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Publication numberUS2701977 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 15, 1955
Filing dateMay 7, 1953
Priority dateMay 7, 1953
Publication numberUS 2701977 A, US 2701977A, US-A-2701977, US2701977 A, US2701977A
InventorsStone Arthur P
Original AssigneeWright Tool And Forge Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Reversible ratchet wrench
US 2701977 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 15, 1955 s o 2,701,977

REVERSIBLE RATCHET WRENCH Filed May 7, 1953 FIG.

1 NTOR. ARTHUR P. TONE ATTORNEY REVERSIBLE RATCHET WRENCH Arthur P. Stone, Akron, Ohio, assignor to The Wright Tool and Forge Company, Barherton, Ohio, at corporation of Ohio Application May. 7, 1953, Serial No. 353,476 4 Claims. (Cl. 81-633) This invention relates to a reversible ratchet wrench.

One object of the present invention is to provide a reversible ratchet wrench having a minimum of parts, including three major parts, only two of which are relatively movable with respect to the third.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved ratchet wrench which by reason of an extremely simple construction and arrangement'of parts is unusually economical to manufacture, particularly in smaller sizes thereof, and yet which is strong in proportion to its size, and which .is reliable because the reversing mechanism cannot readily he accidentally reversed.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved tool of the character described wherein the re versing mechanism includes meshing of toothed parts supplemented by a wedging action, and in which eifective locking of the parts in either of two oppositely operable positions is not materially affected by play between the relatively movable parts caused by wear during long continued use of the wrench.

Other objects of the invention will be manifest from the following brief description and the accompanying drawings.

Of the accompanying drawings:

Figure 1 is a top plan view of a ratchet wrench embodying the features of the invention.

Figure 2 is an enlarged edge view of the wrench, as viewed toward the lower edge of Figure l at the head end of the tool, a portion of the wrench handle being broken away. v

Figure 3 is a top plan view of Figure 2, on the same scale, partly broken away and in section.

Figure 4 is a cross-section on the same enlarged scale, taken substantially on the line 4-4 of Figure 3.

Figure 5 is a view substantially the same as Figure 3, but illustrating the manner in which the movable parts are wedgingly locked in one of two reversibly operated positions, even though substantial play has resulted from wear on the parts.

Referring particularly to Figures 1 to 4 of the drawings, the numeral designates a ratchet wrench of the type used for turning a wrench socket or like turning tool of known type having a squared recess at one end and a nut or other work-engaging recess in the other end of the same. The wrench has a headportion or enlargement 11 integrally formed at one end of an elongated turning handle 12 The head 11 may have a smoothly cylindrical bore 13 'therethrough between parallel flat sides 14 and 15 thereof, an axis of said bore lying within a plane extending transversely of said head and includinga longitudinal axis of said handle. Rotatably received in said bore 13 may be a generally cylindrical shank 16 having an enlarged head 17 at one end providing an annular stop shoulder 18, for rotatably seating on the fiat side 14 of the head, the opposite end portion 20 of the shank protruding freely beyond the opposite flat side 15 of the head, and having an annular groove 19 therein which has releasably received in the same a spring retaining ring 21 in stop engagement with the said side 15 at the edge of the bore 13. Thus, the shank 16 is rotatably received in bore 13 and retained against axial movement therein by head 17 and the ring 21 at opposite sides of the wrench head. A reduced extension 22 from the end portion 20 of the shank may be of squared cross-section and provided with a spring-pressed ball 23 for releasable non-rotative reception in a correspondingly shaped recess of a wrench socket 24 (see Figure 4). Short lengths 25, 25 of shank 16, at opposite ends of the bore 13, are smoothly cylindrical to provide requisite rotatable bearing engagement in said bore, the remaining substantial length of the shank within the bore being provided with peripherally spaced teeth or serrations 26, for use in a reversing mechanism to be described.

