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Publication numberUS2720708 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 18, 1955
Filing dateOct 12, 1953
Priority dateOct 12, 1953
Publication numberUS 2720708 A, US 2720708A, US-A-2720708, US2720708 A, US2720708A
InventorsEdgar W Snell
Original AssigneeEdgar W Snell
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for establishing a standard cranial point of orientation of living persons
US 2720708 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 18, 1955 E. w. sNELL. 2,720,708

APPARATUS FOR ESTABLISHING A STANDARD CRANIAL POINT OF' ORIENTATION OF LIVING PERSONS Filed Oct. l2, 1953 3 Sheets-Sheet l BYEDGAR W- SNEL'. MV

ATTORNEYS Oct. 18, 1955 w sNELL 2,720,708

E. APPARATUS FOR ESTABLISHING A STANDARD lCRANIAI.. POINT OF' ORIENTATION OF LIVING PERSONS 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. l2, 1953 INVENTOR.

EDGAR W- SNELL ATTORNEYS Oct. 18 1955 E. w. sNELL 2,720,708

APPARATUS FOR ESTABLISHING A STANDARD CRANIAL POINT OF' ORIENTATION OF LIVING PERSONS 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Oct. l2, 1953 JNVENTOR.

EDGAR VV- SN ELL ATTORNEYS United States Patent O APPARATUS FOR ESTABLISHING A STANDARD CRANIAL POINT OF ORIENTATION OF LIVING PERSONS Edgar W. Snell, San Francisco, Calif. Application October 12, 1953, Serial No. 385,425 3 Claims. (Cl. 33-174) An object of my invention is to provide an improvement on my patent for an apparatus for establishing a standard cranial point of orientation of living persons, Patent No. 2,101,105, issued December 7, 1937. In the patent I disclose an apparatus for establishing the cranial point of orientation that is absolutely constant and from this point the accurate measuring of the human cranium and other parts of the human anatomy is made possible. A stabilizer was used in connection with the apparatus and this stabilizer was placed upon the head of the one being examined. There was no mechanical connection between the stabilizer in the patented device and the apparatus.

In the present case, the stabilizer is still mounted upon the head of the one being examined, and I provide novel means between the stabilizer and the apparatus to detect any movement of the head away from its proper position with respect to the apparatus. The novel means will instantly show any up or down movement of the head and will also show any turning of the head.

It is possible by subsequent registration to re-establish the same point of orientation of the same person. For example, a tooth impression on two bite models could be taken during the first examination and also an X-ray picture. Six months later, the same person could be placed in the same identical position formerly occupied and two additional bite models made and a second X-ray picture taken. Therpictures and models for the second examination could be compared with the lirst to determine growth or change. The device makes it possible to reduce the number of X-ray pictures taken of a person over a period of time, and thus the detrimental elect of over exposure to the X-rays is greatly reduced.

Other objects and advantages willl appear in the following speciflcation, and the novel features of the device will be particularly pointed out in the appended claims.

My invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings forming a part of this application, in which:

Figure l is a side elevation of a stabilizer used in connection with my apparatus for establishing a cranial' point of orientation, the apparatus being shown in section;

Figure 2 is an end view of a portion of the stabilizer;

Figure 3 is a top plan view of the stabilizer, and the section line III-III in Fig. 1 shows that the apparatus is in horizontal cross section;

Figure 4 is an end elevation of the stabilizer and orientating apparatus illustrated in Figure 3, with one of the indicating lamps being omitted, see the arrows IV- IV in Figure 3;

Figure 5 is a section taken along the line V-V of Figure 3; and

Figure 6 is a section taken along the line VI-VI of Figure 5.

