US 2718048 A
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2 Sheets-Sheet 1 R. K. SEDGWICK Sept. 20, 19 55 A METHOD AND MEANS FOR DEFORMING HOLLOW MEMBERS Filed Jan. 25, 1949 Sept. 20, 1955 R. K. sl-:DGWICK METHOD AND MEANS FOR DEFORMING HOLLOW MEMBERS Filed Jan. 25, 1949 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Parent O METHOD AND'MEANS FORDEFORMING HOLLOW MEMBERS Robert K. Sedgwick, Oak Park, lll., assignor to American Steel Foundries, Chicago, lll., a corporation of New Jersey Application January 25, 1949, Serial No. 72,687
9 Claims. (Cl. 29-463) This invention relates to a novel method and means for deforming a hollow deformable member by developing hydraulic pressure therein.
A primary object of the invention is to device a method and means for developing adequate hydraulic pressure within the member to be deformed Without the necessity of affording a sealed hydraulic connection thereto thereby facilitating practice of the invention with respect to members of varying dimensions.
A corollary object of the invention is to prevent lluid pressure from equalizing against the internal and external areas of the section to be flared by disposing that section within a chamber having ports externally of the member and by directinghydraulic pressure fluid into the member at a rate substantially greater than the rate at which the fluid passes between the memberand the adjacent margins of the chamber to the ports.
A more specific object of the invention is todevlse a method and means for flaring the end of a deformable tube.
Another object of the invention is to seal one end of the tube while developing a charge ofhydraulic lluid in the other end thereof within a die chamber to are the other end of the tube to conformity with the die.
Still another object of the invention is to devise a method and means for automatically sealing one end of the tube after air `has been expelled therefrom by hydraulic iluid admitted lto the end of the tube Within the die chamber.
A further object of the invention is to device a method for fabricating an axle housing component byilattening and notching one end of the tube and then flaring the notched end by sealing the opposite end and admitting hydraulic pressure fluid to the notched end of the tube within a die chamber at a pressure, sufficient to ilare the notched end to conformity with related die surfaces without bursting the tube.
The foregoing and other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from a consideration of the following specification and the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Figure l is a side elevational view, partly in central vertical section, of an hydraulic press embodying the novel apparatus utilized in the practice of the invention;
Figure 2 is a fragmentary sectional View on the line 2 2 of Figure l, in combination with a novel hydraulic system for automatically sealing one end of the tube and then flaring the other end thereof;
Figures 3 and 4 are, respectively, a side elevational View and a top plan view of a tube which has been flattened and notched preparatory to the flaring operation performed by the apparatus of Figures l and 2;
Figure 5 is a side elevational view of the tube after completion of the flaring process; and
Figure 6 is a fragmentary sectional view corresponding to that of Figure 2 but showing a modified die structure.
Describing the invention in detail and referring first to Figures l and 2, the novel hydraulic press comprisesl 2,718,048 Patented Sept. 2 0, 1955 ICC a bed 2 supported by a foundation 4 containing an annular well or pit 6 surrounding the bed and provided with a fluid outlet pipe 8 adapted for connection to the suction side of conventional pump means (not shown). The bed 2 is connected in conventional manner to an upper support member 10 by tension members 12 extending through complementary openings (not shown) in side panels 14. The bed 2 supports a hollow guide casting 16 comprising an internal chamber 18 which contains an hydraulic piston and cylinder device 20 supported by the bed 2.
It may be noted that the bed 2 and the members 10 and 14 together with the casting 16 constitute a frame supported by the foundation 4 and may be fabricated in any desired manner, the embodiment shown being merely for the purpose of illustration.
The casting 16 provides slidable support for a pair of die members 22 operated, respectively, by rams 24 reciprocal within conventional cylinders 26 to dene advance and return chambers 28 and 30 therein. The member 10 similarly supports a cylinder 32 containing a ram 34 defining advance and return chambers 36 and 38 therein and the ram 34 at its lower end supports another die segment 40.
