US 2720909 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 18, 1955 J, EHRL C 2,720,909
HEAI INSULATING MATERIAL Filed May l. 1953 FIG. l.
IN VEN TOR. JOSEPH R. EHRL ICH w kW United States Patent O HEAT INSULATING MATERIAL Joseph R. Ehrlich, New York, N. Y. assignor to N. Erlanger, Blumgart & Co. Inc., New York, N. Y. a eorporation of New York Application May 1, 1953, Serial No. 352,380 20 Claims. (C1. 154--28) My invention relates to a new and improved combination method of making laminated heat-insulating materials and to new and improved laminated heat-insulating materials. The invention includes the new and improved laminated materials, irrespective of the method of manufacture. The new and improved laminated materials are especially adapted for use as linings for coats and other garments and as materials for making garrnents, for making tents and for many other purposes because they provide excellent heatdnsulation with minimum density and they are very flexible and resilient.
As one exarnple, and without limitation thereto, the laminated material consists of an outer or face layer of closely woven lining fabric, an intermediate layer of interconnected fur hairs, and a rear layer of a mesh fabric which is made of interlaced yarns, said yarns being of negligible thickness compared to the lengths of the fur hairs and compared to the sizes of the apertures in said mesh fabric.
There are weil-known processes for making bonded webs, or non-woven or non-knitted materials of fur hairs or other bers, in which the bers are not connected solely by interlacing of the type which is used in weaving, knitfing, netting and other operations used in making fabrics.
In making such known bonded webs of fr hair, using W001 bers and other bers which have rough felting surfaces, the practice has been to rub said bers upon each other and to use heat, moisture and Chemical agents, in order to make a dense fabric of interlaced bers. The volurne of such known webs has included a relatively W proportion of air by reason of the pressure and/er chemicals used in giving the web cohesion. For the sarne reasons, such known webs are stiif, dense, and of 10W flexibility.
In making such bonded webs of non-felting bers, it has been the practice to forrn a web of interlaced bers and to saturate the web with an adhesive, such as a resin, or to use thermoplastic bers which are connected by heat and pressure, with a resultant 10W air volurne in either case.
According to my invention, I produce a resilient and soft and flexible web of bers which are preferably substantially or wholly non-interlaced in the Web, said web having preferably at least eighty-ve per cent of air by volume. Such a web, if made as an independent article of manufacture, has negligible coherence. Its bers can be easily pulled out of the Web, without tearing said bers or altering the surface structure which they had before being made into the web.
However, by forming said ber layer on a base layer of net or mesh fabric which has very thin yarns and whose area consists substantially of large apertures, I protect the rear face of said ber layer sufliciently so that the finished material can be readily handled. 'Ihus, as one exarnple, the net or mesh fabric is made of thin nylon yarn, of about fteen denier, so that the weight of 297,365 yards of such yarn is approximately one pound,
'- initial fur hairs.
2,7Z0909 Patenten! Gst. I8, 1055 and the weight of 9000 meters of such yarn is fteen grams.
This mesh fabric has large and identical apertures, which may be of square shape. The side or edge of such apertures may be substantially 0.375 inch or substantially 9.375 millimeters.
This mesh fabric is placed upon a horizontal table, which may be perforate or irnperforate.
In this illustration, I use raccoon hairs, whose length may be an average of about 0.75 inch or about 18.75 millimeters. The lengths of said raccoon hairs preferably slightly exceed the lengths of the diagonals or longest dimensions of the apertures of the mesh fabric. The thickness of the yarns of said mesh fabric is negligible, compared to the lengths of the raccoon hairs and the sizes or the mesh apertures. The thickness of said yarns is less than one per cent of the lengths of the raccoon hairs and the lengths of the sides o1 edges of said apertures.
The upper faces of said yarns of said net or mesh fabric are coated With a liquid adhesive which can set at 20 C.25 C. in an atmosphere of air at normal pressure of 760 millimeters of mercury.
This adhesive can set under negligible pressure.
