view through the clipper on the plane of the line 4--4 in Figure 2;
Figure 5 is a fragmentary detail sectional view through the switch and adjacent portion of the clipper, said view being taken on the plane of the line 5-5 in Figure 2;
Figure 6 is an exploded perspective view of the main portions of the clipper and showing the armature removed from but in position to be dropped down into the lower half of the clipper housing or case;
2,699,509 Patented Jan. 1l, 1955 Figure 7 is a detail sectional view through the movable blade and the adjacent portion of the connection between it and the armature;
Figure 8 is a detail perspective view of the mounted end of the armature and illustrating particularly the bracket-like stamping which provides the resilient mounting for the armature;
Figure 9 is a fragmentary perspective view showing a detail in the construction of the cover section of the housing or case; and
Figure 10 is a detail sectional view through Figure 4 on the plane of the line 10-10.
Referring now particularly to the accompanying drawings in which like numerals indicate like parts throughout the several views, the numeral 9 indicates generally the sectional housing or case of a hair clipper embodying this invention and which in the present instance comprises a lower body section 10 and an upper cover section 11. The driving instrumentalities of the clipper indicated generally by the numeral 12 are contained entirely with the housing or case, which as is customary is of a size to be conveniently held in one hand. They are assembled upon the interior of the body section 10. Hence the assembly can be completed before the cover section 11 is secured in position, which is done by means of fastening screws (not shown) passing through holes in the cover and threaded in tapped sockets 13 in the body section.
The clipper includes the customary cooperating stationary and movable shearing blades 14-15, the former being secured by screws 16 to the inclined front wall 17 of the body section and the latter being carried by an armature indicated generally by the numeral 18. The holes in the stationary blade 14 through which its fastening screws 16 pass are purposely made somewhat larger than the shank of the screws to enable slight lateral adjustment of the stationary blade in the securement thereof.
The movable blade 15 is connected to the armature 18 by a driving connection 19 to be hereinafter more fully described, which not only connects the blade 15 with the armature so that it moves therewith, but also applies a downward spring tension on the movable blade to press the same firmly against the stationary blade, the spring tension by which this engagement is maintained being adjusted by means of a set screw 20 equipped with the customary lock nut.
The armature 18 is composed of a stack of substantially L-shaped laminations each of which has a base or foot portion 21 and a stern or leg portion 22. The blade driving connection 19 is secured to the base or foot portion by rivets 23 which, of course, also hold the armature laminations together at this point. The portion 21 is thus the free end of the armature and at its opposite or mounted end the laminations of the armature are clamped together by being embraced between the arms 24 of a U-shaped metal stamping indicated generally by the numeral 25 and which, as will be hereinafter more fully described, constitutes an eS- sental part of the spring mounting of the armature.
It is to be observed that the arms 24 of the U-shaped stamping 25 are elongated toward the free end of the armature to provide attaching ears 26 which are the actual portions of the arms 24 embracing the sides of the armature. Rivets 27 pass through these attaching ears and the armature to fasten the stamping 25 to the armature and also rmly clamp its laminations together.
Attention is directed to the fact that the bight 28 of the U-shaped stamping is spaced from the plane of the adjacent inner face 29 of the armature and that a tongue-like extension 30 projects inwardly from the bight to overle and be spaced from this portion of the armature. The tongue-like extension 30 provides a relatively stii leaf spring so that by anchoring the outer end portion of this spring the armature is resiliently mounted in a manner enabling it to be vibrated to reciprocate the movable shearing blade. An electromagnet indicated generally by the numeral 31 provides the means for vibrating the armature, it being understood that upon energization of the electromagnet with an alternating current the armature is periodically or intermittently attracted toward the poles of the electromagnet against the tension of the relatively stiff leaf spring 30.
