US 2715781 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 23, 1955 Filed Sept. 4, 1953 E. J. SPROUL v2,715,781
GRAIN DRIER 3 Sheets-Sheet l ka ga E. J. SPROUL Aug. 23, 1955 GRAIN DRIER 3 Sheets-Sheet 3' Filed Sept. 4, 1953 v flnmnfar f/mer d. uyarou/ W United States Patent 2,715,781 Patented Aug. 23, 1955 ice GRAIN DRIER Elmer J. Sproul, Stou'ghton, Wis.
Application September 4, 1953, Serial No. 378,573
7 Claims. (Cl. 34-l74) This invention relates generally to improvements in drying apparatus and is directed particularly to an apparatus of this character designed primarly for drying grain.
A particular object of the present invention is to provide a grain drying apparatus, which may be in the form either of a stationary structure or a portable or ambulatory structure, whereby grains of different types may be dried evenly to reduce the moisture content to a desired per cent whereby the grain can be stored Without danger of it spoiling.
A further and more specific object of the invention is to provide a machine or drying apparatus which is constructed in a novel manner to have grain passed through from a hopper or bin, around a drying furnace and onto gathering means from which the grain can be moved into a receiver to be transported into a storage bin or to other locations.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a grain drying apparatus wherein the grain is caused to move over inclined screens and over a heating structure and wherein such screens are relatively adjustable so that the speed with which the grain is conducted from the receiving bin or hopper to the carrying off conveyer, can be regulated either in accordance with the amount of drying desired or required or in accordance with the size of the grain being treated.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent as the description of the same proceeds and the invention will be best understood from a consideration of the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing forming a part of the specification, with the understanding, however, that the invention is not to be limited to the exact details of construction shown and described since obvious modifications will occur to a person skilled in the art.
in the drawings:
Figure 1 is a view in top plan of a grain drying apparatus or machine constructed in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention.
Figure 2 is a vertical longitudinal section taken substantially on the line 2--2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a vertical transverse section taken substantially on the line 3-3 of Figure 2.
Figure 4 is a view in rear elevation of the machine, with tie top portion broken away.
Figure 5 is a view in perspective of a bottom corner portion of an outer wall screen showing the grain deflecting apron.
Figure 6 is a view in perspective of a lower corner portion of an inclined furnace covering screen.
Figure 7 is a view in rear elevation, with portions broken away and in sections, of a modified construction relating to the means for carrying off the grain from the drier.
Figure 8 is a longitudinal section through the rotary cylinder showing the supporting end brackets.
Figure 9 is a transverse section through the rotary cylinder and portions of adjacent screens.
Figure 10 is a detail front view of the front bolster and conveyor.
The drier structure of the present invention may be set up as a stationary unit or it may be mounted upon suitable supporting wheels so that it can be readily transported from one place to another and in the illustration of the structure, the same has been shown mounted upon a wheel support but it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to such a supporting means.
In the structure illustrated there are shown front wheels 10 connected by an axle beam 12 upon the ends of which the wheels are rotatably supported and this beam supports an upright bolster frame 14 of inverted U form.
The numeral 16 designates rear supporting wheels which are connected by an axle 18 and this axle sup ports the upright pillars 20 and a transverse rear bolster 22.
The front and rear bolsters 14 and 22 support the spaced longitudinally extending beams 24 forming the bed frame for the drier body structure which is generally designated 25. These beams 24 may be secured by welding or in any other suitable manner to the supporting bolsters as will be readily apparent and as will also be apparent the bed structure comprising the beams and underlying supports may be mounted upon stationary carrying bodies instead of the wheels herein shown and described if the drier machine is to be used in a fixed location.
The body structure 25 comprises the upright front and back walls 26 and 27 respectively which are carried upon the beams 24, the walls here being shown as having the beams 24 passing therethrough so that the walls extend some distance below the beams as is clearly shown in Figure 3.
Extending longitudinally of the body structure and connecting the front and back walls are upper side walls panels 28 which are solid or imperforate as shown in Figure 3. These wall panels are joined to the front and back walls in a suitable manner preferably by the use of angle iron strips 29 which have one flange secured to the side wall panels and the other flange secured to the adjacent end wall as shown.
