US 2706520 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 1955 M. E. CHANDLER 2,706,520
FLUID DISTRIBUTING APPARATUS Filed Oct. 29, 1947 INVENTOR iii/Z0125 (Fm/Idle!- A ORNEY United States Patent FLUID DISTRIBUTING APPARATUS Milton E. Chandler, New Britain, Conn., assignor to Niles-Bement-Pond Company, West Hartford, Conn., a corporation of New Jersey Application October 29, 1947, Serial No. 782,757
7 Claims. (Cl. 158-363) The present invention relates to apparatus for distributing fluid from a common source to a plurality of discharge points, and is illustrated as applied in connection .with a system for distributing fuel to a number of separate nozzles of an internal combustion turbine.
In a system of this type, it is desirable to deliver equal quantities of fuel to the nozzles of the turbine. This is diflicult because the external pressure conditions may vary from one nozzle to another. Another trouble which has been encountered in distributing systems of this type is that one or more of the nozzles may become partially clogged, resulting in uneven distribution. It has also been diflicult in prior systems to vary the total flow to all the nozzles while maintaining equal distribution to each nozzle.
An object of my invention is to provide an improved fluid distributing system.
Another object is to provide a system of the type described wherein provision is made to avoid uneven distribution due to clogging of the nozzles.
A further object is to provide a system of the type described which will be unaffected by the pressure conditions existing outside the several nozzles.
Another object is to provide improved means for regulating the total flow through all the nozzles while maintaining equalized distribution to each nozzle.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from a consideration of the appended specification, claims and drawings, in which The single figure illustrates, somewhat diagrammatically, a fluid distribution system adapted for use in a multiple nozzle turbine of the internal combustion type.
Referring to the drawing, the fuel comes from a tank (not shown), and flows through an inlet conduit 10, a pump 12, a discharge conduit 14, a number of parallel branch conduits 16, 18 and 20, leading to discharge nozzles 22, 24 and 26.
The three branch conduits 16, 18 and 20 each contain a metering restriction, numbered 28, 30 and 32, respectively.
The nozzles 22, 24 and 26 are similar in structure, and only nozzle 22 will be described in detail. Nozzle 22 includes a valve 34 operated by a flexible diaphragm 36, which separates a pair of expansible chambers 38 and 40. The chamber 40 is filled with fuel at the pressure existing on the downstream side of metering restriction 28. The chamber 38 is connected by a pilot branch conduit 42 to a pilot line 44. The pilot line 44 is connected by similar branch conduits 46 and 48 to chambers in the nozzles 24 and 26.
A by-pass connection leads from the discharge side of pump 12 through a restriction 50 in a by-pass conduit 52, a check valve 54, and a return conduit 56 to the inlet side of pump 12. The pilot line 44 is connected to conduit 52. The pressure in pilot line 44 is controlled by the force of the spring 58 which loads check valve 54. The check valve operates to maintain a substantially constant pressure in the pilot line 44.
The pump discharge pressure is controlled by a relief valve generally indicated at 60, which controls the flow through conduits 62 and 64 from the outlet to the inlet of the pump. Relief valve 60 includes a piston valve 66 operated by a bellows 68. The interior of bellows 68 is supplied with fluid at a variable control pressure through a conduit 70. The exterior of bellows 68 is subject to the pump discharge pressure through a conduit 72 in the valve 66. The relief valve mechanism 60 operates to 2,706,520 Patented Apr. 19, 1955 maintain the pump discharge pressure at a value determined by the control pressure supplied through conduit 7 0. Any suitable mechanism may be used for supplying the control pressure. For example, it may be that shown in my copending application Serial No. 664,412, filed April 23, 1946, now Patent No. 2,697,909, issued December 28, 1954.
The check valve 54 maintains a substantially constant pressure in the pilot line 44 and hence in the chamber 38 above diaphragm 36. The diaphragm 36 operates valve 34 to maintain a correspondingly steady constant pressure on the downstream side of the metering restriction 28. The nozzles 24 and 26 similarly maintain the same constant pressure on the downstream side of their respective restrictions 30 and .32.
The pressure on the upstream side of each of the restrictions 28, 30 and 32 is substantially the same as the pump discharge pressure which is regulated by the relief valve mechanism 60. It may therefore be seen that the three metering restrictions 28, 30 and 32 all have the same pressure drop across them, and hence, if their areas are the same, the flow through each of them is the same.
The flow through each nozzle is substantially independent of the pressure existing outside it. If any nozzle tends to clog, the pressure on the downstream side of its associated metering restriction will rise, opening the nozzle valve to reduce or eliminate the clogging.
Furthermore, clogging of one nozzle will not cause a pressure rise throughout the system, since the relief valve 60 prevents such a pressure rise.
The terms and expressions used herein are employed for purposes of description and not of limitation, and I have no intention, in the use of such terms and expressions, of excluding any equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof, but recognize that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention claimed.
I claim as my invention:
1. In apparatus for distributing fluid, a common source of fluid, a plurality of discharge points, a main discharge conduit leading from said source to a plurality of branch conduits, each leading from said discharge conduit to one of said discharge points, a pump connected in series in said main conduit, a metering restriction in each of said branch conduits, a valve in each of said branch conduits downstream from its associated restriction, operating means for each said valve including a pair of expansible chambers separated by a movable wall, first means connecting one of said chambers to its associated branch conduit between the restriction and the valve therein so that the pressure in said one chamber acts on said wall in a valve opening direction; a by-pass conduit around said pump and a pilot source of fluid under pressure in said by-pass conduit, and second means connecting the other chambers of all said valve operating means to said pilot source so that the valves are operated to maintain equal pressures on the downstream sides of all said restrictions; and two flow restricting devices in series in said by-pass conduit; said second connecting means connecting said other chambers to said by-pass conduit between said flow restricting devices.
2. Fluid distributing apparatus as in claim 1, in which the furthest downstream of said two flow restricting devices includes a valve movable toward open position by the pressure on its upstream side, and a spring biasing said valve closed, said spring and valve cooperating to maintain the pressure between said two flow restricting devices at a substantially constant value.
3. Fluid distributing apparatus as in claim 2, including means for controlling the pressure of said common source to control the total flow therefrom.
4. Fluid distributing apparatus as in claim 3, in which said by-pass conduit leads from the outlet to the inlet of said pump.
5. Fluid distributing apparatus as in claim 3, in which said pressure controlling means controls the discharge pressure of said pump.
6. Fluid distributing apparatus as in claim 2, in which the fluid is a liquid fuel, and in which the discharge points are nozzles adapted to be located in spaces for the combustion of said fuel.
3 7. Fluid distributing apparatus as in claim 1, in which 2,165,447 spray nozzles are located at said discharge points and said 2,430,264 valves are located in said spray nozzles.
References Cited in the file of this patent 5 526,869 577,132
UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,930,455 Hannum Oct. 10, 1933 4 Browne July 11, 1939 Wiegand et a1 Nov. 4, 1947 FOREIGN PATENTS Germany Feb. 26, 1928 Great Britain May 7, 1946