US 2706645 A
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April 19, 1955 L. E. PITNER 2,706,645
Filed Sept. 6, l949 2 Sheets-Sheet l Juventor LLOYD E. PH'NER Gttornegs April 19, 1955 L. E. PITNER 2,706,645
Filed Sept. 6, 1949 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 /7 l I I l m LLOYD El PITNER Smaemor Gttornegs United States Patent BOOK Lloyd E. Pitner, Milwaukee, Wis.; John L. Pitner, administrator of said Lloyd E. Pitner, deceased Application September 6, 1949, Serial No. 114,172
Claims. (Cl. 281-29) My invention relates to books, book bindings, and the method of manufacture and assembly thereof.
The object of my invention is to change the recognized methods of book making and book binding that more rapid methods of manufacture, more economical construction of books, and improved bound book production result therefrom, especially in small books and childrens books.
Other objects of my invention will become apparent from the following description and analysis in which reference will be made to previously recognized practices.
In the following specification the principal parts of a book will be denominated and defined according to the following:
Body. The pages of the book including fiy-leaves, slipsheets and all pages or materials of any kind bound between the covers.
End sheets. Sheets that are disposed between the body and the inside face of a cover board. These sheets are sometimes separate sheets, sometimes folded forms, sometimes assembled as a part of the body, or sometimes attached to the inner face of the cover boards.
Cover boards. Binders board, chip board or other substances in sheet form of greater or less pliability that form the base or frame work of the front and back covers of the book.
Backbones or binding strips. Strips of board or other material in one or more pieces that cover the spine, or hinge edge or margin of a book. In some cases these strips are fastened to the sides of the front and back hinge margin of the book.
Hinges. Cloth, paper or other flexible material, or even a mere scored line in a material, that forms a hingelike connection between front and back cover boards, or between cover board and backbone.
Cover liner. Paper, cloth or other sheeting that is applied, usually adhesively, to the outside of the cover board, backbone, and hinge. The cover liner and cover board may be trimmed flush with the edge of the body or the cover liner may be turned in around flush cut or extended coverboards and backbone.
Case. A combination of cover boards, backbone, hinge,
and cover liner assembled and fastened together; forming a cover to receive a body to be fastened therein. Sometimes the case comprises a pair of separate sections fastened respectively to the front and back of the body.
Casing in. The act of fastening the body of the book into the case, or between cases.
In this specification the term fasten or fastening includes any of the well recognized means for permanently assembling a book or parts of a book, such as sewing, gluing, pasting, stapling, or stitching.
According to the heretofore recognized practices, there are two general methods of book making or book binding. In one, the body of the book is separately assembled and fastened together and may or may not include end sheets; the case, including cover liners, is separately formed and the body fastened therein. The other method is to form a case by attaching a cover liner and end sheets to cover boards and backbone, the cover liners and end sheets serving as a hinge; then to fasten these cases to the body sections, and to cover the fasteners and spine of the book with a binding. There are many modifications of these methods but when cover boards are hinged to binding strips they all contemplate attach- 2,706,645 Patented Apr. 19, 1955 ice ment of the cover liners to the cover boards before the body of the book is cased-in.
My new method provides for the assembly as a single unit of the body, and sheets and cover boards with hinged backbone, and a single fastening operation accomplishes this step in my method. The second step includes application, to the completely assembled book, of the cover liner, with or without the turning in of its edges. Then a final operation, the pasting down of the end sheets upon the inside of the front and back cover boards for concealing both the board and the inturned margins of the cover liner.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a cross section of a fragment of my completed book and showing in dotted lines the position of the end sheets prior to their pasting operation.
Figure 2 is a fragmentary, enlarged section of my cover board, backbone and hinge.
Figure 3 is a perspective of my book with its body, end sheets, and front and back cover boards with their respective hinges and backbones in the stage of my book construction just prior to application of my cover liner.
Figure 4 is a sectional view of the intermediate stage of my book construction wherein the structure of Figure 3 has received the cover liner, but the liner has not yet been turned in.
Figure 5 is an enlarged view of the binding portion of the book construction shown in Figure 4.
Figure 6 is a fragmentary view of the inside face of one corner of my cover board and showing the inutrned cover liner-dotted lines being used to show the position of the-cover liner just prior to turning in.
Figure 7 is an end elevation, but showing a different type of backbone and a sectional body with hinge inside the backbone and cover board.
Figure 8 is an inside view of my book in the state of construction shown in Figure 7.
Figure 9 is a fragmentary view of the hinge portion of a construction somewhat similar to Figure 7, but with the hinge on the outside of the backbone and cover boards.
Figure 10 is a view similar to Figure 9, but showing a hinge on the inside of the backbone and outside of the cover board.
Figure 11 is a view similar to Figure 9, but showing a hinge on the outside of a backbone and inside of the cover boards.
Like parts are designated by the same reference characters throughout the several views.
To illustrate the steps in my book making method I shall now describe my book making method as applied to the type of book described and claimed in my copendmg U. S. patent application, Serial No. 739,165, filed April 3, 1947,now Patent 2,645,795, granted July 21, 1953, it being understood that in so describing my instant invention I am merely selecting one of a large number of book styles.