Extending between laterally opposite side edges of the wrench head 11, on an axis at right angles or normal to said transversely extending plane through the axis of said shank, may be a cylindrical aperture or plunger bore 27, within which is slidably received a cylindrical plunger 28, a substantial peripheral area of said toothed portion 26 of the shank being exposed within said plunger bore 27. One side of the plunger 28 adjacent the shank is recessed at 29 to define axially or laterally spaced shoulder portions 30 and 30a which are toothed as shown for selective complemental meshing with the toothed portion 26 of the shank presented within plunger bore 13, at points on opposite sides of said transverse plane, the plunger being of such length with respect to the extent of bore 27 thereof, whereby one end or the other protrudes sufliciently from the bore to be manually engageable by the end of a finger to slide the plunger to an opposite or reversed position in which the other toothed shoulder is meshed with the shank teeth 26. The plunger 28 and the bore 27 may be of square crosssection, if desired. I

For releasably locking plunger 28 in either of the two oppositely meshing positions described, the side. of the plunger opposite the recess 29 is also recessed to define an outwardly tapered central protuberance 29a, providing oppositely inclined cam faces 31, 31a engageable by a spring-pressed ball 32. This arrangement is such that upon turning the handle 12 in counter-clockwise direction, as indicated by an arrow in Figure 3, while the shank is held or retarded by action thereof on work to be turned in corresponding direction, the plunger is'yieldingly retained with the teeth of either one of the plunger shoulders 30, 30a meshed with the toothed shank portion 26 at a point on a corresponding side of the wrench center line. The resultant locking action is enhanced by tendency of the plunger to become wedged in an inwardly tapering space defined between the toothed shank portion 26 and an oppositely disposed wall portion of the bore 27 (see Figure 3). Upon turning handle 12 in the opposite or clockwise direction while the parts are in the same relative positions shown in Figures 3 and 4, and while the shank 16 is similarly held or retarded, the toothed shoulder portion 30 will click past the teeth of the shank against the yielding action of the spring-pressed ball 32, thereby allowing the wrench head 11 to be reversely turned relatively of the shank and without turning action on the work. Conversely, work may be turned in the opposite direction by depressing the plunger 28 until the toothed shoulder 30a engages the toothed shank portion 26, in which position it will be retained by the ball 32 yieldingly engaging the opposite cam face 31a of cam protuberance 29a over which the ball rides upon depressing the plunger.

In operation of the improved wrench, as for loosening work such as a nut or bolt head (not shown), a wrench socket 24 of proper size applied to the squared protuberance 22 on shank 16, as shown in Figure 4, is engaged over the work in known manner,- the plunger 28 being locked in the tooth-engaging position shownin Figure 3 by the spring-pressed ball 32 (see also Figure 4). By alternately operating handle 12 in counterclockwise and clockwise directions the teeth will be correspondingly alternately engaged and disengaged to turn the shank and the work in counter-clockwise direction only. Similarly, the tool may be easily adjusted to tighten a nut or bolt, by simply depressing plunger 28 until the toothed shoulder 30a is locked in meshing engagement with the toothed shank portion 26, by ball 32 yieldingly engaging the cam face 31a.

Figure 5 illustrates a distinct advantage in that although the parts may become quite loose, due to substantial wear in use, the locking action remains positive so long be sufiicient supplementary wedging action between the plunger 24, shank 16 and head 11, as previously de-' scribed, to provide driving action for loosening or tightening the work.

.Obviously, this simple three part wrench may be made very economically ,prinTarily because said parts may be manufactured in large scale production with maximum use of automatic machinery and because the parts are adapted to be easily assembled without use of precision equipment or particularly skilled labor. Moreover, the improved construction lends itself to economical production of small but sturdy and eflicient wrenches, as for example for use with so-called quarter inch drive sockets wrenches.

Modifications of the invention may be resorted to without departing from the spirit thereof or the scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

l. A reversible ratchet wrench comprising a head having an opening therein providing cylindrical bearing relatively rotatable in said bearing portions about said 1 axis, said head having an aperture extending therethrough laterally of said plane at an angle to the same andin spaced relation to said axis, thereby exposing a substantial peripheral area of the shank within said aperture, a plunger shiftably received in said aperture and having axially spaced non-slip gripping portions and said shank having gripping portions complementally engageable thereby at points within said exposed peripheral area, yielding stop means for retaining said plunger in gripping position with one or other of said gripping portions thereof engaging said gripping portions of the shank to prevent relative rotation of the shank in one or other of corresponding directions with respect to said head, and means for manually shifting said plunger into either of said gripping positions.

2. A reversible ratchet wrench comprising a head having an opening therein providing cylindrical bearing,

portions and having a turning member thereon, an axis of said opening being in a plane transversely of the head, a shank having a work-turning end portion, retaining means for maintaining said shank in said opening to be relatively rotatable in said bearing portions about said axis, said shank having peripherally spaced teeth along a portion of a length thereof within said opening, said head having an aperture extending therethrough laterally of said plane at an angle to the same and in spaced relation to said axis, thereby exposing a substantial peripheral area of said toothed portion of the shank within said aperture, a plunger axially slidably received in said aperture and having axially spaced toothed portions selectively engageable with said exposed toothed portion in laterally opposite directions by axial sliding of the plunger. yieldingly releasable detent means on said plunger and head for yieldingly retaining the plunger in either of the opposite tooth engaging positions thereof with respect to the exposed shank teeth to prevent relative rotation of the shank in corresponding direction, said plunger having opposite end portions manually engageable at laterally opposite sides of said head for shifting the plunger in said laterally opposite directions against said yieldingly releasable detent means.

