|Publication number||US2711557 A|
|Publication date||Jun 28, 1955|
|Filing date||Jul 20, 1953|
|Priority date||Jul 20, 1953|
|Publication number||US 2711557 A, US 2711557A, US-A-2711557, US2711557 A, US2711557A|
|Inventors||Robert J Russell|
|Original Assignee||Hardinge Company Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (16), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 28, 1955 R. J. RUSSELL APPARATUS FOR HANDLING STICKY MATERIALS Filed July 20,1953
3 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN V EN TOR. R J HUJJEL 4. 7M
HTTOFNE? June 28, 1955 R. J. RUSSELL 2,711,557
APPARATUS FOR HANDLING STICKY MATERIALS Filed July 20, 1953 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 F/G, Z
INVENTOR. P. J P055541.
June 28, 1955 RUSSELL 2,711,557
APPARATUS FOR HANDLING STICKY MATERIALS Filed July 20, 1953 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. A. .x R05: :4 L
BY/W- APPARATUS FGR HANDLENG STICKY MATERIALS Robert J. Russell, York, Pa., assignor to Hardinge Company,'lnc., York, Pa., a corporation of New York Application .iuly 2t 1953, Serial No. 369,141
10 Claims. (Cl. 18-1) This invention-relates to apparatus particularly designed for handling sticky materials and, more specifically, to apparatus adapted to agglomerate or pelletize normally finely divided materials in a pasty or sticky state for purposes of rendering the same more suitable for further processing of the materials.
In processing many fine materials such, for example, as finely ground iron ore concentrates, phosphate concentrates, pyrite concentrates, limestone for making cement and other products, as well as zinc and lead concentrates, it is desirable. to agglomerate or pelletize such fine or powdered materials to improve the functioning of subsequent processing equipment. Conventionally, such agglomerating or pelletizing of these finely ground materials is accomplished in machines known in the art variously as pelletizers, balling drums or nodulizing drums.
In feeding iron ore, for example, to a blast furnace, it is known that the operation of the blast furnace is greatly improved if the iron ore is in the form of balls or pellets rather than in finely divided or powdered form. The same is true in feeding iron ore to open hearth furnaces as well as in feeding the various materials of those specifically set forth above, as examples, to machines or apparatus which are to treat the material in processing it into various kinds of more efficiently usable products.
Most of the aforementioned machines used commonly for forming pellets or balls of material, of the nature referred to, comprise a cylinder which is rotated by external means and through which the material is passed and tumbled while being formed into pellets or balls. The material treated usually contains a certain amount of moisture to obtain desired plastic characteristics in order to cause the material to form into pellets or balls as the cylinder rotates. Depending upon the particular material being processed and the nature and size of the desired product, said moisture may amount, for example,
to between 5% and 20% by weight of the material, which renders it sticky and pasty.
Tumbling this material in a drum or cylinder in an effort to form pellets, nodules, or balls frequently results in the material sticking to the inner surface of the drum or cylinder and builds up a layer thereon. Various means are used to attempt to control as well as possible the size, density, and other physical properties of the agglomerated or pelletized product and also endeavor to remove it from the walls of the rotatable drum or shell. For example, scrapers are mounted within the shell to engage the material and separate it in lump form and otherwise from the walls of the rotating cylinder. Such scrapers extend longitudinally through said cylinder and are positioned therein, usually close to the inner surface .there-' of, and supported by means external of the cylinder. in other installations, spiral screw conveyor sections are positioned inside the cylindrical drum and are rotated so as to engage, break-up and separate the material therefrom. In still other installations, reciprocating cutters in the nature of scrapers are supported inside the rotating drum so as to be reciprocated for achieving the foregoingfuncatent ice tions. The aforementioned examples or meansfor removing the material from the inner surface of the shell of the cylinder as well as break up the accumulated and impacted material are complicated and expensive both-to install and to maintain in use.
Rather recently, attempts to remove more easily and simply the material from the inner surface of the rotating cylinder has included the provision of a sectional flexible lining of rubber which will flex due to its own weight as well as the weight of the material adhering to it when the shell is rotated. However, only a minimum amount of flexing of the rubber lining was possible and the results were usually not satisfactory. An improvement in this type of arrangement comprised the provision of holes in the shell of the rotating cylinder, whereby when the sections of flexible lining were suspended when the section was positioned adjacent the top of the cylinder during the movement thereof about the axis of the cylinder, air could be drawn into the space between the inner surfaces of the cylinder shell and the rubber lining. The flexing of the lining could take place then more effectively than when no holes were provided in the casing shell.