The manner in which the tongue or leaf spring 30 and consequently the armature is mounted is an important feature of this invention but before describing the same it should be noted that the electromagnet 31 which consists of a substantially E-shaped laminated core 32 and a coil or winding 33 mounted upon the center leg 34 of the core is fixed in the bottom of the body between the medial portion thereof and the front end of the clipper. The three legs of the core 32, of course, provide the poles of the electromagnet and as best seen in Figure 2 the outer leg 35, which is farthest from the front end of the clipper, and the center leg 34 are of the same length and have their pole faces lying in substantially a common plane facing the adjacent side wall of the clipper housing. The space between this side wall of the housing and these pole faces accommodates the leg 22 of the armature. The inner surface of the leg 22 thus overlies and coacts with the pole faces provided by the legs 34 and 35 of the magnet core.
The other leg 36 of the magnet core which is nearest the front end of the clipper is shorter than the legs 34 and 35 and in fact extends for less than half of the height of the coil, but the combined length of this short leg and the length of the base portion 21 is such that when the stem portion 22 of the armature engages the pole faces of the long legs the base portion also just contacts the pole face of the short leg 36. No part of the armature extends forwardly of the core of the electromagnet.
The mounting for the armature is so designed that the armature, with the U-shaped stamping 25 secured thereto, is assembled with the rest of the mechanism by merely dropping the armature down into the body 10. To this end a clamping screw 37 passes through a hole 38 in the outer end portion of the tongue-like extension 30 and through a clamping plate 39 and is threaded in a nut 40. These parts are so proportioned that upon assembly of the armature with the body 10 the screw 37 drops down into an open topped slot 41 in a boss 42 extending up from the bottom of the housing and disposed between the electromagnet and the rear end of the clipper.
With the parts so positioned the screw 37 which is preferably of the Allen-head type may be tightened to draw the tongue 30 against the adjacent flat face 43 of the boss, and since that side of the boss facing the tongue 30 is relieved as at 44 it is evident that the tongue 30 may iiex to allow swinging or vibratory motion of the armature 18. It will also be understood that since the arms of the U- shaped stamping are disposed edgewise to the direction of armature movement they will not yield or in anywise defleet. All iiexure involved is thus localized in the spring blade provided by the tongue 30 and more particularly that portion thereof lying between the arms of the stamping and the area at which the tongue is clamped to the side of the boss.
Since the U-shaped stamping should be absolutely secure against any possible deflection resulting from the movement of the armature it is preferable that the arms thereof be reinforced against deflection and to this end they are extended in width as at 45 and have longitudinal ly extending parallel beads 46 formed therein. As best seen in Figure 8 these beads also serve as abutments against which the adjacent edges of the armature engage to thereby locate the parts with respect to each other and assure against any possible displacement of the stamping with respect to the armature.
It is, of course, important that the normal periodicity of the leaf spring provided by the tongue 30 be properly related to the frequency of the energizing voltage. Ordinarily the stamping is so designed that the leaf spring 30 is correct for 60 cycle alternating current voltage. To adapt the same to a lesser frequency as, for instance, the 50 cycle current found in most European countries, it is only necessary to grind off a little of the outer face of the leaf spring to reduce its thickness proportionately. By virtue of the novel design and construction of the stamping 25 this is readily possible and does not involve costly design changes or the stocking of different kinds of parts to tit the varying needs of the manufacturer.
Though the spring blade provided by the tongue 30 affords sufficient spring tension under normal circumstances, to enable adjustment of the driving unit to different voltages, an auxiliary coiled compression spring 47 is provided. This spring is confined between the head of an adjusting screw 48 and the bight 28 of the U-shaped stamping, and the screw passes through a hole 49 in the stamping and is threaded in a nut 50 which during assembly is dropped into an appropriately shaped cavity 51 in the boss 42. Ordinarily the tension of the spring 47 is so adjusted at the factory that the clipper operates properly at 60 cycle current of 110 volts, the adjustment being such that the armature just clears the pole faces of the electromagnet at this voltage.
If the voltage where the clipper is placed in service consistently runs an appreciable amount above 1l() volts, as for instance l2() volts, the combined tension of the spring 47 and the blade 30 would not be suicient to keep the armature from striking the pole faces. Likewise if the voltage at the place of use consistently runs an appreciable amount less than volts, as for instance 100 or 105 volts, the magnet would not have suicient strength to provide the proper throw of the armature and the movable blade carried thereby. These conditions can be satisfactorily met by the simple expedient of adjusting the screw 48 to increase or decrease the spring tension.
