US 2703003 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March l, 1955 Filed July 28. 1947 F. H. RUPPEL WALL PANEL 5 Sheets-Sheet l L4 3.1.1 El-:E1
u e 29 I4 bwa/Wto@ 45 iw" Mai-ch l, 1955 F. H. RUPPEL. 2,703,003
WALL PANEL Filed July 28, 1947 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 E 7 3mm FREDERICK H. RUPPEL www 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 F. H. RUPPEL WALL PANEL March 1, 1955 Filed July 28, 194'? INVEN'ToR. FREm-:mcK H. RUPPEL *T'T/YEY March l, 1955 F. H. RUPPEL WALL PANL 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed July 28, 1947 will FREDERICK H. RUPPEL F. H. RUPPEL March l, 1955 WALL PANEL 5 shets-sheet 5 Filed July 28. 1947 lOl INVENTOR.
FREDERICK H. RUPPEL United States Patent O WALL PANEL Frederick H. Ruppel, San Marino, Calif.
Application July 2S, 1947, Serial No. 764,116
4 Claims. (Cl. 7216) This invention relates to building construction and is particularly directed toward an improved building incorporating a novel form of structural building unit. Some of the fundamental properties of the design and fabrication, as embodied in my Patents Nos. 2,052,113, 2,201,504 and 2,321,860, are utilized and further improved in connection with this invention.
This present improvement concerns novel means of combining the desired and various collateral elements into new composite products, which may be used in building planning and construction to eliminate many steps and operations conventionally employed in the fabrication and erection of a complete building structure.
The principal object ofthis invention is to provide an improved'formofstructural building unit.
Another object of this invention is to provide a structural building unit, simple in design, for use in Wall, loor or roof panels of modular design, combined with novel forms of attachment, joinery and fabrication.
Another objectis to Vprovide a novel form of building.
structure havingtrusses extending between parallel walls to form rigid bents', the' trusses joining to the Walls at the location o'f joints between individual panel sections forming the walls.
More detailed objects of my invention include the use of expanded metal I-beams or other conventional shapes or built-up webbed members, in connection with a spaced metal diagonal vtrussing or fabric encased Within a cementitious material to provide a composite diaphragm.
A further object of the present invention is-to provide definite calculability and predetermined tabular (structural) values for the composite combination of the structural1 metal `skeletoncombined with the cementitious materia s.
In accordance with this invention various and versatile plastic combinations are used to-reinforce metal framing,'as opposed to the conventional practices of using metal framing members to reinforce plastic materials, such as, for example, is common in reinforced concrete or reinforced masonry construction. The composite construction and structural unit embodying my invention has provided great simplification of engineering design and enables the use of standardized joinery in fabrication and erection methods to provide lighter building elements with new functionalproperties, suchV as, for example, including hollow or insulating areas usefull for the passage of ducts, conduits,yetc., needed in modern building design.
In addition to these new advantages, definite and determinate structural calculability is developed and all the beneficial properties of the comparable reinforced concrete or masonry construction are retained without the disadvantages of excessive mass and weight and inilexibility of design. The overall effect of the use o-f my improved structural units is to produce better functional properties and substantial economies in the overall building construction art without sacrigce of strength or rigidity, and the time of erection is cut to a minimum.
It is believed that other objects and advantages will appear inthe following and detailed description of th preferred embodiments of my invention. Y
In the drawings:v
Figure l is a perspective view, in diagrammatic form, partly broken away, showing details of construction of a building embodying features of construction of my invention.
Figure 2 is a sectional elevation of the building shown in Figure 1, and also in diagrammatic form.
2,703,003 Patented Mar. 1, 1955 ice Figure 3 is a sectional elevation, partly broken away, takei substantially on the lines 3 3 as shown in Figure Figure 4 is a partial sectional plan view, taken substantially on the lines 4--4, as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 5 is a View, similar to Figure 4, illustrating a modified form of Wall panel construction embodying my invention.
Figure 6 is a partial sectional plan view taken substantially on the lines 6 6 as shown in Figure 3.
Figure is 7 is a perspective View, partly broken away, showing a complete wall panel embodying my invention.
Figure 8 is a side elevation of the wall panel in Figure 7, shown in diagrammatic form and illustrating the relationship of the diagonal fabric or lattice with respect to thle horizontal and vertical metallic elements of the pane Figure 9 is a perspective view, partly broken away, illustrating the relationship between the vertical metallic elements, the horizontal bridging, the diagonal lattice and the cementitious sheath.
Figure 10 is a plan view, partly broken away, showing construction of the joint between adjacent wall panels and the provision for receiving the upper cord of a truss which extends from the wall.
