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Publication numberUS2712259 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 5, 1955
Filing dateMay 7, 1953
Priority dateMay 7, 1953
Publication numberUS 2712259 A, US 2712259A, US-A-2712259, US2712259 A, US2712259A
InventorsCowell Harvey J
Original AssigneeCowell Harvey J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Open ended ratchet wrench
US 2712259 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



lay W ATTORNEY United? States Patent OPEN ENDED RATCHET WRENCH Harvey J. Cowell, Petersburg, Ill.

Application May 7, 1953, Serial No. 353,635

1 Claim. (Cl. 81-179) This invention relates to a crescent type wrench having slidable jaw faces.

The invention relates to new and useful improvements in crescent type wrenches having slidable jaw faces, and it more particularly pertains to a wrench of a type having a plurality of movable jaws or work engageable ratchet members, and it is a primary object of the invention to provide a wrench of this general character which is endowed with maximum efiiciency in the turning of nuts into and out of threaded connection with associated elements.

A further object of the invention is to provide a wrench of the spanner type and which includes a plurality of spring pressed members simultaneously engageable with work at a plurality of spaced points thereon.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent in the course of the following detailed description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, wherein- Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the wrench constructed in accordance with a preferred structural embodiment thereof.

Fig. 2 is a side elevational view of the head end of the wrench and which is broken away for more clearly disclosing the action of the movable work gripping members on the faces of a polygonal nut.

Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view in the plane of line 3-3 on Fig. 2 and as observed in the direction of the arrows.

Fig. 4 is a view corresponding to Fig. 2 but illustrating the action of the wrench in a retracted stroke thereof.

Fig. 5 is a view similar to Figs. 2 and 4 but wherein a greater number of ratchet members or work engaging jaws are provided.

Fig. 6 is an edge view of the wrench head.

Fig. 7 is a perspective view of an adapter for use with the wrench in its application to relatively small nuts.

Referring now in detail to the drawing, the improved wrench in its entirety is designated 10. The wrench 10 embodies three plates, a central one 11 and opposed outer ones 12.

The central plate 11 includes a handle 13 and a generally C-shaped head member 14 including opposed arcuate members 15 whose free ends are spaced as at 16 for a purpose later to appear, and said head member is provided with a wall 17 of segmental circular form.

The outer plates 12 overlie the head portion of plate 11 and are removably secured thereto by screws 18. The plates 12 conform to the head end of plate 11 and have inner edges conforming to those of the head end of plate 11, whereby the space 16 is maintained as well as a segmental circular opening in the wrench head.

The head member 14 is provided with a plurality of recesses 19 which open through opposite sides of the head member and through the wall 17 in tangential relation thereto.

The outer or cover plates 12 close the sides of said recesses'whereby sockets are provided which open only through the wall 17 and such sockets are preferably rectangular in cross section.

A nut engageable jaw member 20 is slidably disposed in each socket 19 and same is also rectangular in cross section in order to confine same to axial movement only in the socket.

Each jaw member 20 is provided with a shoulder 21 which is engageable with a cooperating shoulder 22 on head member 14 adjacent the open end of the socket and said shoulders are normally maintained in engagement by a coil spring 23 having-its opposite ends reacting on the bottom wall of the socket and the adjacent end of the jaw member. Each jaw member 20 is provided with a bevelled forward end surface 24. V

In operation of the wrench as above described, same may be moved such that a pipe P enters the opening 16 whereafter the wrench is moved axially of the pipe to encircling relation to a nut N having threaded connection with the pipe. With the wrench thus operatively positioned, the handle 13 is grasped and the wrench rotated in a counterclockwise direction as obserfid in Fig. 2. Such movement of the wrench results in forces being exerted on the jaw members 20 outwardly of sockets 19 with a result that such members will grip the sides or facets of the nut N- and thereby impart rotation thereto.

Upon rotation of the wrench in a clockwise direction as in Fig. 4, the forces on members 20 will be such as to urge same into the sockets 19 against the action of springs 23 with a resulting ratcheting action in preparation for a new hold on the nut N. The bevelled end surfaces 24 on the jaw members 20 facilitate the retraction of the members.

In the modified embodiment of Fig. 5 twice as many jaw members 20 as in Figs. 2 and 4 are provided and which provides shorter ratcheting strokes of the wrench as may be necessary in cramped spaces.

In the event that a nut is encountered which is too small for action thereon by the wrench disclosed, an adapter 25 is provided and which comprises an open nut engaging portion 26 having a nut side engageable flange 27 for proper positioning on the nut.

With the adapter 25, the members 20 engage the outer polygonal surface 28 thereof, and thereby retain said adapter in the wrench head.