Initial fur hairs are gently blown into horizontal positions to cross the adhesive-coated yarns of the net or mesh fabric. Bach fur hair of the initial layer which is deposited upon the net or mesh fabric comes into contact with the previously adhesive-treated net or mesh yarns, and adheres to said net or mesh yarns at a minimum number of points. Depending upon the length of the fur hair in relation to the size of the net or mesh aperture, the contact between the fur hairs of the initial layer and the net or mesh yarns may be at only one point of the fur hair, or at a plurality of points, as at two or three points. These initial fur hairs are substantially straight and they are deposited in horizontal or substantially horizontal positions and they cross each other in criss-cross relation in all horizontal directions, but without interlacing or substantial interlacing. These fur hairs are horizontally non-oriented. The fur hairs in this initial layer form a very thin, porous, horizontally non-oriented and horizontal web which adheres to the yarns of the net or mesh fabric and covers the apertures of said net or mesh fabric. Additional fur hairs are then gently blown in upon the The air pressure under which the bers are blown into position may be as 10W as two to three pounds per square inch or even less. The fr hairs may be mechanically deposited.
The additional fur hairs are also deposited in horizontal or substantially horizontal positions in criss-cross or other crossing relation and with little or interlacing.
While additional fur hairs are thus deposited, a coutinuous or intennittent spray of very small and separated spots of adhesive may be applied to the: deposited fr hairs.
When the ber layer has been built up to the desired height, the top face of the ber layer is provided with very small and separated spots of adhesive. When said spots of adhesive are thus applied, they may be uniformly spaced.
In order to improve the adhesion between the web and the face fabric, the inner surface of said face fabrio, before bonding said face fabric to the web, may be treated with adhesive by spraying or by an applicator, so that the adhesive will be applied to said inner surface in a substantially uniform pattern of small dots or lines, which may or may not register with the yarns or apertures of the net fabric.
The top layer of lining fabric or other material is ap- 3 plied to the top of the fiber layer or web, and the adhesive is then set.
All these operations may be performed at ordinary room temperature of 20 C.25 C. and in an atmosphere of air under said normal pressure. While the adhesive is setting, the three assernbled layers may be subjected to very light pressure, just enough to provide the assembly.
The fiber web is resilient and springs back to its original shape and volume when it is subjected to moderate pressure, so that moderate pressure may be applied while the adhesive is setting.
It is thus possible to provide a raccoon hair web which has at least 85% by volume of air.
The weight of. the adhesive may be 20% to 60% of the weight of the raccoon hairs. The invention is not limited to this range oft ratios.
If a raccoon hair web or layer is thus made without the use of the mesh fabric, as an independent article of manufacture, such raccoon hair layer has negligible coherence. Its hairs can be easily pulled out of the web. When the hairs are thus pulled out, they have the structure which they had when they are deposited. Such a web cannot be rolled into a compact spiral roll by ordinary machinery, because the web would pull apart.
However, the mesh layer provides sufficient reinforcement so that the finished three-layer material can be wound and cut and sewed and handled like ordinary woven or knitted or other fabric material.
By depositing the initial bers in a mesh layer which has large apertures, and then depositing additional fibers, I prevent dense matting of the bers at the large apertures and I produce a fiber layer of uniform density.
It is highly preferred to form the fur hair layer on a mesh fabric which has large openings, instead of forming said fur hair layer upon a closely woven er other close fabric.
The above procedure applies to all other fibers, although it is preferred to use bers which have rough surfaces which have good natural surface adherence, like fur hairs or wool. However, such bers are not felted by rubbing them relative to each other or by other steps of ordinary felting procedure.
If the finished material is laid flat in horizontal position, the fur hairs or other fibers are substantially in respective superposed horizontal planes, and such bers merely cross each other in non-oriented relation.
The invention is further disclosed in the following drawings and examples.
Fig. 1 is a rear plan view of an embodiment which illustrates a composite or laminated lining material aecording to Exarnple N0. 1. Parts of the representations of the mesh layer and of the fiber layer are omitted.
Fig. 2 is a cross-section of Fig. l.
Example N o. 1
The combination material consists of a flexible and stretchable rear mesh face layer R which has apertures A, an intermediate fiber layer L and a face layer F The details stated herein are merely illustrative and the invention is net limited thereto.