In the foregoing examples of rubber lining applied to rotatable cylinders or shellsythe rubber lining usually extended fully around theinner surfaceof the cylindrical shell and throughout substantially its entire length. In order to attach the rubber lining to the shell, bars or other suitable attaching means, extending longitudinally of the lining and shell, were bolted or otherwise secured to the shell in such manner as to clamp the rubber lining between said bars and the shell. This arrangement did not prove very satisfactory because the expansion or pulsating of the longitudinally extending sections of the flexible rubber lining was not uniform as the shell rotated. Only the central portions of each longitudinally extend-- ing section of the rubber lining could flex to any extent and each sectionexpanded sequentially during the rotation of the shell. Some of the material within the cylinder would tend to adhere to the lining, especially adjacent the longitudinally extending ;bars which held the: lining to the shell. Experience has shown that such an arrangement of longitudinally extending lining sections;
resulted in large chunks or gobs of the moistened material,
becoming dislodged on occasions from the inner surface of the rubber lined shell, especially in the vicinity of the: bars which secured the lining to the shell. These chunks; or gobs would fall into the mass of material in the lower portion of the cylinder, resulting in the same becoming: impacted as well as destroying any partially or completely formed balls or pellets of material in said material.
A more recent attempt to improve upon the rubber lining structure described herein above has been to provide means between the lonigtudinally extending sections of-rubberlining and the cylindrical shell for purposes of facilitating the flexing of said sections during rotation of theshell. These means have included the introducing of liquid, gas or air, metal rods, or chains which operated against the inner surface of the rubber lining; that is the surface adjacent the inner surface of the shell. Thus, when said sections reached the upper portion of the travel thereof during rotation of the shell, force or pressure was exerted particularly against the intermediate portions of such longitudinal sections and accented the flexing thereof more than would be possible when merely the weight of the sections of rubber lining and the material adhering thereto was relied upon to cause flexing of said sections. However, even this expedient did not result in any marked improvement in the efficiency of the device dueto the fact that the sameinherent fault remained, namely, that chunks or gobs of the material would be loosened from the rubber lining -asit rotated, especially from between adjacent sections thereof, and the same would fall into the mass of material in the lower portion of the shell, impacting the same as well as somewhat destroying some of the pellets or balls of material which previously had been formed in the cylinder.
An important object of the invention is to provide novel pelletizing and balling apparatus which will obviate the deficiencies of the previously and presently used mechanisms by including features in the novel apparatus which will accomplish continuous pelletizing and balling of moist sticky material to a maximum degree of efiiciency, without permitting the material to stick to or build up around the interior of the shell.
Auxiliary to the foregoing object, it is a specific object of the invention to provide a rotatable, cylindrical, drumlike shell having endless sections of flexible lining extending circumferentially around the interior of said shell, said sections being aflixed at the edges thereof to longitudinally spaced circumferential portions of said shell, and fluid material being disposed between said shell and lining sections to effect the desired amount of flexing of said lining sections freely and continuously, without interruption, in a circumferential direction, whereby continuous disrupting of the material from the lining takes place, as well as pelletizing and balling of the material to be treated without requiring the aid of scrapers, knives, spiral screw conveyors or other similarly functioning means to assure ready and automatic separation of the material from the lining of the shell.
It is another object of the invention to provide novel scoop means on the rotatable cylindrical drum-like shell, said scoop means being provided with flexible linings and fluid material being contained, preferably inescapable, between the walls of said scoop means and said linings, whereby flexing of said linings is accomplished automatically so as to prevent sticking or building up a layer of the material to be treated on said linings as said scoop means progressively feeds said material into said rotatable shell.
A further object of the invention is to provide a novel drum-like pelletizing and balling apparatus and scoop feeding means thereon which are rugged and durable, requiring a minimum of maintenance and operative power, capable of long wear, simple in design to minimize construction and installation costs, yet produce maximum automatic pelletizing and balling of moist pulverant material which automatically and effectively is separated readily and continuously from the scoop means and interior of the rotatable shell or drum of said apparatus without tending to stick thereto or accumulate thereon.
