US 2712259 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
OPEN ENDED RATCHET WRENCH Filed May 7, 1953 IIIIIIIIII HARVEY J. Cowzu.
lay W ATTORNEY United? States Patent OPEN ENDED RATCHET WRENCH Harvey J. Cowell, Petersburg, Ill.
Application May 7, 1953, Serial No. 353,635
1 Claim. (Cl. 81-179) This invention relates to a crescent type wrench having slidable jaw faces.
The invention relates to new and useful improvements in crescent type wrenches having slidable jaw faces, and it more particularly pertains to a wrench of a type having a plurality of movable jaws or work engageable ratchet members, and it is a primary object of the invention to provide a wrench of this general character which is endowed with maximum efiiciency in the turning of nuts into and out of threaded connection with associated elements.
A further object of the invention is to provide a wrench of the spanner type and which includes a plurality of spring pressed members simultaneously engageable with work at a plurality of spaced points thereon.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent in the course of the following detailed description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, wherein- Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the wrench constructed in accordance with a preferred structural embodiment thereof.
Fig. 2 is a side elevational view of the head end of the wrench and which is broken away for more clearly disclosing the action of the movable work gripping members on the faces of a polygonal nut.
Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view in the plane of line 3-3 on Fig. 2 and as observed in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 4 is a view corresponding to Fig. 2 but illustrating the action of the wrench in a retracted stroke thereof.
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Figs. 2 and 4 but wherein a greater number of ratchet members or work engaging jaws are provided.
Fig. 6 is an edge view of the wrench head.
Fig. 7 is a perspective view of an adapter for use with the wrench in its application to relatively small nuts.
Referring now in detail to the drawing, the improved wrench in its entirety is designated 10. The wrench 10 embodies three plates, a central one 11 and opposed outer ones 12.
The central plate 11 includes a handle 13 and a generally C-shaped head member 14 including opposed arcuate members 15 whose free ends are spaced as at 16 for a purpose later to appear, and said head member is provided with a wall 17 of segmental circular form.
The outer plates 12 overlie the head portion of plate 11 and are removably secured thereto by screws 18. The plates 12 conform to the head end of plate 11 and have inner edges conforming to those of the head end of plate 11, whereby the space 16 is maintained as well as a segmental circular opening in the wrench head.
The head member 14 is provided with a plurality of recesses 19 which open through opposite sides of the head member and through the wall 17 in tangential relation thereto.
The outer or cover plates 12 close the sides of said recesses'whereby sockets are provided which open only through the wall 17 and such sockets are preferably rectangular in cross section.
A nut engageable jaw member 20 is slidably disposed in each socket 19 and same is also rectangular in cross section in order to confine same to axial movement only in the socket.
Each jaw member 20 is provided with a shoulder 21 which is engageable with a cooperating shoulder 22 on head member 14 adjacent the open end of the socket and said shoulders are normally maintained in engagement by a coil spring 23 having-its opposite ends reacting on the bottom wall of the socket and the adjacent end of the jaw member. Each jaw member 20 is provided with a bevelled forward end surface 24. V
In operation of the wrench as above described, same may be moved such that a pipe P enters the opening 16 whereafter the wrench is moved axially of the pipe to encircling relation to a nut N having threaded connection with the pipe. With the wrench thus operatively positioned, the handle 13 is grasped and the wrench rotated in a counterclockwise direction as obserfid in Fig. 2. Such movement of the wrench results in forces being exerted on the jaw members 20 outwardly of sockets 19 with a result that such members will grip the sides or facets of the nut N- and thereby impart rotation thereto.
Upon rotation of the wrench in a clockwise direction as in Fig. 4, the forces on members 20 will be such as to urge same into the sockets 19 against the action of springs 23 with a resulting ratcheting action in preparation for a new hold on the nut N. The bevelled end surfaces 24 on the jaw members 20 facilitate the retraction of the members.
In the modified embodiment of Fig. 5 twice as many jaw members 20 as in Figs. 2 and 4 are provided and which provides shorter ratcheting strokes of the wrench as may be necessary in cramped spaces.
In the event that a nut is encountered which is too small for action thereon by the wrench disclosed, an adapter 25 is provided and which comprises an open nut engaging portion 26 having a nut side engageable flange 27 for proper positioning on the nut.
With the adapter 25, the members 20 engage the outer polygonal surface 28 thereof, and thereby retain said adapter in the wrench head.
Having described my invention in accordance with certain specific structural embodiments thereof, what I claim and desire to secure by U. S. Letters Patent is:
A wrench comprising a handle, a generally C-shaped head at one end of said handle having an inner segmental circular wall defining a nut receiving space, said head having spaced ends providing a work receiving space opening into said nut receiving space, a plurality of elongated sockets in said head opening through said wall and having their axes tangential to said wall, a coil spring in the bottom of each socket, a nut engaging jaw member in each socket normally projecting through the open end thereof by said spring and a polygonal shaped adapter having one open face, the outer polygonal walls of said adapter being in contact with the spring urged jaw members to thereby retain said adapter within the nut receiving space.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 733,525 Worden July 14, 1903 770,699 Randall Sept. 20, 1904 810,304 Rernion Jan. 16, 1906 1,060,185 Hitt Apr; 29, 1913 1,453,607 Sancier May 1, 1923 1,907,584 Richards May 9, 1933 2,376,575 Cronan May 22, 1945 2,551,669 Hale May 8. 1951