While I have shown only the preferred form of my invention, it should be understood that various changes or modiiications may be made within the scope of the 2,720,708 Patented Oct. 18, 1955 appended claims without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

In carrying out my invention, I will iirst describe certain features of the orienting apparatus disclosed in my Patent No. 2,101,105, that are used with my improved stabilizer and then will describe the improved stabilizer in detail. The apparatus comprises a pair of boxes A and B, see Figure 3, that are movable toward and away from a median vertical plane indicated by the dot dash line C, by a mechanism, not shown. The mechanism shown in my patent for moving the boxes toward and away from each other, could be used so that the inner walls 1 and 2 of the two boxes will be disposed equal distances from the median vertical plane C, at all times.

Hinged batiies 3 are connected between the inner walls 1 and 2 of the boxes so as to prevent any light from a lamp D from passing through the space between the Walls 1 and 2. In Figure 1, I show the box A provided with wheels 4 that ride on rails 5 which in turn are supported by a platform E. The box B likewise has wheels, not shown, riding on the rails 5. The lamp D is mounted in a housing F which is attached to the platform E and does not move with the boxes A and B. 'Ihe housing F has two horizontally arranged slots 6 and 7, in the inner wall 8 of the lamp housing F, and these slots register with horizontal slots 9 and 10 provided in the rear walls 11 and 12, respectively, of the boxes A and B, see Figures 1 and 3. Sliding gates 13 and 14 are mounted in the boxes A and B, respectively, and are designed to be removably disposed in front of the slots 9 and 10, respectively.

There are partitions 15 and 16 arranged in the boxes A and B, respectively, and these have horizontal slots 17 and 18 that lie in the same plane as the slots 9 and 10. Additional sliding gates 19 and 20 are provided as removable closures for the slots 17 and 18, respectively. The front walls 21 and 22 for the boxes A and B, have horizontal slots 23 and 24 that lie in the same plane as the slots 17 and 18, and they register with these slots as well as the slots 9 and 10. A mirror 25 extends across both front walls 21 and 22 of the boxes A and B, and is mounted in a frame 26 that in turn is supported by theV platform E so as not to be moved with the boxes A and B. The mirror has a horizontal slot 27 that registers with the front wall slots 23 and 24 of the boxes A and B.

It will also be noted from Figure 3, that the box A has aligned openings 2S, 29 and 30, provided in the rear wall 11, partition 15 and front wall 21, respectively, and these openings lie in the same horizontal plane G as the slots 9, 17, 23 and 27. In like manner, the box B has aligned openings 31, 32 and 33, provided in the rear wall 12, partition 16, and front wall 22, respectively, and these openings lie in the same horizontal plane G as the slots 19, 18, 24 and 27.

The row of registering openings 28, 29 and 30, and the row of registering openings 31, 32 and 33, cooperate with the slot 27 in the mirror 25, to establish the horizontal plane indicated by the dot-dash line G in Figure l of the drawings. The plane G extends at right angles to the median vertical plane C. The person to be tested, looks into the mirror 25 so that the line of sight from the eyes 34 in the head H, register with the mirror slot'27. The

gates 13, 14, 19 and 2t? are adjusted to uncover the open-` ings 28, 29, 31 and 32, and the boxes A and B are moved toward or away from each other until the persons eyes 34 register with the row of openings 30, 29 and 28, and the parallel row of openings 33, 32 and 31, see Figure 3.

The parts thus far described haveheen set forth in detail in my patent. v and the associate mechanism, differ from the patented structure. head H and the stabilizer J is anchored to the cap so'as The stabilizer now to he described A cap 35 is preferably placed on the persons kept in'contact with the cap by an anchoring `frame 38 Y which rextends from opposlte sides of theY base 37 and connects with the hat 35. The hat is preferably tight fitting andafter it is placed on the head and the stabilizer connectedto the hat, a thin layer of plaster of Paris may be applied between the frame 38 and the hat for anchoring the stabilizer base from movement.

The stabilizer base 36 supports the stabilizer frame 39 by a ball and socket joint 40, see Figure l. The frame 39 can be adjusted by adjustable legs 41 so that aY platn form 42 will Vremain in a truerhorizontal plane.V The frame 39 rotatably ,supports a shaft 43 that carries a weighted wheel 44 on which markings in degrees are made. A zero marking 45, on the wheel 44, when registering with a mark 46 on the frame, will indicate that the platform 42 yis perfectly horizontal in a transverse di Vrection with respect to the longitudinal plane C.