Figure 11 is a partial s ide elevation of the parts shown in Figure 10.
Figure' 12 is a perspective view, partly broken away, showing details of attachment of a truss to the joint between adjacent wall panels, the diagonal lattice and cementitious sheath being omitted for clarity of illustration.
Figure 13 is a perspective View, similar to Figure 12, illustrating a modified form of connection between a truss and the Wall panel, the truss being shown in phantom lines. i
Figure 14 is a plan view, partly broken away, showing l the parts illustrated in Figure 13.
Figure 15 is a perspective view of a portion of the inside corner of a building embodying my invention illustrating certain details of construction, the diagonal lattice and cementitious sheath being omitted for clarity of illustration.
Figures 16A, 16B, 16C, 16D, 16E, and 16F, inclusive, are views showing several representative types of windows which may be provided in wall panels embodying my invention.
Figure 17 is a side elevation of a building Wall showing a continuous Window extending across several panels.
Figure 18 is a sectional detail taken on line 1& 18 as shown in Figure 17.
Figure 19 is a partial sectional plan view taken on line 19-19 as shown in Figure 17.
Figure 20 is a partial sectional plan view taken on line 20-20 as shown in Figure 17.
Referring to the drawings, the building generally designated l may include parallel side walls 2 and parallel end walls 3 forming an enclosure. Each of the walls is composed of a plurality of wall panel units generally designated 4. Trusses 5 extend between the side walls 2 and are attached to the side walls at the joints between adjacent panels 4. A roof 6 is supported on the trusses 5 and end walls 3.
A typical wall panel unit 4, such as is illustrated in detail in Figure 7, includes a plurality of vertically extending spaced column members 11, 12 and 13, or studs which may be formed of expanded metal l-beams. The edge colmuns 11 and 13 are substantially duplicates, as are the intermediate columns 12. A metallic trussing lattice generally designated 14 and comprising a plurality of diagonal strips 15, arranged in crisscross parallel relationship, extends between the edge columns 11 and 13 and across the intermediate columns 12.
The diagonal strips 15, which form the lattice 14 are arranged so that their intersections occur along the front flanges 16 of the columns 11, 12 and 13, respectively. Also, the crossover points of the intersections occur along the horizontal bridging girts 17, which extend horizontally between the end columns 1l and 13 and which lie adjacent the center columns 12. lf desired, the lattice could be formed of rods or other elongated elements instead of flat strips, or might be formed of one or more expanded metal sections. The articulated lattice disclosed herein comprising pivotal diagonal elements has the advantage of automatic adjustment and equalization of stresses during the set or cure period of the enclosing sheath, described below.
The heading 18 joins together the upper ends of the columns 11, 12 and 13, and the footing 19 joins their lower ends. Side rails 20, comprising angle sections, cooperate with the similar top and bottom rails 21 and 22 to define a rectangular boundary and serve to function as forms to confine within the boundary so defined a diaphragm 23 formed of cementitious materials such as, for example, concrete. The diaphragm 23 encloses the lattice 14 and encloses the anges 16 of the intermediate columns 12. This diaphragm 23 is constructed by first positioning the metallic skeleton of the wall panel in a horizontal position with the rails 20, 21 and 22 resting on a horizontal surface (not shown). The concrete, or other cementitious material, is then poured into the central space defined within the rails. Additional removable forms (not shown) may be provided, if required, to prevent lateral escape of the concrete to permit the thickness of the sheath to be built up to that indicated in Figure 3, and prevent lateral iiow of the plastic mixture through the holes 26 in the web portion 27 of the end columns 11 and 13. Suicient mixture is poured into the forms thus defined to provide a sheath enclosing the lattice 14 and in which the lattice is positioned midway between the flat parallel surfaces 28 and 29 of the sheath.
Prior to casting or otherwise forming the sheath 23, horizontal bridging elements 17 are placed in position between the rear flanges 33, 34 and 35 of the columns 11, 12 and 13, respectively. Angle braces 36 are provided which extend from the front flanges 16 to join with the bridging elements 17 at a position between their respective ends.
The various elements of the metallic skeleton incorporated in the panel unit are joined by any convenient means, such as welding, prior to casting of the cementitious sheath 23. Any preferred form of welding method or methods may be used. After the joining of the various metallic parts by welding has been completed the skeleton is supported on a horizontal surface on the rails 20, 21 and 22 as described above while the cementitious sheath 23 is cast or otherwise formed and allowed to harden.
