US 2709623 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
31$ 1955 W. B. GLYNN WATER SPRINKLER HEAD AND SYSTEM Filed Nov. 24, 1952 I V INVENTOR. WILLIAM B. GLYNN nited States Patent WATER SPRINKLER HEAD AND SYSTEM William B. Glynn, Menlo Park, Calif.
Application November 24, 1952, Serial No. 322,192
8 Claims. (Cl. 299-60) This invention relates to new and useful improvements in water sprinkler head and system. Reference is made to my copending application Serial No. 187,928, filed October 2, 1950, now Patent No. 2,639,941, issued May 26, 1953, on Self Elevating Sprinkler Head and System, of which this application is a continuation in part.
The present invention provides a means for balancing the flow in a multi-head sprinkler system and for adjusting the pattern of the spray therefrom to conform to desired characteristics. More particularly, the invention involves the insertion in the head of solid, cylindrical plugs having helical threads on the exterior which confine the flow of water through the head. The depth of thread, the number of threads and the relative width of the lands and grooves of each of the plugs employed in the system may be varied in order to obtain the balance of flow and variety of spray pattern which has been specified.
Accordingly, the instant invention provides a system having a plurality of spray heads at suitable locations in the lawn or garden to be irrigated, each of the heads having a cylinder arranged to receive a plug of the character described and a cap having a spray orifice to retain the plug within the cylinder. The flow of water is confined to the helical grooves in the plug with the result that the water leaves the spray orifice with a swirling action which improves the spray pattern. The relative volume of water discharged in the various spray heads may be balanced by employing plugs affording varying resistance to fluid flow. The number of threads or grooves in the plug affects the fineness and coarseness of spray and hence by varying the plugs the spray pattern may be controlled.
One of the features of the invention is the provision of a sprinkler head which may be installed on a riser pipe, the head having a cylindrical chamber for the reception of a plug and further being provided with a cap having a dome in which is formed aspray orifice, the dome fitting against the top of the plug to seat the plug on a conical seat at the bottom of the cylindrical chamber. There is a close fit between the external surface of the plug and the cylindrical chamber which confines the flow of water to the grooves in the plug.
One of the features of this invention is the fact that the cap for the head may be removed conveniently and the plug changed to one of ditterent characteristics, as required, by a simple manual operation. It is unnecessary to dig up the pipe or to remove the head in order to alter the characteristics of flow. Further, the construction of the sprinkler head is such that, in the event of damage, the damaged parts may be conveniently removed without the necessity of excavating the riser pipe.
Still another feature of this invention is the provision of an attachment for a sprinkler head which confines the spray portion to a semi-circle, or other fraction of a full circle, this attachment being conveniently installed and adjusted.
Other objects of the present invention will become apice parent upon reading the following specification and referring to the accompanying drawings in which similar characters of reference represent corresponding parts in each of the several views.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a schematic view of a sprinkler system employing a plurality of sprinkler heads.
Fig. 2 is a vertical midsection through a sprinkler head.
Fig. 3 is a vertical midsection through a modified sprinkler head.
Fig. 4 is a perspective of a cap used in the modification of Fig. 3.
Fig. 4a is a perspective of the head shown in Fig. 3.
Figs. 5, 6 and 7 are perspectives of different varieties of plug inserts for sprinkler heads of the types shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 8.
Fig. 8 is a vertical midsection through still another modification.
Fig. 9 is a vertical midsection through a portion of a sprinkler head employing an attachment for conversion to a semi-circular spray pattern.