In Figure 3 I show an assembled book without cover liner. The parts to be assembled include backbone strips 10 and cover boards 11 spaced apart, with a hinge 12 bonded to the inner or outer face of the backbone and cover boards. The hinge as shown in Figures 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7 would, in the completed book, be on the inner faces. I assemble a pair of covers, without cover liner, as shown in Figure 3 with the body of the book 13 in central position and end sheets 14 and 15 as a part of the body. The cover boards 11, hinges 12 and backbone strips 10 are brought against the end sheets 14 and 15. At this stage in my method I fasten the body 13, the end sheets 14 and 15, and the hinges 12, between the backbone strips 10. I have shown in Figures 3, 7, 8, 9, l0 and 11, by way of illustration, wire stitching 16 as the fastening means.
The next step in my method of book making is shown in Figure 4, where it will be seen that I have applied a cover liner 17 to the exterior surface of the cover board 11, the hinge 12, the backbone strips 10 and the bound edge of the body 13. The extended margins 18 of the cover liner are precut to allow for turning-in. be noted in Figure 5, where I have shown parts of my binding in an enlarged view, that the cover liner may It will be creased deeply in the space between backbone strip and cover board 11, so that the hinge will work freely and be strengthened by adhesively bonding the cover liner to the hinge 12.
Another illustration of my method is shown in Figures 7 and 8 where the body 13 comprises one or more folded sections 19 each fastened to backbone 10. End sheets in this type of construction form a first sheet and a last sheet respectively of the first section and last section of the body, and are fastened by the same stitches that hold the sections.
Hinge 12 in this construction may be on the inside of the backbone and cover board (see Figures 7 and 8) on the outside thereof (see Figure 9) or on the inside of one and outside of the other (see Figures 10 and 11).
The body of the book and cover boards may be cut flush, or the body may be inset as indicated in dotted lines at 13 in Figures 7 and 8, thus providing an extended cover board.
In such a book the next step in my method is the application of cover liner 17 to the exterior surface of the coverboard 11, hinge 12 and backbone 10.
The last step is the pasting in of the end sheets 14 and 15 upon the inner surfaces of the cover board 11, hinge 12 and the turned in edges 18 of the cover liner 17. The cover liner may be mitered or cut to fit the corners and at the point 20 where the turned in cover liner contacts the body of the book.
As shown in Figure 6, the turned-in portion 18 of the cover liner is adhesively bonded to the inside surface of the cover board 11. To facilitate the formation of a neat and firm bond I miter the corners as shown in Fig. 6.
The next step in my method is the adhesive bonding of end sheets 14 and 15 to the hinge 12, the inner surfaces of the cover board 11, and the inturned margins 18 of the cover liner 17. Thus the hinge portion 12, of the hinge material becomes a laminated reinforced hinge, including not only the hinge 12, but also the cover liner 17 on the outside of the book and the end sheets 14 and 15 on the inside.
From the above description it will be seen that my completed book binding is structurally superior to previously known bindings, it is easier to construct and costs less to produce. The application of the cover liner as the next step after attachment of the cover boards to the book body through the medium of a hinge and backbone, permits a wide range of more substantial book construction. By my method the cover liner conceals the fastenings and provides a necessary trim appearance for the outside of the finished book. The application of the cover liners and the attaching of end sheets as a final step in book production can be performed either as a hand operation or machine operation and simplifies book production.
1. A book consisting of a body, end sheets and backbone strips, with a backbone strip on each side of the body hinged to cover boards; fasteners extending through the body, end sheets and backbone strips; a cover liner adhesively bonded to the exterior of the cover boards, hinges and backbones extending around the back of the book and covering the fasteners; and end sheets adhesively bonded to the inside surface of the cover boards and hinges.
2. The book of claim 1 with the cover liner turned in around the free edges of the cover boards and adhesively bonded to the inside margins of the cover boards and with end sheets bonded to the inside of the cover boards and said turned in margins of the cover liner.
3. A book comprising body pages, end sheets, cover boards and backbone strips with the cover boards having hinge attachment to the backbone strips; permanent fasteners holding together the body pages, end sheets and backbone strips near the binding margin of the book; a cover liner covering the outside surfaces of the cover boards, hinges, backbone strips and fasteners, said cover liner extending around the back edge of the book and being turned in and adhesively bonded to the interior margins of the cover boards and with end sheets adhesively bonded to the inside surface of the cover boards, hinges and said turned in margins of the cover liner.
4. A book consisting of folded body sections with end sheets, a backbone strip hinged to front and back cover boards; fasteners extending through the body sections, end sheets and backbone strip; a cover liner adhesively bonded to the exterior of the cover boards, hinges and backbone, covering the fasteners and extending around the bound edge of the book; and end sheets adhesively bonded to the inside surface of the cover boards and hinges.
5. The book of claim 4 with cover liner turned in and adhesively bonded to the interior margins of the cover boards and with end sheets adhesively bonded to the inside surface of the cover boards, hinges and said turned in margins of the cover liner.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 353,562 Johnson Nov. 30, 1886 1,503,828 Harris Aug. 5, 1924 1,900,321 White Mar. 7, 1933 2,004,482 Wolfson June 11, 1935 2,180,965 Palmer et al. Nov. 21, 1939 2,262,796 Cavalero Nov. 18, 1941