Since tightening or loosening of the screw 48 affects the normal rest position of the free end of the armature and consequently the movable blade carried thereby, whenever such adjustment is made the position of the stationary blade should be correspondingly reset, and to do so merely requires loosening the fastening screws 16, shifting the stationary blade the slight amount required, and retightening the fastening screws. In this manner the proper positional relationship is at all times assured between the cooperating blades.
The driving connection 19 between the movable blade and the free end of the armature consists of an appropriately shaped spring arm 52 anchored to the underside of the armature by the rivets 23 and an overlying stiff arm 53 anchored to the top side of the armature by the rivets 23, the set screw 20 being threaded in the stiff arm 53 and bearing against the spring arm 52. The outer end of the spring arm is bifurcated to provide two spring iingers 54 and each of these has a short cylindrical pin 55 projecting from the underside thereof to be received in one of a pair of holes 56 in the movable blade. The center-tocenter distance between the pins 55 (designated S in Figure 7) is slightly less than the center-to-center distance between the holes 56 (designated L in Figure 7). Thus upon engagement of the pins in the holes the spring lingers are sprung slightly apart to thereby assure a rm driving connection regardless of wear.
Another feature of this invention concerns the manner in which the switch 57 (which controls operation of the clipper) is mounted. As will appear the arrangement is such that the front wall 58 of the switch from which the switch actuator 59 projects is tightly pressed against the inside of the housing wall all around the opening 60 therein through which the switch actuator protrudes and the switch held in place by the simple expedient of drawing the housing sections together. To this end the body 10 of the housing is formed with a shelf 61 from which the housing side wall 62 rises, and the cover 11 has an inwardly directed ledge 63 from which its side wall 64 extends, the side wall 64 having the opening 60 therein. The inner faces of the side walls 62 and 64 are coplanar except to the extent the slight inclination of these wall surfaces resulting from the draft necessary for molding the housing sections disposes them at a broad obtuse angle.
These inner faces of the side walls 62 and 64 together are of a size to cover the entire front wall 58 of the switch body, and to press this at face of the switch body against the walls 62 and 64 as the housing sections are drawn together the boss 42 has two vertical ribs 65 spaced from the inner faces of the walls 62 and 64 a distance slightly less than the depth of the switch. The crowns of these ribs 65 are also inclined slightly as indicated by the dimension A in Figure 4, which angularity is the result of draft requirements. Hence, it follows that as the housing sections are drawn together the switch is clamped or pinched between the ribs 65 and the opposing inner surfaces of the walls 62 and 64. A cushion pad of felt or similar material 66 preferably overlies the ledge 63 in the cover to compensate for the slight variations in dimensions encountered in production. Clearance is afforded for the electrical terminals 67 of the switch and the conductors leading therefrom by a cavity 68 having an inclined side wall as best seen in Figure and to hold the switch against endwise shifting the cover has two small pins 69 and 70 depending from the ledge 63 to engage the endsY of the switch as shown in Figure 10.
From the foregoing description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings and the following claims, it will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that this invention provides a greatly improved'hair clipper of the electromagnetically driven type.
What we claim as our invention is:
l. A vibratory motor comprising: an electromagnet having a pole; a rigid armature; a U-shaped metal stamping straddling one end portion of the armature; means rigidly securing the arms of the stamping to the armature; a flat tongue-like extension on the bight of the U-shaped stamping providing a relatively stiff leaf spring overlying and spaced from the adjacent portion of the armature; the arms of the U-shaped stamping being rigid against llexure in all directions; and means anchoring the free end portion of the leaf spring in fixed relation to the electromagnet and with the armature overlying the pole of the electromagnet and movable toward and from said pole as said leaf spring llexes.
2. A vibratory motor comprising: an electromagnet having a pole; a rigid armature; and means mounting the armature for vibratory motion toward and from said pole of the electromagnet comprising a U-shaped metal stamping having its arms snugly embracing and fixed to one end portion of the armature, a flexible tonguelike extension on the bight of the U-shaped stamping atwise overlying and spaced from the adjacent portion of the armature, and means rigidly anchoring the free end portion of said tongue-like extension in fixed relation to the electromagnet with the plane of the tonguelike extension normal to the direction of vibratory motion of the armature, said U-shaped stamping being rigid against deformation except for atwise flexure of its tongue-like extension so that the flexure necessary to permit vibratory motion of the armature is localized in the flat tongue-like extension.