It will be understood that the rams 24 and 34 are advanced and retracted within their respective cylinders by means of a conventional hydraulic circuit which is not shown in order to clarify the illustration, inasmuch as the circuit constitutes no part of the invention. Furthermore, if desired, the die segments 22 and 40 may be operated by any conventional motors, the hydraulic motors shown being preferred.
ln the closed position of the die segments 22 and 40, the segments 22 are seated in substantially fluid-tight engagement at 42 (Figure l) and are formed with complementary recesses defining outlet ports 44 communicating with a pressure chamber 46 formed by the segments 22 and by the segment which in closed position is seated against the segments 22 along complementary diagonal surfaces at 48 (Figure 2) and is snugly fitted within recesses 5i) in the segments 22, to substantially prevent flow of hydraulic fluid from the chamber 46 between the mating surfaces of the segments 22 and 40.
The die segments 22 are provided with flaring arcuate die surfaces S2 merging at their remote ends with the diagonal surfaces 48, the flared surfaces 52 being spaced at their adjacent ends by a iluid outlet passage 54. The inner side of the segment 4t) is formed with an arcuate closure surface 56, serving a purpose hereinafter described in detail in connection with the operation of the device, and the surface 56 is interrupted by a lluid inlet passage 58 which continues through the ram 34 and is connected to a llexible pipe 60 coupled to an inlet pipe 62 connected to the cylinder of the device 20 for a purpose hereinafter described.
Hydraulic lluid is delivered to the passage 58 by an inlet line 64 having a conventional quick opening valve 66. The line 64 is connected to an accumulator 68 illustrated in Figure 2 as an air ballasted accumulator containing a charge of compressed air at its upper end maintaining pressure in the line 64 within a predetermined range of pressure values The accumulator 68 comprises an air The entire apparatus iS. preferably Closed Within a Wall or partition 92 having one or more doors (not shown) affording access to the apparatus for loading and unloading the tubes.
The above-described apparatus is utilized in flaring a tube 90, as hereinafter described. The tube 9,0 is flattened as at 9,4 and the flattened section is notched at each side thereof as at 95. The tube is also upset as at 96 and flanged as at 98 in a hot forging operation.
The lower or upset end of the tube 90 is then seated on the resilient pad 8S whereupon the side rams 24 are actuated to close the die sections 22 thereby lifting the tube 90 slightly above the pad SS as the flared upper end of the die passage 54 engages complementary surfaces o f the tube, as best seen on Figure 2. The top ramV 34 is thenV advanced to move the die section 40 to the closed positionl shown in Figure 2.
It will be understood that under these conditions the chamber 46 is substan-tially closed at the sides thereof which conform to and snugly contain the notched sides of the tube and at the top of the chamber which is defined by the before-mentioned surface 56, said surfaceY being accurate in form to conform to the path of the tube sections which are flared against the surfaces 52, as hereinafter described.
Under these conditions the quick opening valve 66 is opened admitting hydraulic fluid under pressure of the order of one thousand pounds per square inch to the passage 58 which delivers the fluid to the upper end of the tube 9,0 thereby expelling air from the lower end of the tube. After substantially all the air has been expelled from the tube, pressure rises within the passage 58 sufficiently to actuate -the device urging the piston 82 upwardly thereby engaging the pad S8 with the lower end of the tube to seal the same. It may be noted that the cross-sec-tional area of the piston $2 is greater than that of the. intermediate portion of the tube 90 and is smaller than that of the flattened section 94 of the tube whereby the pressure within the line 62 and the cylinder 80 is effective to maintain the pad 8S in sealed engagement with the lower end of the tube without pushing the tube upwardly from its normal position shown in Figure 2. If the lower end of the tube is closed, the device 20 may be eliminated.
Under these conditions fluid delivered to the flattened section 94 of the tube may pass to the ends of the chamber 46 bounded by the flattened die surfaces 52 only through Ithe restricted areas at the top and sides of the c hamber which, as above noted, conform to and are closely spaced from the top and notched sides of the tube section 94. Thus pressure builds up rapidly within the section 94 and two legs 10) thereof, as seen in the side elevational views of Figures 2 and 3, are first spaced out in a V shape and are then deformed to conformity with the flared surfaces 52. During deformation of the tube, the. hydraulic fluid which passes along the top and sides of the chamber 46 to the ends thereof passes from the ports 44 and is directed against the wall 92 from which the fluid falls into the chamber 6 and is piped therefrom by the outlet pipe 8.