Details of the foregoing objects and of the invention, as well as other objects thereof, are set forth in the following specification and illustrated in the accompanying drawings forming a part thereof.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a longitudinally sectioned side elevation of an exemplary rotatable drum-like pelletizing and balling apparatus embodying the principles of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is an exit end view of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, as viewed from the line 22 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a sectional entrance end view of the apparatus taken on line 33 of Fig. 1 and showing scoops for introducing material into the apparatus.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view, taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 1, this view illustrating in exemplary manner the functioning of the fluid material entrapped between the circumferentially arranged flexible lining sections and the cylindrical shell for purposes of continuously and uninterruptedly pelletizing or balling the material being treated within the shell as it rotates in the direction of the arrow shown in said figure.
Fig. 5 is a vertical fragmentary section of the entrance end of the apparatus and illustrates, in exemplary manner and on a larger scale, the functioning of one of the feed scoops, including a showing of the manner in which the fluid material trapped between the flexible lining and the wall of the scoop functions to insure freeing the material being elevated by the scoop from the latter when the scoop approaches the upper portion of its path of movement during rotation of the cylindrical shell and scoops.
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary, longitudinal sectional view of the lower, left hand end of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, shown on a larger scale than in the latter figure, and also illustrating material being treated in the rotatable shell.
Referring to the drawings, and particularly Fig. 1, the exemplary apparatus illustrated therein comprises a preferably cylindrical drum-like shell it) which may be formed from suitable metallic material or otherwise. Said shell is provided with annular riding rings 12 which are fixed to the exterior of the shell and said rings engage supporting rollers 14 which are somewhat diagrammatically illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. These rollers are supported rotatably by conventional bases 16. Conventional means, not illustrated rotatably drive the shell about its axis, said drive means preferably being of the type to provide variations in speed. The bases also support thrust rollers 18 which engage the sides of the wear rings 12 for purposes of preventing longitudinal movement of the shell 10 during the rotation thereof. Adjacent the exit end 20 of shell 10 is a product sizing means comprising an annular screen or grate-like sieve section 22 through which fine material or small balls and pellets of inadequate size drop onto conveyor belt 24.
As mentioned herein above, the apparatus illustrated herein is suitable for pelletizing or balling a relatively wide range of material which contains a certain amount of moisture for purposes of rendering the same pasty and adapt it for forming pellets or balls thereof while the shell 19 rotates. The material, which is generally designated 26, in Figs. 4 through 6 is introduced usually in relatively finely divided form for purposes of forming it into pellets or balls. In such finely divided form, the material is not usable efliciently in other apparatus, such as a blast furnace, into which the material is to be introduced for further treatment. Therefore, to form pellets or balls of the material in an inexpensive yet effective manner, a certain amount of moisture is included in the material to render it somewhat pasty, as aforesaid. Depending upon the material as well as the size of the pellets or balls to be formed therefrom, and also the density and other physical properties desired in the product, the moisture in the material may vary, for example, from between 5% to 20% by weight of the material. In such pasty condition, conventional pelletizers and particularly those not provided with auxiliary means to remove the mate rial from the inner wall of the rotating shell of the pelletizer, the material tends to stick to the inner wall of the rotatable shell and this retards and impedes pelletizing and balling of the material.
Also, as stated herein above, previous attempts to dislodge this pasty and sticky material from the inner Wall of the rotatable shell have included the use of scrapers, reciprocating knives, rotatable screw conveyor sections, and other similar devices which are of a complicated nature and expensive to construct, operate and maintain. Further, the particles or chunks of material removed by said previously used means from the inner wall of the rotating shell have not been of efiiciently usable shape and by no means compare favorably with the shape of product produced by the present invention.