The completed wall panel or structural unit then includes the vertical columns 11, 12 and 13 joined by the metallic lattice 14, the bridging elements 17, the angle braces 36 and the form rails 20, 21 and 22, with the cementitious sheath 23 enclosing the lattice 14 and a portion of the columns. rails and angle braces. It will be understood that one or more central columns 12 may be omitted if desired, or additional columns may be employed.
The metallic strips which cooperate to form the lattice 14 are each preferably provided with a series of spaced apertures 30. At the crossover points the rivets 31 pass through aligned apertures 30. The provision of the plurality of apertures is useful in that the same strips 15 may be employed to produce lattice patterns of varying widths and dimensions by inserting rivets 31 at appropriate positions. A further important structural advantage is present also since the apertures increase the bond between the material of the sheath 23 and the strips 15. The material of the sheath 23 enters the apertures 30 and functions as a mechanical key to lock the strips 15 against movement relative to the sheath 23.
Means are provided for connecting adjoining panel units and as shown in the drawings, this means includes a plurality of flags or plates 4S which are secured by any convenient means, such as welding, to the side or end columns 11 and 13 of each of the panels 4. Thus, as shown in Figure 4, the plates 45 are secured to columns 11 and 13. One of these plates 45 is to be provided adjacent each of the bridging elements. Each of the plates 45 is provided with a plurality of horizontal openings 46. In order to connect adjacent panels the plates 45 on adjacent end columns are juxtapositioned and fastening elements such as the bolts 47 are inserted through the aligned openings 46.
The individual panel units 4, when connected together by the bolts 47, provide a wall for a building having unique properties. The load carrying ability of each panel is definitely calculable by recognized formula since the intersections at the crossover points of the various diagonal members making up the lattice occur along the columns or along the bridging members. The cementitious sheath 23 acts to reinforce the metallic lattice 14 so that either vertical or horizontal loads applied to the panel results in distributing tension stresses uniformly through the lattice elements and lateral deflection is prevented.
This light weight structure lends itself readily to economical construction with low labor cost since the metallic portions of the panels may be constructed under favorable conditions in a fabrication shop and then hauled to the building site where the cementitious sheath is cast into place. The panels 4 are then erected and moved into position on the foundation 44 and anchored by bolts 43. The spliced connections provided by the flags 45 provide a centering index for shop fabrication, for eld layout and for direction. Thev are designed to take the maximum reaction of resultant shear in the composite panels and they provide a more than adequate columnar action at panel points to receive the trusses 5. The vertically extending rails 20 at the splice points increase the sectional ability of the columns.
In Figure 5 is shown a modified form of joint between adjacent panels 4. The principal difference over the joint illustrated in Figure 4 is that channel sections 11"L and 13a are employed instead of the expanded metal I- beams 11 and 13. A further distinction is that the angular braces 36 are not employed. The remaining parts of the panels incorporating these channel sections 11a and 13a may be substantially identical to that previously described and the panels function in exactly the same manner as the panel illustrated in Figure 7.
The side walls 2 of the building 1 are connected by a plurality of parallel trusses 5, each of which is joined at two vertically spaced points to each of the walls 2 to provide a rigid bent. The upper chord of each of the trusses 5 may be inclined toward the center of the truss as shown in Figure 2 in order that the roof diaphragm 6 may have suicient drainage. The side walls 2 and end walls 3 terminate in a common vertical plane and the roof diaphragm 6 is warped sufficiently adjacent the end walls to pass from the inclined upper chords 50 to a horizontal position along the upper edges of the end walls 3. A characteristic feature of this diaphragm 6 is that it absorbs and distributes transverse loads applied to the side walls 2 by wind or seismic or other causes, and accordingly the need for horizontal bracing between the trusses 5 is eliminated.
In Figures l0 to 15 inclusively, panel units 4 employing channels 11a and 13a similar to that shown in Figure 5 are used instead of the expanded I-beam sections 11 and 13. As clearly shown in Figure 12 the upper chord 50 of the truss generally designated 5 may comprise a pair of angle sections 51 and 52 placed back to back with a space 53 between them. The diagonal members 54 of the truss 5 may take the form of elongated plate elements which extend into the gap 53 between the members 51 and 52. Similarly, the lower chord 55 of the truss 5 may comprise a pair of angle sections 56 and 57 placed back to back with a gap 58 therebetween. The diagonal members 54 and vertical members 59 of the truss 5 also extend into the gap 58. The members 51, 52, 56, 57, 54 and 59 may be united by any convenient means such as, for example, by welding.