It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the pressure required to flare the flattened and notched section ofthe tube 90 to conformity with the die surfaces 52 is considerably less than that which would burst the intermediate portion of the tube 90 and the range of operating` pressure values is determined by the material of which the tube is formed and the thickness of the tube wall.
After completion of the flaring operation, the valve 66 may be closed and the die sections 22 and 40 may be openedto`v accommodate removal of the finished product from the device. The finished product is shown in FigureA` 5 wherein it will be seen that the flattened section 9.4 of the tube has been flared to form a semi-cylindrical housing 102, two of which may be Welded together to 4 form an axle housing for a conventional automotive vehicle.
A modification of the invention is shown in Figure 6 which is a fragmentary view coresponding -to Figure 2 wherein parts corresponding to those of Figure 2 are identified by corresponding numerals.
In Figure 6 the passage 54 is eliminated, and the hollow member to be flared is preferably closed at its lower end but otherwise corresponds exactly in configuration to the flattened section 9,4,.of the tube 9.0 shown in Figures 3. and 4. Also the ports 4,4 in Figure 6 are formed through the sides rather than the ends of the die sections 22 but are connected to the flared die surfaces 52 to accommodate escape of hydraulic fluid from between these surfaces and the legs v` of the member 94 as it is flared against the surfaces 52, as above described in connection with the embodiment of Figures l and 2.
It may be noted that a primary feature of the invention is to avoid the necessity of connecting the source of high pressure hydraulic fluid to the deformable member by a sealed connection and this feature of the invention may be utilized with a pressure chamber of any desired configuration provided that the pressure fluid is delivered to the interior of the hollow member to be deformed and is restricted againstl flow therefrom to a rate substantially less than that at which the fluid is delivered to the member. In order to prevent equalization of pressure against the interior and exterior surfaces of the member to be deformed, 'the fluid flowing from the interior thereof is permitted to flow freely from the pressure chamber, externally of the member.
1. In an apparatus for flaring a flattened and bifurcated end section of a hollow member; the combination of relatively movable die segments adapted in closed position to define a pressure chamber and adapted in open position to accommodate insertion of said section, said chamber having substantially flat side walls complementary to the sidesv of saidl section and having end die surfaces against which saidl section is to be flared, and said chamber having another surface extending between the side Walls-and extending arcuately between the die surfaces, said other surface being adapted to conform to the path of movement of said section as it is flared against said die surfaces, fluid outlet means connected to the ends of the chamber for discharging hydraulic fluid trapped between said surfaces and the flared portions of said section, a high pressure, hydraulic fluid inlet passage interrupting said' other surface and connected to said chamber, the space between said section and side walls combined with the space between said section and said other surface having less flow capacity than said inlet passage and having less flow capacity than said outlet means, said passage being disposed between the die surfaces and being adapted to deliver hydraulic pressure fluid to said section. tov develop hydraulic pressure therein and flare the section against the die surfaces.
2. Apparatus, according to claim l, wherein the pressure chamber is provided with a passage approximately diametrically opposed to the inlet passage and adapted to receive an intermediate portion of the hollow member havinga cross-sectional area substantially less than that of the flattened section thereof, and means are provided for sealing the end of the hollow member remote from the flattened section thereof, said sealing means comprising a cylinder member and a piston member therein having greater cross-sectional area than the intermediate portion of the hollow member and a smaller cross-sectional area than the flattened section of the hollow member, one of the piston and cylinder members carrying a seal, and an hydraulic connection is provided between the inlet passage and the cylinder memberA of said device, the flow capacity of the space initially existing between the seal and the hollow member being less than, the supply rate of the inlet passage as reduced by flow of fluid from the outlet means.