As has been stated, the instant invention is particularly adapted for use in lawn and garden sprinkler systems employing a plurality of sprinkler heads spaced apart at various locations. A valve 11 is actuated to control flow of water through an extended water pipe 12. The pipe 12 is provided with a plurality of Ts 13 or elbows 14 directly below the sprinkler heads and above each of the connections is a riser 16 having 'a threaded upper end 17. The sprinkler heads 18 hereafter described are threaded onto the upper ends of the risers 16. As shown particularly in Fig. 2, the sprinkler head 18 comprises a main body portion which is internal- 1y threaded at its lower end for reception of the end 17 riser pipe 16, the threaded portion 21 terminating in a shoulder 22 which is provided with an inlet port 23 through which water flows. Immediately above the inlet port 23 is a conical or counter-sunk seat 24 above which is a cylindrical chamber 26 bore. Above the cylindrical bore 26 is an enlarged internally threaded portion 27. The upper end of the body has a thin, laterally extending flange 28 which coincides with the ground level in which the sprinkler head is installed.
A cap 29 is recessed in the threaded upper end 27 of the body to lie flush with the top of flange 28. The cap 29 has a spray aperture 31 at its center and an internal, concave downward dome recess 32 which constitutes an upper extension of the cylindrical chamber 26 of the main body portion 18.
Located within the chamber 26 and extending slightly up into the dome of the cap is a plug 33. This plug 33 is preferably formed of a plastic material which is not affected by prolonged contact with water. It will be noted particularly with reference to Fig. 2 that the plug 33 extends up above the horizontal shoulder 34 at the top of the cylindrical chamber 26 and it will further be noted that the interior of the cap 29 is cylindrical as indicated by reference numeral 36 for a short distance above the level of shoulder 34. Hence when the cap 29 is removed the upper edge of the plug 33 may be lifted out of the chamber by the fingers.
The outer diameter of the plug 33 is very slightly less than the diameter of the cylindrical portion 26 of the body 18, thus confining the flow of Water to the helical grooves 37 formed on the cylindrical exterior of the plug, there being only sufficient clearance between the plug 33 and cylindrical chamber 26 to permit the plug to be readily inserted and withdrawn. The length of the plug 33 is such that when the cap 29 is in place the cap 29 abuts the upper edge of the plug and seats the same against the seat portion 24 of the main body. This insures that the water will flow into the grooves 37 whereas if the plug rested on a horizontal seat, as distinguished from a conical seat, flow of water would be restricted from communication with the grooves. The plug inserts 33 may be formed with a wide variety of grooves 37 on the exterior thereof. Each groove preferably extends a full 360 to provide a swirling or whirling action to the spray. In order to vary the coarseness and fineness of the spray, the number of threads or grooves 37 may be varied, but it has been found that at least two grooves 37 are essential in order to provide a balanced spray, and that three or four grooves are most effective, although as many as six grooves may be employed when a very fine spray is desired. The grooves 37 may be varied by variation in the depth of the thread. The grooves may also bevaried by variation of the relative widths of the lands 3S and grooves. Variation in depth and in width of. the grooves varies the volume of water.
Where a balanced spray pattern is desired, it is desirable to use a plug 33 which passes a lesser volume of Water in those locations where the pressure is high and a plug passing a greater volume where the pressure is low. Further, when an unbalanced flow is desired, plugs having greater groove volume as compared with land volume may be employed.
In Fig. 5, a plug insert 33a having three grooves 37 is illustrated. In Figs. 6 and 7, plug inserts 33b and 330, respectively, having four and six grooves 37, respectively, are shown. It will further be observed in connection with Figs. 5 to 7 that the relative depths of grooves 37 and relative volumes of lands 38 and grooves may be varied. The plugs 33a, 33b and 330 are interchangeable in cylindrical portion 26. In Figs. 3 and 4 is shown a modified construction. Thus, the cap 41 is held in the body 18 by a bayonet slot 42 con struction which differs from the threaded connection shown in Fig. 2. Two lugs 43 are formed on diametrically opposed sides of the cap 41 and these fit within the bayonet slots 42 extending down from the upper end of the plug body 18. A resilient gasket 44 is placed in the bottom of the cylindrical recess 46 in the upper end of the body and this gasket seals the cap to the body and further, by reason of its resilience, prevents the bayonet slot connection from being accidentally disengaged.
In Fig. 8 a modified form of sprinkler head is illustrated.