A Weighted pointer 47 is pivoted to the shaft 43 at 48 so as to always point upwardly in a vertical direction.`

. The upper pointed end of the pointer 47, rides under a quadrant 49 that is fixed to the frame 39. When the Y pointer 47 registers with the center marking on the quadrant 49, the operator knows that the platform V42 lies in a horizontal plane from front to back of the platform.

Next I provide means for indicating any slight twisting of the head about a vertical axis. A superstructure frame 50, see Figures l and 4, has the same general length arid `width as the platform 42 and is disposed thereabove.

Plunger type terminals 51 and 52 are carried near the ends of the superstructure frame 50 and they have wedgeshaped lower ends 53, see Figure 2,V that are designed to be received in V-shaped grooves 54, provided in the upper surface of plates 55 and 56 that are mounted on top of the platform 42 and at each end thereof. The plunger typeV terminals 51 and 52, reciprocate in housings 50a that are carried by the superstructure frame 50. The lower ends ofthe housings 50a ride on the plates 55 and 56.

The grooves 54 in the plates 55 and 56 are in alignment with each other and when the vertical plane through these grooves lies parallel with the median vertical plane C,.the operator knows that the ystabilizer I is in proper position. As soon as the person twists his head to the right or to the left, the platform 42 will swing with the head land will movev the plates 55 and 56 so that their grooves 54 will beV moved out of registration with the Wedge-shaped lower ends 53 of the plungers 51 and 52. The plunger typerterminals 51 and 52 will therefore be raised and will close electrical circuits to lamps 57 andY 58 and cause them to be illuminated, see Figure l. The source of current and the wiring for Ythe lamps are not shown.

A bar magnet 59 is mounted on the platform 42 and a compass 60 is carried by a housing 61 that is mounted on the superstructure 50. Y The bar magnet extends in the direction of the length of the platform 42. The housing 67 and permits rotation ofthe shaft while holding it from withdrawal. The ball and socket connection 64 has a set screw 64a for securing the superstructure frame 50 from movement after the frame has been moved into the desired position.

A counterweight 69 is adjustable along the free end of the lever 63 to counterbalance the weight of the superstructure frame 50. As the person raises or lowers his head H, the superstructure frame 50 is also freeY to be l raised or lowered because the plunger type terminals 51 and 52 will bear lightly against the plates 55 and 56. During any Vup or down movement of the head H, the lever 63 will cause the bracket 65 to rock on its shaft 67 disposed in the arm 68. The set screw 67 permits this rocking because it rides in the annular groove 83.

The accidental raising or lowering of the head H will be registered by 'a dependingponter70, pivotedat 71 on a leg 72'tl1at extends downwardly from the bracket 65. The leg 72 has a plurality of markings 73 arranged in an arcuate'manner and the pointer 70 is free to swing j and ride over these markings to indicate any movement ofthe lever into an angular positionk with respect to a horizontal plane that extends through the axis of the shaft 67. I provide means for limitingk the swinging of thel lever 63Y and this comprises a post 74 that projects from a depending member 75 that is carried by the arm 68.

1 The leg 72 is channel-shaped, see Figures 5 andY 6, and

, vertical direction and will register any tilt of the lever Y the post 74 projects into the channel. as a stop for the leg 72 and limits the swinging of the lever 63 and the leg when the post strikes either side of the channel. The pointer 70 will always extend in, a

on the scale 73.

The arm 68( has a legY 76 that extends at right angles tov the arm and is slidably received in a sleeve 77. In Figure 4, I show the sleeve 77 as being carried by a bracket 78, which in turn is supported by the mirror vframe 26. A set screw 79' secures the leg 76 in the sleeve 77. The arm 68 is extensible or contractible and is in two parts 68a and 68h. TheV part V68a has a tongue 79 thatY is slidably received in a socket 80, provided in the part 68b.`

- The tongue and socket are both noncircular in cross sec- 61 carries an inclined mirror 62 that reflects an image of Y the needle 60a of the compass, and the needle will extend in the same direction as the bar magnet 59. The compass needle permits the operator to visually note the direc tion in which the platform 42, extends.