3. In apparatus for aring a notched end of a tube, the combination of a plurality of die segments movable to closed position defining a die having a chamber adapted,
to receive said end, said segments in closed position dening a passage adapted to receive an intermediate portion of the tube, said die having spaced surfaces in said chamber against which said tube is to be flared, another passage through said die substantially aligned with the first-mentioned passage, a plurality of exhaust ports through said die connected to said surfaces, means for sealing the other end of said tube comprising a sealing member, an hydraulic piston and cylinder device operatively connected to said member for actuation thereof to seal said tube, means for connecting a source of hydraulic pressure fluid to the second-mentioned passage, and an hydraulic connection between the second-mentioned passage and said device, the flow capacity of the space initially existing between the tube and the sealing member being less than the flow capacity of the second-mentioned passage as reduced by ow of fluid from the exhaust ports, whereby, upon connection of said source to said second-mentioned passage, hydraulic fluid flowing therefrom into said tube expels air therefrom, whereupon pressure builds up in the second-mentioned passage to automatically actuate said device and then Hare the notched end of said tube against said surfaces.
4. In an apparatus for flaring a bifurcated end section of a hollow member; the combination of a pressure chamber having side walls and having die surfaces at opposite ends respectively of said chamber against which surfaces the bifurcations of said section are to be flared, said chamber having a closure surface extending between said side walls and extending arcuately between the die surfaces, said closure surface being adapted to conform to the path of movement of the bifurcations of said section as they are flared against said die surfaces, said chamber having ports accommodating ow of hydraulic uid from between said die surfaces and the flared bifurcations of said sections, a high pressure hydraulic uid inlet passage connected to said chamber at a point between said die surfaces to deliver high pressure hydraulic fluid between the bifurcations of said section, the space between said side walls and the bifurcations of said section combined with the space between said closure surface and the bifurcations of said section having less flow capacity than that of said inlet passage and having less flow capacity than that of said ports, whereby high pressure fluid from said inlet passage develops hydraulic pressure between the bifurcations of said section to flare the bifurcations against respective die surfaces.
5. Apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the inlet passage interrupts said closure surface.
6. Apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the ports extend through at least one side wall.
7. Apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the ports extend through the die surfaces.
8. Apparatus of the class described comprising a plurality of relatively movable die segments adapted in closed position to define a pressure chamber for reception of a tube and having internal surfaces against which associated tube sections are to be flared, said chamber having exhaust ports connected to said surfaces, opposed passages connected to said chamber between said surfaces, one passage being adapted to deliver hydraulic pressure fluid to the chamber and the other passage being adapted to contain a portion of the tube, said one passage being aligned with one end of said tube in said chamber and being open at all times to communication with said ports by flow of said fluid from said end of said tube through said chamber to said ports, the ow capacity of said one passage to said end of said tube being greater than the flow capacity of the chamber from said end of said tube to said ports, an hydraulic piston and cylinder device externally of the chamber for sealing the end of the tube remote therefrom, said last mentioned end of said tube being spaced from said device until air has been expelled from the tube by hydraulic fluid from said one passage, and an hydraulic connection between the cylinder and irlet passage, the flow capacity of the space initially existing between said device and said tube being less than the flow capacity of said one passage as reduced by ow of fluid from said exhaust ports.
9. A method of flaring a deformable tube comprising the steps of notching one end thereof, then inserting said end into a die chamber having outlets externally of the tube, then directing hydraulic uid under pressure to said end of the tube until substantially all air has been expelled from the other end of the tube, and then sealing said other end of the tube and developing hydraulic pressure in the notched end of the tube sufficient to are said notched end to conformity with related surfaces in the die chamber.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,000,574 Bauroth Aug. 15, 1911 1,945,076 Riemenschneider Jan. 30, 1934 2,188,316 Schirmer Ian. 30, 1940 2,292,462 Milford Aug. 1l, 1942 2,344,779 Koldermann Mar. 21, 1944 2,372,917 Tuttle Apr. 3, 1945 2,407,855 Stephens Sept. 17, 1945