3. A vibratory motor comprising: a stationary magnet coil having a pole piece; an elongated armature having one end portion overlying and movable toward and from said pole piece; an elongated housing section in which the stationary magnet coil is mounted, said housing section having an upstanding boss between one end thereof and the stationary magnet coil, said boss having a slot opening to its top with the sides of the slot substantially parallel with the axis of the coil; a U- shaped metal stamping embracing and fixed to the other end portion of the armature, the bight of the U- shaped stamping being extended toward the first designated end of the armature to provide a relatively stiff leaf spring overlying and spaced from the adjacent portion of the armature; and a headed clamping screw passing through a hole in the leaf spring near its outer end, said screw lying in the bottom of said slot in the boss, and having a nut threaded thereon so that the outer end portion of the leaf spring may be removably clamped to one side of the boss to resiliently mount the armature thereon with its medial portion extending across the magnet coil.
4,. In a vibratory motor: an elongated laminated armature; an electromagnet for attracting the armature; and means resiliently mounting the armature at one end portion for lateral vibratory motion, comprising a U- shaped metal stamping embracing said end portion of the armature with the arms of the U-shaped stamping atwise engaging its outer laminations, means securing the arms of the stamping to the armature, the bight of the U-shaped stamping being extended toward the opposite end of the armature to provide a relatively stiff leaf spring flatwise overlying and spaced from the adjacent portion of the armature and disposed substantially normal to the edges of the armature laminations, and meansrigidly anchoring the outer end portion of the leaf spring in fixed relation to said electromagnet.
5. In an electromagnetic vibration motor: an elongated housing section; an electromagnet coil mounted in said housing section and provided with pole faces facing one side of the housing section; an upstanding boss on the housing section between the magnet coil and one end of the housing section, said boss having a ilat face substantially parallel with the pole faces of the electromagnet; a
rigid armature of a length to extend across the pole faces of the magnet coil and past said boss; and a spring mounting for one end of the armature and by which the armature is supported for lateral movement toward and from the pole faces of the magnet coil, said spring mounting comprising a U-shaped metal stamping having its arms embracing and rigidly secured to the armature, the bight of the U-shaped stamping being extended to provide a relatively stiff leaf spring overlying and spaced from the adjacentvportion of the armature; and means for clamping the outer end portion of said leaf spring to said face of the boss so that all fiexure of the armature mounting necessary for movement of the armature toward and from the pole pieces is localized in that portion of the leaf spring lying between its anchored end portion and the bight of the U-shaped stamping.
6. In a vibratory magnetic device: a movable armature comprising a stack of laminations rigidly secured together; and a springmounting for said armature comprising a U-shaped metal stamping having its arms overlying and fixed to the outer laminations of the armature at one end portion thereof to rigidly secure the stamping to the armature; the bight of the U-shaped stamping having a llat tongue-like extension forming a relatively stiff leaf spring overlying and spaced from the adjacent edges of the armature laminations; all portions of the stamping being stiff to resist deflection except said extension which provides the leaf spring so that by firmly anchoring the outer end portion of the leaf spring, the portion thereof lying between the bight of the U-shaped stamping and the anchored end portion of the leaf spring by flatwise iiexure thereof enables vibratory motion of the armature edgewise of its laminations.
7. In a vibratory magnetic device: an elongated movable armature; a spring mounting for one end of the armature comprising a generally U-shaped metal stamping, Athe spaced arms of the U-shaped stamping being extended at one side thereof to provide attaching ears overlying the sides of an end portion of the armature; fastening means securing said attaching ears to the armature and clamping said armature therebetween, reinforcing beads in said arms of the stamping extending generally lengthwise of the armature; the
i bight of the U-shaped stamping being extended to provide a flat relatively stiff leaf spring overlying but spaced from the portion of the armature which is clamped between the attaching ears of the side arms of the stamping, the thickness of said leaf spring being a factor determining its stiffness, and the llat disposition of the leaf spring and its extension from the bight of the stamping facilitating reduction in the thickness of the leaf spring; and means on said leaf spring providing for rigidly anchoring the outer end portion thereof in a manner allowing liatwise ile'xure of the spring and consequent back and forth motion of the armature.
