US 2710476 A
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June 14, 1955 J. c. GARAND MAGAZINE LATCHING SYSTEM Filed June 6. 1946 nite States Patented June 14-, i955 MAGAZINE LATCHING SYSTEM John C. Garand, Springfield, Mass. Application June 6, 1M6, Serial No. 674,693 2 Claims. c1. 42-1s (Granted under Title 35, U. S. Code (1952), sec. 266) The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes, without the payment to me of any royalty thereon.
This invention relates to improvements in magazine latching devices for repeating firearms and more particularly to an improved latch mechanism for releasably retaining a box magazine within a firearm structure.
In most repeating firearms embodying a magazine of the box type, the magazine is releasably retained by a latch mechanism. However, if such latching means engage the magazine at but one point, it can readily be seen that the magazine is subject to tilting or camming which may possibly interfere with the proper feeding of the cartridges. Accordingly it is eminently desirable to retain the box magazine at a plurality of oppositely disposed latching points as is done in this invention to positively secure the magazine within the firearm structure.
Another essential requirement of a magazine-fed firearm lies in the ease and rapidity with which the magazine may be released and removed from the firearm. In prior art magazine latching devices, removal of the magazine customarily required the use of both hands, one hand to disengage the latch mechanism from the magazine, and the other to remove the magazine from the firearm. Such procedure definitely increased the time for substituting a loaded magazine for an empty one, and consequently reduced the firepower which the firearm was capable of attaining.
But in the invention described herein, the magazine latch and release mechanism are so designed as to facilitate one-hand removal of the magazine thereby allowing a loaded magazine to be held in the other hand ready for instant insertion. Furthermore the latch mechanism of this invention is equally positive in action regardless of the manner in which the magazine may be grasped upon insertion or the degree of deviation thereof from a substantially vertical position with the firearm. Thus the operator of the firearm can, with a minimum amount of familiarization, change magazines in the firearm by means of a sense of touch alone. It can readily be seen that such procedure enables the firer to keep his gaze directed toward the target at all times.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide latching means in a repeating firearm for a box-type magazine whereby changing magazines can be readily and quickly accomplished without the necessity for the visual observation of the steps involved in such procedure.
It is a further object of this invention to provide an improved latch mechanism for releasably retaining a magazine of the box type within a firearm, the latch mechanism independently engaging oppositely disposed edges of such magazine.
It is a particular object of this invention to provide 19 extends at right angles.
objects and advantages thereof will clearly appear from a description of a preferred embodiment as shown in the accompanying drawings in which:
Fig. l is a longitudinal partial cross-sectional view of the magazine assembled to the firearm.
Fig. 2 is a front view of the rear magazine latch mounted in the trigger housing of the firearm.
Fig. 3 is a cross-sectional view at 33 in Fig. 1 showing front magazine latching means.
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary bottom view of the receiver firearm showing the front magazine latching means.
Referring to the drawings wherein like numerals refer to similar parts there is shown in Fig. l in assembled relation within a firearm a preferred form of magazine latching device embodying this invention.
The self-loading firearm illustrated in the accompanying drawings, is of the well-known Garand type as to its main features, though reconstructed so as to be adapted for automatic fire and to accommodate the latch mechanism of the present invention. The firearm includes a receiver 1 and a barrel 2 projecting rigidly forward from the front end of receiver 1. An operating rod not shown) serves in a manner well-known in the art and cooperates with the usual operating rod spring 4. For this invention, however, the operating rod spring guide 5 terminates in a rear end portion 6 particularly adapted to releasably retain the front edge of a magazine 7 as will later be explained. A trigger housing assembly 8 mounted in receiver 1 includes the second portion of the magazine latch mechanism of this invention.
As shown in Fig. l the operating rod spring guide 5 consists of a bar-like body portion 9, the rear end thereof terminating in a substantially rectangular portion 6 of greater width than the body portion 9 thereby forming a shoulder 10 against which the operating rod spring 4 is seated. The rear edge of rectangular end portion 6 is angularly cut so that the upper rear corner 11 projects rearwardiy farther than the lower rear corner 12 when the guide 5 is properly positioned within the firearm as shown in Fig. 1. An elongated elliptical hole 13 adapted to receive a lock pin 14 for a camming action as will later be explained extends transversely through the guide end portion 6.
The underside of that portion of receiver 1 which surrounds barrel 2 is shaped to form a bridge 15 shown in Fig. 4. This receiver bridge is" is provided with a transverse hole 16 intersectin a rectangular slot 17 located substantially in the center of bridge 15. A recess 3 for receiving the rear end of operating rod spring 4 communicates with front end of slot 17. A second smaller slot 18 parallel to the axis of hole 16 communicates therewith and extends at right angles from slot 17 part way along the bottom face of bridge 15. Transverse hole 16 receives a lock pin 14 from which a smaller pin Pin 19 is provided as means for positioning lock pin 14 and protrudes through slot 18. The guide end portion 6 occupies slot 17 and is held therein by lock pin 14 extending from transverse hole 16 through elliptical hole 13.
The rear magazine latch 2%) shown in Fig. 2 is mounted between two Wings 21 on the forward lower portion of the trigger housing 3. The latch 29 consists of a rectangular body member with a transverse hole 23 through the center thereof for the passage of a retaining pin 22.
- '5 he front face of latch 26 terminates in a projecting nose 24 consisting of triangular sides extending forwardly along the front face of latch ill. The lower portion of latch 2% depends from trigger housing 8 and terminates in an arcuate substantially square finger piece 25. The central rear surface of latch 20 is provided with a circular recess 26 for seating a spring 27 extending within the trigger housing 8 and tending to bias the latch 20 forwardly as shown in Fig. l. The latch 20, however, is prevented from any further forward movement by a lug 28 extending from the top of latch 20 and abutting the forward wall of trigger housing 8.