In previous installations where rubber lining has been used and particularly those in which the linings have comprised longitudinally extending sections which could be flexed by various means to dislodge the material from the lining as the shell rotated, the pasty and sticky nature of the material caused portions of it to at least temporarily be stuck to the lining especially in the areas Where the longitudinal sections thereof were attached to the shell wall. These portions of material which so adhered to the lining tended to drop off at intervals in sizeable chunks or gobs and fall by gravity into the material in the lower. portion of-the rotatable, shell of the apparatus, thereby impacting said material and, defeatingthe pelletizing, or ballingfunctions of the apparatus. I
In accordance with the present invention, a vast improvement in pelletizing and balling pasty or sticky material of the type referred to isv achievedby providing the interior of the shell with a flexible lining 28 extending circumferentially around the inner surface of the shell 16 Said lining preferably is endless circumferentially or, if formed from sections, the ends of the sections are joined in a manner to be liquid-tight and without offering an appreciable obstruction. Lining,28 is formed from sheet rubber which'will permit a desired amount of expansion for purposes to be described. In' order. to affix the lining 28 to said inner; surface of the shell 10, particularly where the shell is of appreciable length, a plurality of annular bandsi'stltare arranged in longitudinally spaced relation ship to each other along the axis of and within the shel So as firmly to hold very narrow. annular portions of the lining 28against theinner surface of the shell Iii. The bands 30 are as. narrow. as feasible so as not. to hinder the action of the lining sections 32 ,as described hereinafter. Usually, some means such'as bolts or rivets, not illustrated, are used to fix the bands 39 in position relative to the. shell ltland also to hold the annular sections of thelining in desired relationship to the shell 10 as well as to each other. Thus, as the shell 10 rotates, the annular sections 32 of the, lining are rotated therewith.
In the preferred embodiment of the invention, a desired amount of fluid material 34 is disposed between the inner surface of the shell 10 and the adjacent surface of each annular section 32 of the lining. Suitable openings, not shown, in; the shell 10 are provided for introducing the fluid material, the same beingcovered by preferably liquid-tight closures. A desired and effective fluid mate rial may be selected from a substantial range of suitable substances such as water, mercury, metallic shot, dry granular silica sand, or various kinds of organic liquids selected from a range having various specific gravities. The selection of the desired fluid material will depend upon the specific gravity and mass of the material 26.
being formed into pellets or balls and contained within the shell during operation.
The pelletizing or balling function .of the apparatus, as performed by each section 32 of the lining, is best illustrated in Figs. 4 and 6 wherein, as the shell 16 is rotated in the direction of'the arrow illustrated in Fig. 4, the fluid material Sd, for an exemplary speed of the shell, will i assume in each section of the lining substantially the position illustrated in Figs. 4 and 6. The rotative movement of the shell will cause the fluid material 34 to be disposed higher at one end than the other, as shown in Fig. 4. Actually, the fluid material will remain substantially in the position shown in Fig. 4 at all times during the rotation of the shell 10 when substantially the same amount of material 26 is disposed against the lining section 32 and the rotative speed of the shell 10 is constant.
As theportion indicated 36 of each lining section 32 approaches contact with the fluid material 34, said portion will be flexed and stretched away from the shell 10 and, the thickness of the fluid material 34 tends to increase as the upperend portion thereof is approached. Such flexing of the portion 35 ends to break up the pasty material 26 which, subsequently, will be caused to roll smoothly and uninterruptedly' down the lining section 32; thereby being formed into balls or pellets as it rolls. The bulging upper portion of the fluid material 34- facilitates such rolling action by increasing the pitch of the slope of the lining and also somewhat massages the. lining section 32 so as to insure separation of the materiall26 from the inner surface of the lining sections 32 engaged by the material 26. Pellets or balls 38 of: the material are illustrated in exemplary manner in Figs. 4 and 6, and the bulk of the same will usually be disposed in the most massive portion 40 of the material 26 as shown in Fig. 4. in Fig. 6, a sectional view of the side of each section 32 isshown, as well as an exemplary illustration of the treatment of thematerial 26. In Fig. 1, no material 26 is shown to prevent complicating the illustration of details of the apparatus, and Fig. 6 better illustrates the processing of the material 26. v
It will be noted from Fig. 1 that the longitudinal axis of the rotatable shell 10 is at an angle to the horizontal, whereby, as the material 26 is introduced in powdered form to the entrance end 42 of shell 10, balling of the material will commence in the section 32 of the lining nearest the entrance end. Due to the angular arrangement of the axis of the shell 19, the material, after introduction into theshell, will gradually feed from engagement with one section 32 to the next section of the lining. The pelletsor balls formed during this procedure are usually small at first and, as they continue to be rolled, more powdered material sticks thereto and the size thereof increases.