The side wall panels 28 extend downwardly from the top edges of the front and back walls, through approximately half the height of the front and back walls as shown. Below the side wall panels there are positioned to extend between the front and back walls, the vertically disposed side wall outer screens 30. These screens are secured at their ends to suitable vertical bars 31 which are preferably in the form of angle irons and the bars 31 have inwardly extending arms 32 which position against the inner faces of the adjacent end walls and carry securing bolts 33 which pass through short horizontal slots 34 formed in the adjacent end walls. By this means it will be seen that the outer side wall screens 39 may be adjusted inwardl or outwardly as desired with respect to certain inner wall screens about to be described.
The lower end of each outer wall screen has secured thereto a depending canvas apron 35 which functions as a grain deflector to cover a space between the outer side of an inwardly and downwardly disposed conveyor unit adjacent thereto, such conveyor unit being generally designated 36.
Each of the conveyor units 36 comprises a pair of long rollers 37 which extend longitudinally of the structure and which have supporting trunnions 38 at their ends.
The trunnions of the outermost roller 37 of each conveyor 36 are supported on the end walls of the structure by bearings 35 which are adjustable on the supporting end walls in a liorizontal direction so that the outer rollers 37 can be moved inwardly or outwardly as desired so as 7 to maintain a desired tension of the conveyor belt or web 40wvhich connects the inner and outer rollers of each conveyor unit.
. As shown in'Figure 3 the inner rollers 37 of the two conveyor units are at a lower elevation than the outer rollers and they are in spaced parallel relation at the longitudinal center of the body structure so that material carried from the outer sides of the structure moves inwardly and downwardly and is discharged between the inner rollers or inner edges of the conveyors as hereinafter 7 front and back walls. These inclined walls are pivotally attached at their outer edges as at 42, to the adjacent angle irons 29 and extend downwardly and inwardly therefrom. V
Adjacent to their inner edges the walls 41- carry at their ends, the upstanding hanger plates 43 and these plates are secured to the adjacent end walls by bolts 44 which engage in one of a series of apertures 45 formed through the end walls, whereby the inclined walls can be raised or lowered to increase or decrease the slope thereof.
As shown in Figure 3 the inner sides of the conveyors 36 pass below the beams 24 and overlying the conveyors and resting upon the beams is a furnace floor structure 46, the longitudinal side edges of which are spaced inwardly from the outer wall screens 39 while the transverse or end edges of the floor extend to and join the front and back walls '26 and 27 V Mounted uponthe floor 46 is a heating structure or furnace which is generally designated 47 and which comprises front and back walls 48 and 49 respectively, side walls 56 and a top or roof 51 of V crosssectional form, thexsides of the roof being disposed approximately one 45 angle.
The furnace structure is of a width less'than the width of the floor 46 and is-of a length materially less than the length of the floor, being spaced at its front and back ends from the adjacent front and back walls 26 and 27 as clearly shown in Figure 2. r
Within the furnace structure and resting upon the floor 46, is a fire box which is generally designated 52 and which has front and back walls :73 and 54 which are spaced from the walls 48 and 49 respectively as shown in Figure 2.
Mounted in front of the front wall 26 in a suitable manner, upon the bolster frame 14, for example, is a suitable burner structure which is generally designated 55 and which has a burner nozzle 56 of a conventional form which extends through an opening 55a in the wall 26 and 1 an opening57 in the furnace front wall and through the front wall 53 of the fire box as shown in Figure 2. No
details of this burner structure are shown or thought to be necessary since this is merely conventional illustration of any suitable type of burner which can be employed for creating the desired heat within the furnace and the burner "maybe an oil burner or: any type supplied from a suit- '58 carrying a removable cover 59, by means of which the interior of the furnace structure can be inspected for cleaning or otherwise as desired and connected with and opening through the front wall 48 is an end of a smoke exhaust pipe 59, the other end which is extended through the adjacent front wall 26 preferably at a substantial elevation above the floor as shown in Figure 2.