Each truss 5 is secured at its ends to the wall 2 at the location of a joint between adjacent panel units 4. This is a very desirable location since the opposed columns 11a and 13a can be utilized as a single columnary support for the particular truss 5. In other words, the two columns 11a and 13a plus the additional capacity provided by the rails 20 cooperate to provide a load supporting column for the truss 5. The upper chord 50 of the truss is not positioned flush with the upper surface of the heading parts 19a provided along the top edge of the panel units, but is spaced downwardly therefrom by the thickness of the units which comprise the roof decking 6. This feature is disclosed in my co-pending application above referred to.
The angle sections 51 and 52 are carried on the columns 112L and 13a by means of the opposed angle brackets 60 and 61 which may be welded thereto and which rest on a plate 62 extending across the gap between the members 11a and 13a. Plates 63 may be secured near the upper ends of the members 113 and 13a to provide .to the members 11EL and 13a... The lower chord 55 of V.the truss 5 is also secured to the upright members 11a and 13a and this .connection is. effected'at a point adjalcent the uppermost bridging members 17. A supporting plate 70 may be attached as `by welding to the members 11a and V13a and the angle. sections 56 and 57 forming the lower chord,55 may each be attached to the'plate 70 in a like manner. It will be understood that this construction provides a rigid bent at the joints between adjacent wall panelsincluding the columns 11a- 13a on opposite walls 2 together withclear spannedtruss 5.
In Figures 413 and14 a modified form of connection betweenthe truss..5 and the wall panel joints is illustrated. The pockets 64,at the upper corners of adjacent wall panel units, are, eliminated, and an angle bracket 80 is secured to the vertical members 11a and 13a, spanning the gap between them. The bracket 80 may be attached to the members 11a and 13a by any convenient means such as boltng or welding. The truss 5 which is shown in dashed lines in Figure 3 is of the same construction previously described but of shorter length. The angle brackets 60 and 61 of this truss rest on the transverse bracket and may be secured thereto by means of the bolt 67. The connection for the lower chord 55 of the truss includes the plate 70 and is substantially the same as that described in connection with Figure 12.
The diagrams of Figure 16 illustrate some of the possible window locations which may be provided in wall panels incorporating features of my invention. The windows may be placed almost anywhere on the panel below the line 90 indicating the level of the bottom of the trusses 5. As shown in Figure 17 a continuous window 101 may be provided which extends across several panels 102, if desired. The presence of the window opening 101 reduces the resistance of each panel 102 to horizontal shear load, but the shear value for the whole wall 103 including the panels 102 may be brought within acceptable limits by increasing the shear resistance of other panels in the wall 103, such as the end-panels 104. This latter increase is easily and effectively accomplished without change in the shop fabrication of the steel parts by increasing the thickness of the cementitious sheath 105 in these end panels 104. If necessary, the thickness of this sheath 105 can extend from the outer edge of the form rail 106 to the inner edge of the upright channel 107. The shear strength of each panel is derived from the shear value of the concrete plus the lattice fabric acting as diagonal tension reinforcement.
As shown in Figures 18, 19 and 20, the panels 102 having the continuous window 101 are joined edge to edge by means of the overlapping flags or plates 4S, and are connected to the trusses and anchored on a suitable foundation in the same manner as described hereinabove. The individual window sections 109 may be of any suitable or desirable type. Cover plates 110 may be employed between the panels 102.
After the panels 4 are erected on the foundation 44 and connected by means of the vertically extending overlapping flags 45 and bolts 47, the space 81 between the abutting members 11a and 13a may be filled with concrete if desired.
Although I have shown and described the panel construction in connection with the side walls of the building, it will be understood that such panels may also be employed for floor panels or ceiling panels. This very desirable feature is made possible by the utilization of the plastic diaphragm to reinforce the structural lattice rather than conforming to the conventional practice of reinforcing plastic with steel. Since the lattice is able te distribute the load applied in any direction, the steel skeleton and the sheath of cementitious materials are each stressed in an efficient manner so that the composite structure is capable of withstanding heavy loads although being of really light weight.
A building wall utilizing a diagonal metallic lattice enclosed within a cementitious sheath and supported by columns was tested to determine the resistance to deformation of such a composite structure. The wall conpanel was ideal for resisting horizontal forces.
i 6 sisted of a rectangular pipe `frame 14"long and 8 high connected with pinned joints, and, ls" x :MW-diagonal fabric spaced 131/2 apart was welded to the pipe. The diagonal fabric was then plastered with 3I of hand plaster applied in 3 coats and the wall was securely anchored to a rock foundation. The test was conducted when the plaster was seven days old andthe wall withstood without ldili'iculty the horizontal load of 68,200 pounds which was the capacity of a hydraulic jack employed. This was equivalent to a shear load` per lineal foot of wall of 4,860 p. s.,i. The results of this test indicated .that the lThe shop fabricated wall panel was then developed which may be plastered, gunited, or filled with concrete at the job site. The joinery 'between panels was improvedV to give continuous uniform distribution of stresses throughout the composite panels. The concrete or cementitious materials provide a composite concrete and steel wall. The complete steel structural skeleton is reinforced with con- Vcrete as distinguished from the conventional practice of concrete reinforced by steel.