- Supporting means for the superstructure frame is provided and this means is carried by the platform E` through the mirror frame 26. The supporting means so that .this weight need not be carried by the person being examined. In Figures 1, 3 and 4, I show a lever 63 that Vhas a ball land socket connection 64 with the superstrucvcounterbalances the weight of the superstructure frame Y tion soV that the part 68b will not rotate on the tongue. A set screw 81 is carried by the part 68b and secures it to the tongue 79 in yadjusted position, see Figure 3.

I also provide means for detecting the forward and backward movement of the'headV H. An upright 85 is mounted on top, of the mirror frame 26, see Figure 1, and this upright has a sleeve 86 at its top in which a beam 87 is adjustably mounted..4 A set screw-88 secures the bearrrin adjusted position. A `rotatable bearing .89 is mounted near the free end of the beam, and a horizontally disposed rod 9.0 is adjustably mounted in the bearing and is held against longitudinal movement by a set screw 91. In Figure 4, the rod is shown extendingV transversely of the device.` In Figure l, the rod 90 is shown extendinglongitudinallyof the device for purposes of clarity.`

The bearing 89 permits the Vrod 90l to be swung through an arc of 360. Markings on -the two parts of the bearing Ypermit the angular position of the rod to be noted with respect to the beam 87. l Y

Y Referring to Figure 4, it will be noted that the rod 90 carries a depending rod 92 and a ball and socket 93 connect the two rods together. AnX-ray lmrholder K is adjustably mounted on the rod 92 and set screws 93 secure the holder in the desired position. A portable4 level indicated by the dot dash lines in Figure 4, may be applied to the board K after the desired angle has been reached and aerecord kept of the particular ,anglerofj the board. This permits the board- KtoV be brought to theV exact same position at a subsequent VexaminationV of the same person. X-ray lm 94 may be Vremovably secured to the board K. In Figure4, the X-ray film holder K is shown asbeing placed at one side ofthe head.

The description thus far has set forth a horizontal plane The post 74 actsV G established by the eyes 34, and a vertical median plane C. The cranial point 95 of orientation, see Figure 1, is established by the intersection of these two planes plus the intersection of a transverse perpendicular plane M. The cranial point of orientation 95, established by the intersection of these three planes, is the point used for measurements to the various teeth 96. It will be noted that the plane M coincides with the glabella of the patients head H.

A pendulum 97 is pivoted to the beam 87 at 9S, and an extensible forwardly projecting arm 99 is carried by the pendulum and contacts with the patients forehead. The point of contact between the arm 99 and the forehead, establishes the position of the transverse perpendicular plane M. The forehead is pressed against the end of the arm 99 until the pointer 1G13, at the top of the pendulum, registers at the zero position on the quadrant scale 101. The soft tissue in front of the glabella will be compressed so that the transverse plane M coincides as nearly as possible with the actual front portion of the skull.

It is assumed for the present case that it is desired to fix different points of the occlusal plane relative to the cranial point of orientation 95. For this purpose, the patient can make a bite, the bite having a fixed L- shaped arm 102 extending into a receptacle 103 that is carried by the platform E, see Figure 1. The patients head has been positioned in the manner described and the receptacle 103 can be filled with plaster of Paris 104 to hold the bite arm 102 in the fixed position.

The patient may now remove his head H and permit the bite arm to remain in position. The operator may then ploceed by any suitable means to physically X the point of orientation 95 defined by the intersection of the three planes C, G, and M, and may then take the desired measurements from this point as indicated by the line 105, Later on, the patient may place his head H in the same position formerly occupied. A second bite can be taken and then the operator can compare this with the rst one. Growth or change can thus be detected.