Having described my invention in accordance with certain specific structural embodiments thereof, what I claim and desire to secure by U. S. Letters Patent is:

A wrench comprising a handle, a generally C-shaped head at one end of said handle having an inner segmental circular wall defining a nut receiving space, said head having spaced ends providing a work receiving space opening into said nut receiving space, a plurality of elongated sockets in said head opening through said wall and having their axes tangential to said wall, a coil spring in the bottom of each socket, a nut engaging jaw member in each socket normally projecting through the open end thereof by said spring and a polygonal shaped adapter having one open face, the outer polygonal walls of said adapter being in contact with the spring urged jaw members to thereby retain said adapter within the nut receiving space.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 733,525 Worden July 14, 1903 770,699 Randall Sept. 20, 1904 810,304 Rernion Jan. 16, 1906 1,060,185 Hitt Apr; 29, 1913 1,453,607 Sancier May 1, 1923 1,907,584 Richards May 9, 1933 2,376,575 Cronan May 22, 1945 2,551,669 Hale May 8. 1951

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US733525 *Jun 25, 1902Jul 14, 1903Worden Tool CompanyWrench.
US770699 *Nov 21, 1903Sep 20, 1904 Wrench
US810304 *Jul 29, 1905Jan 16, 1906Louis Victor RemionPipe-wrench.
US1060185 *Apr 23, 1912Apr 29, 1913John E HittRatchet-wrench.
US1453607 *Feb 25, 1922May 1, 1923Saucier Henry LouisRatchet socket wrench
US1907584 *Apr 8, 1931May 9, 1933Norris R MacklemHydrant wrench
US2376575 *Oct 24, 1942May 22, 1945Cronan James ERatchet wrench
US2551669 *Sep 1, 1948May 8, 1951Hale Philip PRatchet-pawl retaining structure
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2855814 *Oct 24, 1956Oct 14, 1958Syco Mfg Company IncOpen end wrench with slidable jaw face
US3165015 *Jan 26, 1963Jan 12, 1965John H FarleyWrench
US3906822 *May 3, 1973Sep 23, 1975Hertelendy Nicholas AndrewRatchet wrenches
US4440047 *Dec 31, 1981Apr 3, 1984Robbins Christopher BUni-directional drive wrench
US4488459 *Sep 27, 1982Dec 18, 1984Bailey Roy ERatchet wrench
US4928559 *Nov 9, 1987May 29, 1990Stielow Erwin HRatchet wrench
US5050463 *May 24, 1990Sep 24, 1991Stielow Erwin HRatchet wrench
US5249487 *Nov 5, 1992Oct 5, 1993Armfield Iv Samuel LOpen-end ratchet wrench
US5456143 *Mar 29, 1994Oct 10, 1995Stanton; John L.Open end ratchet wrench
US5537897 *Sep 16, 1994Jul 23, 1996Wilson, Jr.; DavidSplit socket with movable facets and drive assembly
US5669272 *Feb 22, 1996Sep 23, 1997A&E Manufacturing CompanyOpen end ratchet wrench
US5697266 *Sep 15, 1995Dec 16, 1997Wilson, Jr.; DavidLine fitting orientation guide for a fitting manipulating tool including a split socket and combination thereof
US5829327 *Oct 10, 1996Nov 3, 1998Stanton; John L.Open-end ratchet wrench
US6223630Mar 6, 1998May 1, 2001John L. StantonOpen end ratchet wrench
US7024971Mar 12, 2003Apr 11, 2006Stanton John LOpen end ratchet wrench
US7806025Aug 14, 2008Oct 5, 2010The Stanley WorksSelf-adjusting wrench
US8342063Dec 23, 2009Jan 1, 2013Stanton John LOpen-ended ratchet wrench
US20040194589 *Mar 12, 2003Oct 7, 2004Stanton John L.Open end ratchet wrench
US20070119281 *Nov 29, 2005May 31, 2007Hui-Ling ChangOne-way open-ended wrench
US20090044666 *Aug 14, 2008Feb 19, 2009The Stanley WorksSelf-adjusting wrench
US20090193939 *Feb 6, 2008Aug 6, 2009The Stanley WorksRatchet Wrench
US20090193941 *Feb 6, 2008Aug 6, 2009The Stanley WorksRatchet Wrench
US20110146463 *Dec 23, 2009Jun 23, 2011Stanton John LOpen-Ended Ratchet Wrench
WO1994009947A1 *Sep 27, 1993May 11, 1994Armfield Samuel L IvOpen-end ratchet wrench
WO1995031312A1 *May 17, 1995Nov 23, 1995Serge SimpletOpen-end wrench with alternating rotation control
U.S. Classification81/179, 81/58.2, D08/25
International ClassificationB25B13/46, B25B13/00
Cooperative ClassificationB25B13/46
European ClassificationB25B13/46