Depending upon the material being treated,the length of the shell 10, and the rotative speed of the shell, a substantial portion of the material 26 will be formed into pellets or balls of usable size by the time the same reach the exit end 2% of the shell 30. Those pellets or balls which will not pass through the grate-like sieve 22 will be discharged from the exit end 20 onto a suitable conveyor belt 44 and from there are moved to other processing apparatus such as a baking or drying oven to harden the same and render them suitable for ready handling and introduction into subsequent processing apparatus.
The powdered material or pellets and balls of inferior size which approach the exit end of the shell 1t! pass through the sieve 22 onto conveyor belt 24 and are moved thereby into the annular hopper 46 for re-introduction into the shell '10-. Moist powdered material is introduced initially into hopper 46 by a feed belt 48 and, after the apparatus has been in operation for a cor- The shell 10 illustrated in the drawings is of substantial.
length and a plurality of lining sections 32 have been provided so as properly to support the entire lining 23.
However, in apparatus wherein a relatively short shell is sulficient, it is possible the lining 28 would need no intermediate support such as bands 30 and only the opposite ends of lining 28 would be attached to the shell 10 under these circumstances by means such as the end bands 30, for example.
The sticky and pasty material 26 within the hopper 46, as well as the inferior sized pellets or balls therein are introduced into shell it) by novel scoop means generally indicated 50, especially designed to handle eifi ciently the moist, pasty material 26. Said scoop means, in the exemplary illustration herein, comprises a plurality of scoops 52 which are evenly spaced around said shell for balance and are rigidly attached to the entrance end 42 thereof. In Fig. 1, these scoops are. illustrated in vertical sectional view whereas in Fig. 5, one of the scoops 52 is shown in sectional side elevation. These scoops preferably comprise rigid side walls 54 shaped as shown in- Figs. 1 and 5. The scooping end 56 of each scoop first engages the material 26 and, as the scoops are rotatively moved with the shell 10, a certain amount of the material 26 is engaged by. each scoop 52 to elevate the same and, when sufliciently elevated, the material in the scoop, will fall therefrom into the entrance end 42 of the shell 10.
To prevent the sticking or an accumulated build-up of a layer of thematerial on the inner Walls of the scoops, the side walls 5- thereof are lined with flexible sheet-like sections 58 of material similar to lining 28. The curved end walls or sections of the scoops are lined with flexible sheet-like sections 6!} of similar material. These sections are secured at their edges by any suitable means such as 4 clamping bands or otherwise to the edges of the sides and ends of the scoops 52. Fluid material 62, usually similar to the fluid material 34 entrapped behind the flexible sections 32 of lining 28, is trapped between the flexible sections 58 and 6t) and the side walls 54 and end Walls of the scoops. Said fluid material 62 may be introduced behind the sections through suitable openings, not shown, in the scoop walls which are closed by fluid-tight closures.
This fluid material effects flexing and bulging of the flexible sections 58 and 60 which line the scoops and thereby cause dislodging of the moist sticky material 26 therefrom so as to prevent accumulation of the material in the scoops and also insure introduction thereof into the shell 14 from the scoops. As the scoops 52 are elevated successively to maximum dumping position shown by the upper scoop in Fig. 1, it will be seen that the fluid material 62 causes bulging of the flexible sections 53 greatest toward the bottom, thereby effectively dislodging the material therefrom which is being dumped into entrance 42 of the shell. This maximum bulging also takes place in flexible lining 69 of the scoop in the same position, such action best being shown in Fig. 5, wherein the scoop has not reached maximum elevated position wherein bulging adjacent the inner end of the scoop will be maximum. Usually, no balling of the material 26 takes place while moving within the scoops but it is possible that a certain amount of balling or pelletizing may result.