The rear layer R is a mesh or net fabrie which is made of thin nylon yarn Y, of about N0. 15 denier, so that 9000 meters of said yarn have a weight of fifteen grarns. The weight of said rear mesh layer R is substantially 0.03 ounce per square yard, or substantially 1.02 grams per square meter.
The fiber layer L is made of substantially straight raccoon fur hairs or fibers which have a rough felting surface which is made of overlapping surface scales. These felting fur hairs have their normal moisture content at 20 C.25 C.
The face layer F may be any closely woven lining fabric.
The rear layer R may have identical substantially rhombus apertures A which have substantially equal sides, whose length is substantially 0.375 inch or substantially 9.375 millimeters. These apertures A may be squares or have other shapes.
The average length of the raccoon hair is about 0.75 inch or about 18.75 millimeters. Optionally, the fur hairs which abut the inner surface of the rear layer R may have a length which exceeds the lengths of the diagonals of apertures A and all the raccoon hairs may have lengths which exceed the lengths of said diagonals.
It is clear that the thickness of yarn Y is negligible in comparison with the length of the fur hairs and the lengths of the sides and diagonals of aperture A. Such thickness is less than one per cent of the lengths of the raccoon hairs and the maximum lengths of apertures A.
In this exarnple, the thickness of the finished raccoon hair layer L is about 0.089 inch or about 2.23 millimeters. At this thickness, the weight of the raccoon hair layer is about 2.87 ounces per square yarcl, including the weight of the net layer and the weight of the dry adhesive. Since the weight of the mesh layer is 0.03 ounce per square yard, the weight of the raccoon hair layer and its adhesive is about 2.84 ounces per square yard. In this example, the original adhesive is an aqueous dispersion of an internally plasticized vinylidene chloride polymer resin or of a copolymer of vinylidene chloride and other monorners. This resin adhesive is known commereially as Saran F120.
The Saran resins are generally described at page 504 of the 1953 edition of Handbook of Material Trade Names by Zimmerman and Lavine, published by Industrial Research Service. These resins are well-known and used in lacquers and coatings which are resistant t0 the usual dry cleaning fluids.
The above weight of the layer of raccoon hair and adhesive, of 2.84 ounces per square yard for a thickness of 0.089 inch, corresponds to about 32 ounces per square yard, for a layer of raccoon hair and adhesive whose height is one inch. This corresponds to about 0.0247 ounce per cubic inch or about 0.04 gram per cubic centimeter.
In this example, the weight of the dry Saran adhesive is about 57% of the weight of the raccoon hairs in layer L.
The density of the raccoon hairs and of the dry and set adhesive is suffieiently close to that of wool, for the purposes of approximate calculation. When wool fiber is at 20 C. to 25 C. and has its normal moisture content at normal air pressure of 760 millimeters of mercury, said. wool ber has a specific gravity of about 1.40.
As above noted, the specific gravity of the layer L is about four-hundredths.
Hence the specific gravity of the layer L is about three per cent of the specific gravity of the raccoon hairs and of the dry Saran adhesive, so that layer L has approximately 97% of air by volume.
One reason for the very low specific gravity and very high air volume of layer L is the deposit of the raccoon hairs under very light pressure. By reason of said very light pressure, the barbs or scales at the surfaces of the raccoon hairs keep the crossing raccoon hairs substantially vertically spaced frorn each other in layer L.
Preferably, at least t0 of the volume of layer L is air. This applies if other fibers and adhesives are used.
Instead of using an aqueous dispersion of a Satan resin adhesive, I can use other adhesives which are flexible and have good resistance to the usual dry cleaning fluids.
Thus, I can use a neoprene cernent, in which the solvent consists of volatile esters and ketones.
The manufacture of neoprene or polychloroprene is described at pages 192200 of .Synthetic Resins and Rubbers by Paul O. Powers, published in 1943 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Air-dryingpolychloroprene adhesives are described at pa ges 465467 of Handbook of Plastics by Simrnonds and Ellis, published in 1943 by D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc.