8. In a vibratory motor: an elongated sectional motor housing; an electromagnet mounted in said housing section and having poles facing one side of the housing; an elongated armature; and means mounting the armature lengthwise in said designated housing section for back and forth sidewise movement between the side of the housing and the poles of the electromagnet, said mounting means comprising a boss on the housing section between one end thereof and the electromagnet, said boss having a surface adjacent to one end of the armature and substantially normal to the direction of back and forth motion of the armature and having a slot extending through the boss substantially perpendicular to its said surface and opening to the top of the boss; a relatively stiff leaf spring; means anchoring the leaf spring to said end of the armature with the outer end portion of the leaf spring overlying and flatwise spaced from the adjacent portion of the armature, said outer end portion of the leaf spring having a hole therethrough; and a clamping screw received in said hole and projecting from the leaf spring for ready disposition into and removal from the slot in the boss so that mounting of the armature in position requires merely dropping the same down into the designated housing section and tightening said screw to thereby clamp the outer end portion of the leaf spring to said surface of the boss.
9. In an electrical instrument of the character described: a housing comprising complementary hollow sections, said housing sections having registering switch receiving pockets opening to the plane of junction between the housing sections, each of said pockets having a bottom wall and a substantially fiat outer wall rising from the bottom wall, at least one of said housing sections having a hole through its said relatively fiat outer wall; an abutment on one of the housing sections spaced from the relatively fiat outer walls; and a switch for the instrument, said switch being received in the registering pockets between the bottom walls thereof and having an outer fiat face bearing against said fiat outer walls, and an actuator projecting from said outer flat face and protruding through said hole, the distance between said abutment and said flat walls being slightly less than the depth of the switch so that as the housing sections are drawn together the switch is forced between the abutment and said flat outer walls.
10. The structure set forth in claim 9 further characterized by the provision of spaced abutments on the bottom wall of the switch receiving pocket in one of the housing sections engaging the ends of the switch to hold the same against shifting endwise.
11. In an electromagnetic clipper having a stationary blade mounted on one end of an elongated housing, a movable blade in atwise sliding engagement with the fixed blade and constrained to reciprocation across the fixed blade in directions transverse to the housing axis, and a magnet coil inside the housing: an elongated rigid armature; a mounting for said armature disposing the armature in the housing in a position to be reciprocatingly vibrated in consequence of energization of the coil by alternating current and comprising a leaf spring having one of its ends rigidly and immovably secured to one end of the armature and having its other end rigidly and immovably secured to a fixed part in the housing, the blade of said leaf spring having a width substantially greater than its thickness and thus constraining the armature to reciprocation in directions parallel to the directions of reciprocation of said movable blade and precluding motion of the armature in directions transverse to said directions; another leaf spring having one of its ends anchored to the other end of the armature and having its other end anchored to the movable blade, said other leaf spring providing a connection between the armature and the movable blade which is rigid in the directions of reciprocation of the armature and movable blade to constrain them to reciprocate in unison, but which is yieldable transversely to said directions so that the movable blade is biased into atwise engagement with the fixed blade; and means for adjustably varying the biasing force which said other leaf spring exerts upon the fixed blade, comprising a rigid bracket fixed to said other end of the armature and projecting beyond the same to overlie said other leaf spring, and a set screw in said bracket engaging said other leaf spring intermediate the ends thereof.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,708,315 Lutes Apr. 9, 1929 1,810,469 Dremel June 16, 1931 1,861,043 Andis May 31, 1932 2,283,551 Hanley May 19 ,1942 2,304,525 Andis Dec. 8, 1942 2,396,397 Tolmie Mar. 12, 1946 2,459,412 Canham Jan. 18, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS 319,704 Italy July 18, 1934