The furnace structure 47 is enclosed within a screen cage which is generally designated 60. This, cage comprises a pair of top screens 61 which extend through. the
length of the body and are disposed in upwardly converging relation beneath the downwardly and inwardly' inclined walls.41 as shown in Figure 3, the screens at the ends thereof being carried upon suitable beams or bars 62. These bars at the ends of the cage screens 61 carryat their ends the upwardly extending hanger plates 63 which are vertically adjustably secured to the front and back walls 26 and 27 by means of bolts 64 which pass through the hanger plates and through openings 65 formed in the front and rear walls of the body, such openings being in vertically arranged groups of two,'
three or four so that the screens 61- can be raised or lowered or they can be swung upon the upper hangers to raise or lower the bottom edges only as desired.
The screen 61 are in closely spaced relation with the 5 inner edges of the walls 41 providing narrowspaces S and back walls and these inner wall screens are carried at their ends by the vertical beams 68 of angle iron, as
shown and suitable means is provided for the vertical or up and down adjustment of the inner wall screens by means of the supporting bolts 69 which pass through the flanges of the vertical bars 68 and through selected openings 70 in the adjacent walls 26 and 27.
The bottom edges of the inclined screens-61 carry the hanging aprons 71 which overlie the upper parts of the inner wall screens 67 as shown to insure the passage of grain across the spaces between the adjacent edges of the screens 61 and 67.
The inner wall screens 67 are in spaced relation with Y the outer wall screens 30 thus providing the vertical passage "P through which the grain descends from the inclined screens 61 onto the'inwardly moving conveyors 36.
At the rear of the machine a suitable support 72 is provided upon which is mounted a motor 73 carrying upon its shaft, on the end adjacent to the wall. 27, a fan 74 and a sprocket gear 75 or any other gear means for taking power from the motor.
The fan 74 is positioned to drive air through an' open-' ing 76 in the wall 27, into the screen cage 60 and against the rear end wall 49 of the furnace or heating unit.
Also at the rear end of the structure the rear trunnions 38 for the inner or adjacent rollers of the conveyors, carry 81 around which passes the endless web 82 and these rollers are rotatably supported by suitable hangers 83 which are secured to the lower one of a pairoftransverse beams 84, carried at the rear of the machinebetween and connecting the rear ends of the beams 24.
and at the front of the machine the hangers 35 are secured to and suspended from the bolster 14.
The conveyor web or canvas 82 lies between the side boards or side walls 86 and it will be readily seen upon reference to Figure 3 the grain when discharged into the space S drops onto the conveyor canvas or web 82 which has the top run thereof moving either forwardly or rearwardly according to the arrangement of the driving mechanism to carry oil the grain after it is dried.
In the structure here illustrated the rear roller 81 for the conveyor 80 has connected therewith a sprocket gear 87 which is connected with the corresponding gear 88 carried on a stub shaft 89 positioned at right angles to and in the same horizontal plane as the driven trunnion 38, as shown in Figure 4. This stub shaft carries a miter gear 90 which is in mesh with a similar miter gear 91 carried on the adjacent driven conveyor trunnion 38 so that the motor 33 thus furnishes the driving power for both of the conveyors through the medium of the interposed speed reduction mechanism of any standard type, which is generally designated R.
In the operation of the machine in the embodiment thus far described it will be apparent that the grain to be dried is introduced into the bin or hopper B and as it flows downwardly at a desired rate of speed governed by the adjustment of the walls 41 and screens 61 to vary the space S, it will be dried by the heat rising from the furnace roof and walls through the screens 61 and additional ventilation and passage of heat is provided through the spaced inner and outer walls 30 and 67 as the grain moves downwardly through the passages P onto the conveyors 36. The conveyors 36 carry the dried grain slowly toward the center of the machine and deposit it upon the longitudinal conveyor 80 in the manner described, from one end of which conveyor the dried grain is removed in suitable receptacles to be transported to the storage space.
In Figure 7 a modification of the structure hereinbefore described, is shown, wherein, in place of the inwardly moving conveyors of the first structure, designated 36, the inner and outer side screens which are designated 30a and 67a respectively join at their bottom edges the inwardly and downwardly inclined inner and outer bottom screens 30b and 67b which are in spaced relation to provide the inwardly and downwardly directed converging passages P.