In making this embodimenr, the flexible mesh layer R, With its yarns coated at their upper faces with said preferred adhesive, is placed upon a horizontal perforate 01' imperforate table. Initial raccoon hairs are gently blown upon said mesh layer R, to forrn an initial very thin layer of raccoon hairs which cover the apertures A of said mesh layer R. Additional fibers are then gently blown into position, while a spray of the adhesive in liquid form and in the form of small separated drops is applied continuously or interrnittently at short intervals t the raccoon hairs. The fine and separated drops of liquid adhesive are also applied to the top face of the fiber layer. All this is done at C.- C., in air under substantially normal pressure. The face fabric F, t0 whose immer surface adhesive has been previously applied as above mentioned, is then applied to the top face 0f the fiber layer L, and the assembled layers are bondcd to each other and the raccoon hairs are bonded to each other at small and separated spots, by setting this adhesive. The adhesive may be set at 20 C.25 C., and under a pressure of not more than three pounds per square incl The fabric F may also be bonded to the fiber layer at this lOW pressure. The face fabric F may be bonded by the adhesive to the fiber layer L during a periocl of 2 minutes at 20 C.25 C., or during a shorter period of 10 seconds to 20 seconds at 93 C.94 C. This is sufficient to set the adhesive between the face fabric F and the fiber layer L. The fine spots of adhesive are substantially uniformly distributed through the fiber layer, between its opposed faces. There may be more spots cf adhesive per nnit of area at the face of fiber layer L which is bonded to the face fabric F, than in the intericr of fiber layer L. The Weight of the total adhesive of the fiber layer L may be 20% to 60% of the total weight of the raccoon hairs, but this ratio may be as high as 75% to 85%. When I refer to the weight of the adhesive, I refer to its weight in the dry state.
Substantially all of the fibers of layers L are deposited substantially horizontally, with little or no interlacing, in criss-cross or other crossing relation. These fibers are deposited in all directions in each horizontal plane.
If desired, the adhesive may be applied to the inner surface of the face fabric F by spraying or by an applicator which applies the adhesive along lines which cross each other and which register with the yarns of mesh fabn'c R and which have the same thickness as said yams.
As above noted, the hair layer has considerable resilience. Hence the use of a 10W pressure in applying the face layer F to the top 0f the hair layer L is not critical, and a substantial pressure may be applied until the adhesive is set.
By using a 10W temperature and 10W pressure, I prevent any injury to or substantial change in the si1rface structure of the fur hairs or other fibers. That is, if the fibers are thermoplastic or can be adhered by heat, I avoid fusing the fibers to each other.
The rigid support on which the mesh rear layer R is held may be imperforate or perforate. lf perforate, said support has holes which register wholly or partially with the apertures A, and such holes of the support may be of the sarne size as apertures A, and each aperture A may register wholly with a respective hole of the support. In such case, the partition Walls between the holes 0f the support may have the same thickness as the yarns Y.
If a perforated support is used, it may be hollow and it may be under a slight vacuum and the fr hairs may be gently blown by a current of air into applied position. As one example, the total pressure of the air current is preferably applied in a direction which is perpendicular t'o the planar apertures A.
The fur hairs are thus horizontally applied and assembled and connected in crossing and abutting and nonoriented relation with little or no interlacing.
6 Instead of using a top face layer F of closely' wven fabric, such top face layer may be identical With the rear mesh layer R, so that the fiber layer L is1 located between two mesh layers.
In such case, the face layers F may be connected by adhesive to the top surface of the yarns of the top mesh layer.
and said raccoon hairs cross each other horizontally 01 laterally in all directions.
Example N0. 2
In this example, the heat-insulating layer is made 0f felting fibers of down or other felting feather material.
In this exarnple, the down layer L has a thickness of about 0.304 inch or about 7.6 millimeters. The weight of this down layer L and its adhesive, plus the weight of the mesh fabric R, is about 3.69 ounces per square yard. Hence the weight of the layer L of down and its adhesive is about 3.66 ounces per square yard. In this example, the adhesive is the dried and set residue of the Saran F-120 aqueous dispersion. In this example, the Weight of the dry adhesive is about 21 per Cent of the weight of the down fibers.