It is possible to use the device when examining a person that has only one eye. When the person turns his head about a vertical axis, the lower ends of the housings 50a ride on the plates 55 and 56, while the plunger type terminals 51 and 52 move out of the grooves 54 and close the electric circuits, not shown, for illuminating the lights. Should the person raise or lower his head without twisting it, the housings 50a maintain the same spacing between the stabilizer frame 39 and the superstructure frame 50. In this way the plunger type terminals 51 and 52 will not close the electric circuits to the lights 57 when the person merely raises his head without turning it. The set screw 64a holds the superstructure frame against relative movement with respect to the lever 63 when the stabilizer frame 39 is raised or lowered, or rotated about a vertical axis.

I clairn:

1. In a device of the type described: a stabilizer adapted to be removably secured to the head of a person and including a platform; means carried by the stabilizer for indicating when the platform lies in a horizontal plane; and means for detecting when the platform swings in the horizontal plane so as to detect any turning of the persons head about a vertical axis; said last-named means including Vshaped grooves placed at the ends of the platform and being in alignment with each other; a frame supported above the platform and having depending plungers with wedge-shaped lower ends adapted to be received in the grooves; and a light carried by the frame and associated with each plunger and adapted to be illuminated when the platform is moved by the persons head for moving either or both grooves out of registry with the wedge-shaped end of the plunger; whereby the plunger will be raised and Will elect the illumination of the light associated therewith.

2. In a device of the type set forth in claim l; and in which means is provided for detecting the vertical raising or lowering of the platform caused by the raising or lowering of the persons head on which the stabilizer is mounted.

3. In a device of the type described: a platform removably secured to the head of a person; a frame disposed above the platform and having means lightly resting upon the platform; a counterbalanced lever having a ball and socket connection with the frame for supporting practically the entire weight of the frame so that the persons head will be relieved of this weight; a bracket for pivotally supporting the lever so that the lever will normally lie in a horizontal plane and will be free to swing about a horizontal axis; the bracket carrying a depending, channel-shaped leg that will swing away from a vertical position when the lever is swung; a free-swinging pointer pivotally carried by the leg; said leg having markings thereon over which the pointer swings to indicate the angular position of the lever with respect to a horizontal plane that passes through the axis of the pivotally supported bracket; and a stop received in the channel for limiting the swing of the depending leg in either direction from a vertical position.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 788,362 Lavery Apr. 25, 1905 1,897,941 Lavery Feb. 14, 1933 2,101,105 Snell Dec. 7, 1937

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US788362 *Jul 14, 1904Apr 25, 1905Henry C LaveryAnatomical measuring and recording machine.
US1897941 *Apr 16, 1931Feb 14, 1933 Anatomical measuring aiid recording machine
US2101105 *Nov 17, 1933Dec 7, 1937Edgar W SnellApparatus for establishing a standard cranial point of orientation
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4598208 *Jun 10, 1985Jul 1, 1986Varian Associates, Inc.For holding shields in fixed positions
US4782503 *Aug 19, 1986Nov 1, 1988Siemens AktiengesellschaftDental X-ray diagnostic installation
US8352004 *Dec 21, 2007Jan 8, 2013Covidien LpMedical sensor and technique for using the same
US20090163787 *Dec 21, 2007Jun 25, 2009Nellcor Puritan Bennett LlcMedical sensor and technique for using the same
EP0193650A1 *Dec 13, 1985Sep 10, 1986Hanspeter Dr. DelnonApparatus for orthoradial panoramic tomography
EP0214486A1Aug 11, 1986Mar 18, 1987Siemens AktiengesellschaftDental X-ray diagnostic apparatus
Classifications
U.S. Classification33/514, 378/208, 378/205
International ClassificationA61B6/00, A61B6/08, A61B6/14
Cooperative ClassificationA61B6/08, A61B6/501, A61B6/14
European ClassificationA61B6/50B, A61B6/08, A61B6/14