In operation, as described herein above, the moist powdered and finely divided material is introduced by conveyor belt 48 into the hopper 46. The scoops 52 sequentially move the material in the hopper to the entrance end of the shell 10. The continuously progressive flexing or pulsating of the lining sections 32 eifect pelletizing or balling of the material 26 as the shell it) rotates. powdered material, as well as the pellets or balls thereof which are formed adjacent the entrance end of the shell 10, will progressively move from one section 32 of the lining to the next, the pellets or balls 33 usually growing in size until they approach the sieve 22. Those pellets or balls which are of desired size will not pass through the sieve 22 and will move to the exit end 20 of the shell 10 where they are removed by conveyor belt 44. The powdered material and pellets or balls of inferior size which reach the sieve 22 pass therethrough onto conveyor belt 44 for re-introduction to the hopper 46. The pellets or balls 38 of suitable and desired size are conveyed by belt 44 to further processing apparatus for baking or other forms of hardening treatment or otherwise. It will be understood of course that the sieve 22 may be changed to provide a sieve of suitable spacings to cause pellets or balls of any desired size to pass to conveyor belt 44.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that from the time the sticky, pasty material 26 is fed to the apparatus by the conveyor 43, or other equivalent means, to the time the pellets or balls 38 of desired size are formed and discharged onto conveyor 44, the material is constantly and smoothly subjected to flexing lining action, in both the scoop means 50 and shell 10, thus disrupting any tendency of the material to adhere to the lining or build-up in appreciable masses and thereby rendering the pelletizing or balling action far more eflicient than in previously used machines. The apparatus comprising the present invention also is extremely simple and requires a minimum of operative power. The pelletizing or balling of the material is achieved automatically by the series of adjacent annular, circumferentially arranged flexible lining sections 32 which continuously and uninterruptedly cause the material to roll smoothly and evenly relative to the lining sections. Due to the operation of the trapped fluid 34 in each section, progressive and uninterrupted pelletizing and balling of the material is effected. No impacting or build-up of the material on the lining occurs to any apvreciable extent. Therefore, no scrapers or other types The of auxiliary means are required to remove the material 25 from the inner surface of the lining 28 or to break it apart as was heretofor necessary. This apparatus may be regulated also as to rotative speed to cause the desired size of pellets and balls to be formed in useful quantities by the time the same reach the sieve 22. Further, the fluid material 34 is selected to have such specific gravity and fluidity as to be suitable for operation with any particular material 26 and produce pellets or balls thereof of any desired, substantially uniform size. This is insured further by the selected sieve 22. There is no tendency for the sticky, paste-like material to accumulate on any portion of the flexible lining 28 of the shell in view of the continuous and uninterrupted pulsating flexing and expansion of the adjacent lining sections 32.
While in the preferred embodiment, the lining 28 is formed from a suitable rubber composition, it is to be understood that other forms of flexible and preferably stretchable linings may be used which are capable of adequately resisting'wear for extensive periods of time by the material being treated and also of adequate durability to Withstand the necessary flexing and stretching.
While the several preferred features and arrangements of the invention have been shown and illustrated herein, and the same have included certain details, it is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the precise details herein illustrated and described since the same may be carried out in other ways falling within the scope of the invention as claimed.
1. Apparatus for treating pasty material comprising sticky particles capable of being pelletized and balled by tumbling and comprising in combination, a substantially cylindrical drum-like shell mounted for rotation about its longitudinal axis, a flexible lining arranged to receive said sticky material and extending continuously circumferentially around the interior of said shell and fastened thereto only at circumferentially extending portions, which are spaced from each other longitudinally of said shell, said lining when flexed forming a space between it and said shell, and fluid material disposed between said shell and lining and partially filling said space between said shell and lining, said fluid material flexing said lining away from the inner wall of said shell uniformly and continu ously in a circumferential direction during rotation thereof and functioning to dislodge material from the inner surface of said lining while being pelletized and balled.
2. Apparatus for treating pasty material comprising sticky particles capable of being pelletized and balled by tumbling and comprising in combination, a substantially cylindrical drum-like shell mounted for rotation about its longitudinal axis, a series of substantially adjoining lining sections extending continuously circumferentially around the interior of said shell and arranged to receive material to be pelletized and balled, means fastening only the edges of said sections to said shell, said sections being continuous circumferentially and between the edges thereof being flexible away from said shell to form spaces therebetween, and fluid material disposed within the spaces between said shell and lining sections and partially filling the same, whereby when said shell is rotated said fiuid material is movable freely and uninterruptedly in a circumferential direction within said spaces to flex said sections away from the inner wall of said shell substantially uniformly and continuously and thereby dislodge material from the inner surface of said lining sections while said material is being pelletized and balled.