The underside of receiver 1 is provided with a vertical magazine receiving passage 29 into which a box magazine 7 of the approved form common in the art can be inserted. The front edge of magazine 7 is provided with a substantially square cutout portion 31 for receiving the rearwardly projecting upper corner 11 of the operating rod spring guide end 6. The rear edge of magazine 7 is provided with a longitudinal rib 32 having a clearance notch 33 adapted to accommodate the projecting nose 24 of the rear magazine latch 20.
When it is desired to release and withdraw the box magazine 7 from receiver 1, the operator may push forwardly on the arcuately formed fingerpiece 25 with either the thumb or the portion of the palm between the thumb and forefinger as shown in Fig. l. The magazine latch 20 thus pivots rearwardly about latch pin 22 and causes the projecting nose 24 to withdraw from the clearance notch 33 in magazine rib 32. The operator of the firearm continues to press forwardly on fingerpiece 25 in such manner that his thumb or palm slides off fingerpiece 25 and grasps magazine 7. The continuation of such movement tilts magazine 7 forwardly causing the magazine front edge cutout portion 31 to move away from the projecting upper rear corner 11 of guide end 6. The magazine 7 is thus free of engagement with both magazine latches 6 and 2t and may be withdrawn downwardly away from receiver 1.
When the reloaded box-magazine 7 or a duplicate thereof is pushed upwardly into the magazine well 29, engagement of the magazine 7 with both latches 6 and 20 may be obtained in either of two Ways. The magazine 7 may be inserted into the well 29 in a manner substantially the reverse of that described for the withdrawal thereof. The cutout portion 31 in the front edge of magazine 7 engages the upper rear corner 11 of the guide end 6. Then when magazine 7 is moved to a substantially vertical position, the rib 32 thereof cams the projecting nose 24 of the rear latch 20 rearwardly against the bias of latch spring 27 until such time as clearance notch 33 moves past nose 24 whereupon bias of spring 27 causes nose 24 to engage clearance notch 33.
The alternate method of inserting magazine 7 into the magazine-receiving passage 29 consists of immediately placing magazine 7 in a vertical position and pushing upwardly. The rear latch 20 will be cammed into engagement with the clearance notch 33 in the manner described above and in addition the guide end 6 will be cammed forwardly by the front edge of magazine 7, due to the elongated hole 13 of the guide end portion 6 through which pin 14 extends. When the square cut 31 passes the upper rear corner 11 of operating rod spring guide end 6 the bias of operating rod spring 4 will force corner 11 into engagement with the square cutout portion 31 in the front edge of magazine 7.
It can thus readily be seen that there is a variety of positions from an extremely forward tilted position to a substantially vertical position whereby a magazine may be inserted into the receiver passage 29 of receiver 1 and be securely latched thereafter. Thus the necessity for watching the insertion of the magazine is obviously eliminated. It can also be seen that there is here provided a method of positively latching a magazine with no possibility of play in any direction once latched. The oppositely disposed position of the front and rear latches, each being biased toward one another by suitable springs,
definitely prevents any longitudinal movement of the magazine in the receiver. Moreover since the width of the front latch is substantially that of the square cutout portion of the magazine front edge the possibility of lateral movement of the magazine is also eliminated when the front latch is properly engaged.
The ease with which the magazine may be removed by one sweeping movement of the hand is an extremely important factor in the rapidity with which magazines are changed in the firearm when firing. By holding the firearm in the crook of an arm and removing the magazine with one hand while holding a new magazine in the other, changing of magazines can be effected with a minimum of delay.
1. in a firearm having a receiver, a magazine receiving passage in the receiver, a longitudinal slot in the receiver communicating with the magazine receiving passage, a pin transversely mounted in the receiver through the longitudinal slot, a box-type magazine having an opening in the front wall thereof, a trigger housing mounted in the receiver, and a counter-recoil spring associated with the operating parts of the firearm, the combination of a rear magazine latching means mounted in the trigger housing and a front magazine latching means comprising, a spring guide having a rod-like body portion terminating in a head portion, said rod-like portion surrounded by the spring, a transverse elliptical hole provided in said head portion, said head portion mounted on the pin with the cooperation of said elliptical hole for limited longitudinal movement within the longitudinal slot in the receiver thus retaining the spring in a compressed state on said spring guide, all adapted and arranged whereby said head portion engages the opening in the front wall of the magazine under the bias of the spring to latch the magazine within the receiver in conjunction with the rear latching means.
.2. In a firearm having a receiver, a magazine receiving passage in the receiver, a longitudinal slot in the receiver communicating with the magazine receiving passage, a box-type magazine having an opening in the front wall thereof, a trigger housing mounted in the receiver and a counter-recoil spring associated with the operating parts of the firearm, the combination of, a rear magazine latching means mounted in a trigger housing and a front magazine latching means comprising, a spring guide having a rod-like body portion terminating in a head portion, said body portion surrounded by the spring, means for mounting said spring guide for limited longitudinal movement within the longitudinal slot in the receiver thus retaining the spring in a compressed state on said spring guide, all adapted and arranged whereby said head portion engages the opening in the front wall of the magazine under the bias of the spring to latch the magazine within the receiver in conjunction with said rear latching means.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 465,339 Browning Dec. 15, 1891 1,056,057 Randall Mar. 18, 1913 1,178,747 Nelson Apr. 11, 1916 1,895,719 Lahti Jan. 31, 1933 2,052,287 End Aug. 25, 1936 2,386,205 Gar-and Oct. 9, 1945 2,386,722 Sefried Oct. 9, 1945 FOREIGN PATENTS 238,529 Germany Sept. 26, 1911 299,267 Italy July 26, 1932