The front and back walls of the body structure which is generally designated 25a are extended downwardly to cover the passages P, as shown, the back wall only being here illustrated and designated 27a. The lower edges of the bottom screens 301) are spaced to provide an outlet 92 and beneath this outlet there is positioned a rotating cylinder 93 which has supporting trunnions 94 at its ends which are rotatably mounted in suitable hanger bearings 95 carried by the end walls of the body.
The cylinder 93 is also provided in its longitudinal waii with a longitudinally extending slot 96 which, as the cylinder rotates receives grain from the passages P and then as it turns over, deposits the grain onto the conveyor structure which is generally designated 80a, which is of the same construction and operated in the same manner as the described conveyor 80. Also the cylinder 93 is caused to rotate by power received from the motor 73a through a drive gearing which is generally designated 90a and is of the same type or may be of any other desired construction, as that shown and described in connection with the first embodiment of the invention.
In this second embodiment of the invention the grain will flow over the screens for a longer period or, in other words, will travel over a greater distance of screening than in the first embodiment and it can then be taken off somewhat faster by the rotating cylinder 93. This cylinder rotates slowly and it is contemplated to provide suitable means, shown at 9012, for varying or changing the speed of rotation as may be desired.
From the foregoing it will be seen that there is provided by the present invention a novel and relatively simple apparatus by means of which grain can be dried to the desired degree so that when it is stored it will not spoil by fermentation or by becoming mouldy.
1. A grain drier of the character set forth, comprising a bin having front, back and side walls and inwardly and downwardly converging bottom walls, said bottom walls being spaced apart at their convergent edges for the passage of grain therebetween, a heating unit below said bin, a screen cage enclosing said unit, said screen cage comprising a top formed of upwardly converging screens arranged to have grain deposited thereon from said bottom walls to flow outwardly and downwardly thereover to the outer side of the cage, means supporting said screens for vertical adjustment relative to the convergent edges of said bottom walls, side walls below the bin side walls and in spaced relation with the sides of the cage, means below the cage for receiving the downwardly flowing again and conveying it toward the center of the drier, and means below the receiving means for receiving the grain and carrying it out from beneath the cage and heating unit.
2. The invention according to claim 1, with pivot means supporting the said convergent bottom walls at the high sides thereof for raising and lowering the same at the convergent sides and other means for securing said walls adjacent to the convergent sides in vertically adjusted position.
3. The invention according to claim 1, wherein said lower side walls are in the form of screens.
4. The invention according to claim 1, wherein said lower side walls are in the form of screens and means supporting the lower side walls for moving the same inwardly and outwardly relative to the sides of the cage.
5. The invention according to claim 1, wherein the said means for receiving the downwardly flowing grain comprises two inwardly and downwardly converging web conveyors having the top runs thereof moving toward the center of the drier, the convergent inner sides of the conveyors being spaced apart to discharge grain onto the second mentioned receiving means.
6. The invention according to claim 5, wherein the said second mentioned receiving means comprises an elongate endless conveyor extending longitudinally of the drier structure.
7. The invention according to claim 1, wherein the means below the cage for receiving the downwardly flowing grain comprises vertically spaced pairs of inwardly and downwardly convergent walls forming inwardly and downwardly sloping passages, the lower walls of said pairs having their convergent edges spaced to form a grain outlet, a grain receiving cylinder disposed longitudinally of said outlet, means supporting the cylinder at its ends for rotation on its long axis, means for rotating the cylinder, the cylinder having a longitudinal grain receiving slot in the wall thereof, and the second mentioned means comprising an elongate endless conveyor below and parallel with the cylinder.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 940,144 Geiger Nov. 16, 1909 1,558,119 Sherban Oct. 20, 1925 2,245,664 Gronert June 17, 1941 2,437,899 Welty Mar. 16, 1948 2,627,670 Hurst et a1 Feb. 10, 1953 2,654,590 Molenaar Oct. 6, 1953