3. Apparatus for treating pasty material comprising sticky particles capable of being pelletized and balled by tumbling and comprising in combination, a substantially cylindrical drum-like shell, means supporting said shell for rotation about its longitudinal axis and having an exit at one end and an entrance at the other, said axis being higher at the entrance end, whereby material will progressively feed to the exit as the shell rotates, an endless flexible lining extending circumferentially around the interior of said shell continuously and fastened only at the ends thereof to said shell, said lining being arranged to receive said material against the inner surface thereof and when flexed being free to separate from the shell except at itsconnected ends to form a space between said lining and shell, and fluid material flowably positioned uninterruptedly in a circumferential direction between said lining and shell and partially filling the space therebetween, whereby when said shell is rotated the mass of fluid material will tend to remain in a substantially stationary position relative to said support means and substantially uniformly and continuously flex said lining radially away from said shell at a predeterminedposition fixed relative to said support means to cause said material to be dislodged from the inner surface of said lining while being pelletized and balled.
4. Apparatus for treating pasty and sticky material capable of being formed into pellets and balls by tumbling and comprising in combination a drum-like shell, means supporting said shell for rotation about the longitudinal axis thereof, one end of said shell comprising an entrance, sizing means for pellets and balls on said shell adjacent the opposite end thereof, a flexible lining arranged to receive said material and extending continuously circumferentially around the interior of said shell between said entrance and sizing means, said lining being fixed only at its ends to the inner surface of said shell and when flexed being movable radially away from said shellexcept at its connected ends to provide a continuous circumferentially extending space between said lining and shell, and a mass of fluid material within and partially filling said space, whereby during rotation of said shell said fluid material mass remains substantially stationary relative to said support and progressively and continuously flexes said lining uninterruptedly and radially away from said shell as said lining moves in a circumferential direction uninterruptedly past said mass of fluid material, thereby to dislodge the pasty material from the inner surface of said lining while being pelletized and balled.
, 5. The apparatus of claim 4 further including a plurality of means extending circumferentially around the interior of said shell and spaced apart axially thereof, said means holding axially spaced circumferential portions of said lining in tightly fixed relationship against the inner surface of said shell to provide a series of adjoining lining sections each extending continuously circumferentially and enclosing masses of fluid material.
6. Apparatus for treating material of the class described to form the same into pellets and balls comprising in combination, a drum-like shell mounted for rotation about an inclined axis, the higher end of said shell comprising an entrance and the opposite end an exit, a flexible lining extending continuously circumferentially around the inner surface thereof and fixed thereto only at axially spaced and circumferentially extending portions of said shell, the areas of said lining between said fixed portions being freely flexible away from said shell radially, fluid material between said freely flexible portions of said lining and said shell and operable as said shell is rotated so as continuously and uninterruptedly to flex said lining in a circumferential direction to dislodge material uninterruptedly therefrom as tumbled by said shell, pellet sizing means adjacent the exit end of said shell and operable to pass undersize material from said shell prior to reaching said exit, a hopper adjacent the entrance end of said shell, means operable to feed material from said hopper to said entrance end of said shell, and conveyor means extending between said sizing means and hopper and operable to effect re-introduction of said undersize material into said hopper for return to said shell.
7. The apparatus of claim 6 further characterized by the means for feeding material from said hopper to said entrance comprising scoop means operable to elevate said material as aforesaid, said scoop means comprising at least one scoop movable about an axis into said hopper and having on the inner surfaces of the walls thereof I flexible linings fixed at the edges thereof to said scoop walls, and fluid material between said linings and scoop walls operable to flex said linings as said scoop moves about its axis, thereby to free from said linings material being moved to said entrance by said scoop.
8. Apparatus for treating material of the class described to form the same into pellets and balls comprising in combination, a drum-like shell mounted for rotation about its longitudinal axis, one end of said shell comprising an entrance, a flexible lining extending circumferentially around the inner surface thereof and fixed thereto at axially spaced circumferentially extending portions of said shell, the circumferentially extending areas of said lining between said fixed portions being freely flexible away from said shell radially, fluid material disposed between said freely flexible portion of said lining and shell and operable as said shell is rotated continuously to flex said lining uninterruptedly in a circumferential direction to dislodge material therefrom as tumbled by said shell, a hopper adjacent said entrance end of said shell, scoop means comprising at least one scoop fixed to said entrance end of said shell and extending substantially radially therefrom and having a scooping end movable into said hopper as said shell is rotated, said scoop being defined by walls, flexible linings affixed at the edges thereof to the inner surfaces of said walls, and fluid material entrapped between said linings and scoop walls and operable as said scoop is elevated by said shell about its axis to flex said linings and free therefrom material being moved to said entrance by said scoop.