This form is particularly useful in installations where a permanently elevated head is employed, such as, for ex ample, for irrigating shrubbery and the like. The riser pipe extends a considerable distance above ground level so that the spray from the sprinkler head falls upon the leaves of the shrubbery.
A body member 51 having a threaded bore 52 in its downwardly facing end is threaded over the upper end 17 of the riser pipe. A restricted shoulder 53 is formed in the lower body portion above the top of the riser pipe and the upper surface 54 of the shoulder is tapered out wardly to a diameter equal to the cylindrical bore 56 in the upper end of the'lower body portion. The upper surface 54 of the shoulder thus appears to be countersunk. The upper end 57 of the lower body portion is of a, lesser diameter and is externally threaded. A cap member 58 is in threaded engagement with the lower body portion 57, this cap member being formed in the downwardly concave dome recess 59 with a spray aperture 61 in the top. A plug insert 33 having helical grooves 37 on its exterior fits-into the lower body portion 51 and rests on the tapered upper surface 54 of the shoulder 53. The plug 33 extends above the top edge of the lower body portion 57 a sufiicient distance so that the plug may be grasped by the fingernails and removed when required. It will be understood that the number of threads 37, depth of thread, and relative widths of the grooves and lands 33 may be varied in the modification of Fig. 8 to adjust the spray characteristics of the sprinkler head as in the preceding modification. Preferably the lower body portion 51 and cap of the attachment.
58 may be formed with an hexagonal exterior to facilitate installation by means of a wrench.
In the modification of Fig. 8, water rises in the riser pipe 16 and through the hole 62 in shoulder 53 and then flows outwardly in the counter-sunk portion 54 of the shoulder and up through the spiral grooves 37 in the exterior of the plug insert 33. The outwardly flared shoulder 54 prevents the plug 33 from cutting oif circulation which might occur if a. shoulder having a horizontal upper surface were employed. The grooves 37 impart a swirling motion to the water, which leaves the spray aperture 61 in the top dome of the cap and spreads out over the adjacent area. The characteristics of the spray are dependent upon the characteristics of the plug insert 33. The characteristics of the spray may be readily adjusted and a balance between several sprinkler heads in a sprinkling system may be achieved by variation of the plugs 33 in the various sprinkler heads in the system.
Still another modification is shown in Fig. 9. It is sometimes desirable by reason of the location of the sprinkler head in relation to sidewalks, buildings, and the like, to restrict the spray leaving the head to less than a full 360 sweep. In Fig. 9 a special attachment is installed which limits the spread of the spray to 180. A particularly desirable feature of the attachment of Fig. 9 is that it may be installed in a conventional sprinkler head and removed as required without complicated tools and the like. Thus the spray restricting attachment can be installed or removed or the direction in which the spray is aimed can be adjusted very simply, as hereinafter appears.
In Fig. 9 the cap of a sprinkler head is indicated by reference numeral 71. This cap is hollow and the top is apertured, as indicated by reference numeral 72, for the emission of a conventional spray. Withoutthc special attachment next described the sprinkler head is similar to the caps of the sprinkler heads heretoforedescribed and would produce a spray over a full 360. The attachment comprises an externally threaded, hollow stem '73 which has a diameter equal to the diameter of the hole 72 in the cap. Above the stem 73 is an. enlarged external portion 74 which may be formed with an hexagonal head 76 to facilitate installation. An upwardly slanted slot 77 is cut into the enlarged upper end 76 as illustrated in Fig. 9, this slot 77 communicating with the hole 78 in the stem 73 so that water passing up through the hole 78 is deflected through the slot 77 and outwardly to the right. The slot 77 is formed through 180 with respect to the axis of the stem, thereby restricting the spray to a semi-circle. The angular travel of the spray may be varied by forming slot 77 through more or less than 180.