3. A reversible ratchet wrench comprising a head having an opening therein providing cylindrical bearing portions and having a turning member thereon, an axis of said opening being in a plane transversely of the head,

till

a shank having a work-turning end portion, retaining means for maintaining said shank in said opening to be relatively rotatable in said bearing portions about said axis, said shank having peripherally spaced teeth along a portion of a length thereof within said opening, said head having a bore extending therethrough laterally of said plane at an angle to the same and in spaced relation to said axis, thereby exposing a substantial peripheral area of said toothed portion of the shank within said bore, a plunger axially slidably received in said aperture and having axially spaced toothed portions selectively engageable with said exposed toothed portion in laterally opposite directions by axial sliding of the plunger, yieldingly releasable detent means on said plunger and head for yieldingly retaining the plunger in either of the opposite tooth engaging positions thereof with respect to the exposed shank teeth to prevent relative rotation of the shank in corresponding direction, said plunger having opposite end portions selectively manually engageable at laterally opposite sides of said head for shifting the plunger in said laterally opposite directions against said yieldingly releasable detent means, said detent means including a spring-pressed ball mounted in said head and a cam portion on said plunger engageable thereby.

' 4. A reversible ratchet wrench comprising a head having an opening therein providing cylindrical bearing portions and having a turning member thereon, an axis of said opening being in a plane transversely of the head, a shank having a work-turning end portion, retaining means for maintaining said shank in said opening to be relatively rotatable in said bearing portions about said axis, said shank having peripherally spaced teeth along a portion of a length thereof within said opening, said head having a bore extending therethrough laterally of said plane at an angle to the same and in spaced relation to said axis, thereby exposing a substantial peripheral area of said toothed portion of the shank within said bore, a plunger axially slidably received in said aperture and having axially spaced toothed portions selectively engageable with said exposed toothed portion in laterally opposite directions by axial sliding of the plunger, yieldingly releasable detent means on said plunger and head for yieldingly retaining the plunger in either of the opposite tooth engaging positions thereof with respect to the exposed shank teeth to prevent relative rotation of the shank in corresponding direction, said plunger having opposite end portions selectively manually engageable at laterally opposite sides of said head for shifting the plunger in said laterally opposite directions against said yieldingly releasable detent means, said detent means including a spring-pressed ball mounted in said head and a cam portion on said plunger engageable thereby, said cam portion of the plunger being at the side of the plunger opposite to said spaced toothed portions and including a central protuberance presenting laterally opposite inclined faces yieldingly engageable by said ball in the respective said tooth engaging positions.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 488,691 Goodell Dec. 27, 1892 867,201 Kautfman Sept. 24, 1907 878,657 Munch Feb. 11, 1908 2,126,843 Lintera et al. Aug. 16, 1938 FOREIGN PATENTS 124,763 Sweden Feb. 19, 1946

Patent Citations
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US2126843 *Mar 1, 1937Aug 16, 1938Templeton Kenly & Company LtdOperating mechanism for lifting jacks
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US2957377 *Sep 13, 1957Oct 25, 1960Hare Terence GReversible ratchet type wrench
US2966814 *Nov 15, 1956Jan 3, 1961Mueller CoDrilling machine
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US3393780 *Jan 26, 1967Jul 23, 1968Luther E. KilnessReversible ratchet
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US5231903 *May 8, 1992Aug 3, 1993Hi-Shear CorporationReversible ratchet wrench
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US6065374 *Sep 16, 1998May 23, 2000Hand Tool Design CorporationSlider pawl
US6216563 *Apr 28, 2000Apr 17, 2001Chih-Ching HsiehReversible ratchet wheel positioning arrangement for a reversible ratchet socket wrench
US6341543 *Sep 1, 2000Jan 29, 2002Shih-Kuei HsiehPush bar-typed ratchet wrench with high torque strength
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Classifications
U.S. Classification81/63.2
International ClassificationB25B13/00, B25B13/46
Cooperative ClassificationB25B13/463
European ClassificationB25B13/46B1B