9. Scoop means arranged to handle material tending normally to stick to the walls thereof and comprising in combination, side walls connected by an end wall to define a scoop structure, sheet-like flexible lining material fixed adjacent the edges thereof to the inner surfaces of said side and end walls and being flexible away from said walls in the areas intermediate said' edges thereof, and fluid material entrapped between said lining material and scoop walls and operable progressively to flex said lining material as said scoop is moved between filling and discharging positions to free from the walls thereof material being handled by said scoop means.
10. Scoop means arranged to elevate and dump material tending normally to stick to the walls thereof and comprising in combination, a scoop, and means connected thereto and rotatable about an axis; said scoop being spaced from said axis and comprising side walls connected by an end wall to define a scoop structure, sheet-like flexible lining material fixed adjacent the edges thereof to the inner surfaces of said side and end walls and flexible away from said walls in the areas intermediate said edges thereof, and fluid material entrapped between said lining material and scoop walls and operable progressively to flex said lining material as said scoop is moved about said axis between filling and discharging positions to free therefrom material being handled by said scoop means.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,921,114 Brackelsberg Aug. 8, 1933 2,158,513 Lloyd May 16, 1950 2,523,258 Ransohoff Sept. 19, 1950 2,603,832 Clark et al July 22, 1952
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1921114 *||Nov 30, 1929||Aug 8, 1933||Brackelsberg Carl Adolf||Method and apparatus for producing rolled bodies from powderous materials|
|US2158513 *||Sep 3, 1938||May 16, 1939||Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Compa||Apparatus for making nodules or pellets|
|US2523259 *||Dec 24, 1946||Sep 26, 1950||Case Co J I||Device for cleaning grain|
|US2603832 *||Jun 20, 1951||Jul 22, 1952||Noranda Mines Ltd||Rotary drum apparatus and means for preventing material being treated from accumulating thereon|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2812541 *||May 16, 1955||Nov 12, 1957||Phillips Petroleum Co||Apparatus for removing scale from pellet mills|
|US2921334 *||Oct 21, 1957||Jan 19, 1960||Phillips Petroleum Co||Apparatus for pelleting powdered material|
|US2984860 *||Nov 24, 1959||May 23, 1961||Koppers Co Inc||Balling drum|
|US2994912 *||Aug 14, 1959||Aug 8, 1961||Phillips Petroleum Co||Carbon black pellet mill|
|US3001338 *||Oct 17, 1955||Sep 26, 1961||Parker Ltd Frederick||Plant for washing stone|
|US3042526 *||Sep 16, 1957||Jul 3, 1962||Nat Dairy Prod Corp||Powder agglomerating method and apparatus|
|US3132846 *||Feb 21, 1962||May 12, 1964||Us Stoneware Co||Blending apparatus|
|US3160395 *||Dec 17, 1962||Dec 8, 1964||St Joseph Lead Co||Material processing device|
|US3231638 *||Mar 26, 1963||Jan 25, 1966||Atomic Energy Authority Uk||Agglomeration process for producing spheroids from nuclear fuel ceramic powder|
|US3298620 *||Mar 24, 1964||Jan 17, 1967||Tecnopatent S A||Casing with pulsating internal wall for mills, mixers and similar equipment|
|US3305090 *||Apr 14, 1964||Feb 21, 1967||Erie Dev Company||Readily renewable sectionalized trommel|
|US3920191 *||Feb 12, 1974||Nov 18, 1975||Trelleborgs Gummifabriks Ab||Liners for comminution apparatus|
|US3988114 *||Oct 31, 1975||Oct 26, 1976||Consolidation Coal Company||Agglomerating finely divided agglomerative materials in a rotating drum with co-rotating scraper|
|US4406793 *||Jun 14, 1982||Sep 27, 1983||Jan Kruyer||Use of free bodies to increase size of dispersed phase particles|
|US4569648 *||Jan 16, 1985||Feb 11, 1986||Skw Trostberg Aktiengesellschaft||Self-cleaning rotating drum|
|US4997357 *||Sep 15, 1989||Mar 5, 1991||Hubert Eirich||Apparatus for treatment of power station residues|
|U.S. Classification||425/217, 23/313.0FB, 425/222, 425/DIG.101, 241/182|
|Cooperative Classification||C22B1/2406, Y10S425/101|