The design technique afforded by the advantages of the present invention has made possible the'development of tables showing the design of any given building to the mere selection of component parts of dimensions as given by the tables. The invention shown and described in the present application provides an improved building structure having wall panels divided by positive articulation, more than adequate force resisting properties and superior joinery. The relationship of the diagonal lattice to the vertical and horizontal members of the framework lends calculability to the structure with the result that it is possible to determine in advance the complete table of properties of any given size wall panel unit.
While l have described the preferred embodiments of my invention, l am not limited to any of the details herein set forth except as described in the following claims.
1. A structural building unit comprising a pair of parallel spaced metallic members; a regular pattern crisscross lattice of straight metallic elements extending diagonally in a plane between said members; the lattice pattern being such that intersections of certain of the elements lie adjacent a portion of each member; means securing such intersections to each member; a rigid sheath of cementitious materials enveloping the lattice, securing means and said portions of said members, the sheath extending between said members and laterally beyond them; another portion of said members being exposed and projecting transversely from the sheath, and bridging elements positioned outside said sheath extending between the exposed portions of said members.
2. A structural building unit comprising a pair of parallel spaced metallic members; a regular pattern criss- .cross lattice of straight metallic elements extending diagonally in a plane between said members; the lattice pattern being such that intersections of certain of the elements lie adjacent a portion of each member; means securing such intersections to each member; a rigid sheath of cementitious materials enveloping the lattice, securing means and said portions of said members, the sheath extending between said members and laterally beyond them; another portion of said members being exposed and projecting transversely from the sheath; bridging elements positioned outside said sheath extending between the exposed portions of said members; and angle braces joined at one end to the said members at a location within the enclosing sheath and joined at the other end to the exposed bridging elements.
3. A structural building unit comprising a series of spaced parallel columns, the end columns in the series comprising the side boundaries of the building unit, the other columns in the series each comprising a structural metallic I-beam, a regular pattern criss-cross lattice formed of straight metallic strips extending diagonally in a vertical plane between said end columns, the lattice pattern being such that intersections of certain of the strips lie adjacent the front flange of each I-beam, weld means securing such intersections to each front flange, a rigid sheath of cementitious materials extending continuously between the end columns, said sheath enveloping the lattice, weld means and the front flange of each of said I-beams, a portion of the web of each I-beam and the rear ange thereof being exposed and projecting from the sheath in a direction normal to said plane, and metallic bridging elements positioned outside said sheath extending horizontally between said columns and welded to the exposed rear ange of said I-beam.
4. A structural building unit comprising a series of spaced parallel columns, the end columns in the series comprising the side boundaries of the building unit, the other columns in the series each comprising a structural metallic I-beam, a regular pattern criss-cross lattice formed of straight metallic strips extending diagonally in a vertical plane between said end columns, the lattice pattern being such that intersections of certain of the strips lie adjacent the front ange of each I-beam, weld means securing such intersections to each front flange, a rigid sheath of cementitious materials extending continuously between the end columns, said sheath enveloping the lattice, weld means and the front ange of each of said I-beams, a portion of the web of each I- beam and the rear ange thereof being exposed and projecting from the sheath in a direction normal to said plane, metallic bridging elements positioned outside said sheath extending horizontally between said columns and welded to the exposed rear ange of said I-beams; and
angle braces each welded at one end to a front flange of said I-beams and welded at the other end to a bridging element at a location intermediate said columns.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,428,147 Davis Sept. 5, 1922 1,523,811 Lichtenberg et al Jan. 20, 1925 1,562,706 Lake Nov. 24, 1925 1,714,987 Pedersen May 28, 1929 1,980,397 Geiger Nov. 13, 1934 1,997,809 Cole Apr. 16, 1935 2,049,733 Davis Aug. 4, 1936 2,052,113 Ruppel Aug. 25, 1936 2,108,065 Kotrbaty Feb. 15, 1938 2,154,619 Hurley Apr. 18, 1939 2,192,183 Deutsch Mar. 5, 1940 2,201,504 Ruppel May 21, 1940 2,229,779 Thomas Jan. 28, 1941 2,275,056 White Mar. 3, 1942 2,321,860 Ruppel June 15, 1943