The attachment is held on the cap by means of a nut 79 which is threaded on to the lower end of the stem 73 and is positioned inside the cap. The nut bears against the underside of the dome 81 of the cap with a tight fit sufficient to prevent leakage of water through the top of the cap. The nut 79 may bereadily installed and removed, thereby permitting rapid installation and removal The direction of spray may also be adjustedv by turning the enlarged portion 7 6 with a wrench to point in the. proper direction. The attachment of Fig. 9, therefore, may be employed to convert a conventional sprinkler head to a semi-circle or other restricted angle spray.
- lower end of said body, said shoulder being apertured to provide a water inlet port, thc upper surface of said shoulder above said port having an outwardly flaring seat, said body having a smooth, cylindrical plug-receiving bore above said seat and an enlarged cap-receiving bore above said plug-receiving bore, a hollow cap apertured in its top for emission of spray received in said cap-receiving bore, said cap being formed with a con cave-downward dome terminating at its lower end in a short cylindrical portion of a diameter substantially equal to that of said plug-receiving bore, a cylindrical, solid plug in said plug-receiving bore, said plug being formed with at least two helical grooves traversing 360 formed on its outer cylindrical surface, the lands of said plug fitting tightly against said plug-receiving bore to confine water flow to said grooves from said seat to said dome in said cap, said plug being restrained by said body and cap against rotative movement, and cooperating means on said cap and said body detachably to secure said cap to said body, said plug being removable when said cap is removed.
2. A head according to claim 1 in which said co operating means comprises mating threads on the exterior of said cap and in said cap-receiving bore.
3. A head according to claim 1 in which said cooperating means comprises lugs on said cap and bayonet slots receiving said lugs in said cap-receiving bore and in which is further provided a gasket on the bottom of said cap-receiving bore on which said cap seats.
4. A sprinkler system comprising a pipe, a plurality of risers connected to said pipe, and a head according to claim 1 on each of said risers, the plugs in each of said heads being interchangeable and varying in the relative volumes of grooves and lands to adjust the pattern of water discharge throughout said system.
5. A sprinkler system comprising a pipe, a plurality of risers connected to said pipe, and a head according to claim 1 on each of said risers, the plugs in each of said heads being interchangeable and each plug varying in the relative volumes of grooves and lands to adjust the volume of water discharged through its head, said plugs also varying in the number of grooves on the exterior thereof to adjust the fineness of spray emitted from the respective heads.
6. A sprinkler head comprising a hollow body having a threaded lower extremity for connection to a water pipe, an internal shoulder in said body adjacent the lower end of said body, said shoulder being apertured to provide a water inlet port, the upper surface of said shoulder above said port having an outwardly flaring seat, said body having a smooth, cylindrical plug-receiving bore above said seat, a hollow cap apertured in its top for emission of spray, said cap being formed with a concave-downward dome terminating at its lower end in a short cylindrical portion of a diameter substantially equal to that of said plug-receiving bore, a cylindrical, solid plug in said plug-receiving bore, said plug being fornxed with at least two helical grooves transversing 360 formed on its outer cylindrical surface, the lands of said plug fitting tightly against said plug-receiving bore to confine water flow to said grooves from said seat to said dome, said plug being restrained by said body and cap against rotative movement, and cooperating means on said cap and said body to detachably secure said cap to said. body, said cap having a lesser ex ternal diameter than said body, said plug being removable when said cap is removed.
7. A head according to claim 6 in which said cap is recessed into said body and the top surfaces of said cap and body are flush.
8. in combination in a sprinkler head, a hollow cap for said sprinkler head, said cap being apertured for emission of water spray, a converter for said head, said converter comprising a hollow stem having a threaded exterior fitting through the aperture in said cap and an enlarged external head, and a nut on said stem inside said hollow cap securing said converter and cap together, said head bering against the top of said cap, said head being formed with an inclined slot communicating with the hollow portion of said stem for emission of water spray through a restricted sector of less than 360, said converter being detachable upon removal of said nut.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,192,743 Brooks July 25, 1916 1,882,241 Curran Oct. 11, 1932 2,127,883 Norton Aug. 23, 1938 2,248,728 Strosk July 8, 1941 2,399,182 Gustafsson et al. Apr. 30, 1946