Said layer L of down and dry adhesive, at a height of one inch, would have a weight of about 12 ounces per square yard. This is about 0.0093 ounce per cubic inch or about 0.0163 grarn per cubic centimeter. This layer L of down and adhesive has more than of air by volume. In this example, as in Example N0. 1, at least 90% of the area of the mesh layer R consists of apertures. Indeed, the apertures of mesh layer cornprise In0re than of its area.
In each case, the bonding cf the adhesive is so weak that the fiber layer L can be readily pulled apart and individual fibers can be easily pulled out of auch fiber layer without breaking said fibers. In the embodiment of Example 2, the down fibers also cross each other laterally in all directions, With little or no vertical interlacing.
If I use a blend or mixture which includes fibers which have a srnooth non-felting surface structure, I prefer to use a sufficient roportion of wool fibers or other felting fibers which have a rough surface structure, in order to produce good combination surface adherence. However, many fibers which have a smooth surface structure have good surface adherence, and such fibers can be used without blending them With fibers of rough surface structure.
T he materials 0 the fibers I can use the natural and synthetic mate=rials which are disclosed in a text-book entitled The New Fibers by Sherman and Sherman, published in 1946 by D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. and many others. The invention is not limited to any specific material er materials. Elends or mixtures of materials can be used.
The natural materials which I can use include W001, fr hairs, feathers, down, silk, cotton, ramie, hernp, asbestos and metal. I can also use glass fibers.
The synthetic materials which I can use include cellulose esters, viscose rayon, nylon, vinyl resins, and synthetic polymers and synthetic copolymers, and protein fibers.
The fibers may be elastic or non-elastic.
I prefer to use fibers which are substantially straight, like the fur hairs of eoneys and raccoons. These fur hairs may be in natural form as sheared :from the pelt, o1 waste or reclaimed hairs or fibers.
I can also use W001 fibers or fur fibers which have been permanently straightened by the well-known process which is disclosed in Calva, U. S. Patent N0. 2240388 issued April 29, 1941, With or without the use of a cresolformaldehycle resin or other resin.
I can also use various synthetic fibers which are provided with rough or wool-like felting surfaces. Some of these rough-surfaces synthetic fibers are described in said The New Fibers and in Kohorn, U. S. Patents N0. 2302077 issued November 17, 1942, and N0. 2403437, issued July 9 1946.
Aa'hesive The preferred adhesive is quick-drying or quick-setting at ordinary roorn temperature of 20 C.25 C., or at moderate elevated temperature, such as 93 C.94 C. When the adhesive is dry or set, it should be flexible and it is preferably inert to the usual dry cleaning fluids. An air-drying adhesive is preferred, which can set at 20 C.25 C.
I have described preferred embodirnents of my invention but numerous changes and additions and substitutions and omissions may be made without departing frorn its scope.
1. A method of forming a coherent fiber layer which consists in depositing fibers upon each other in unfelted and crossing relation, said fibers being thus deposited substantially in successive lateral planes which are substantially parallel to each other, applying adhesive to wholly separated spots of said fibers while said layer is formed, to provide an adhesive bond only at said spots between said fibers in the finished fiber layer, said adhesive bond at said spots being sufliciently weak so that said fibers can be pulled out of the finished layer in substantially pre-bonded structure, said fibers being assernbled in said finished fiber layer under sufficiently low pressure to provide a finished fiber layer which has at least 70% of air by volurne.
2. A method according to claim 1 in which said finished fiber layer is unfelted and has at least 80% f air by volume.
3. A method accorcling to claim 1 in which said fiber layer has at least 90% of air by volurne.
4. A method according to claim 1 in which said fiber layer is unfelted and has at least 95% 0f air by volurne.
5. A method according to claim 1 in which said fibers have rough surfaces.
6. A method according to claim 1 in which said fibers are fur fibers.
7. A method according to clairn 1 in which said fibers are feather fibers.
8. A method according to claim 1 in which the initial fibers are deposited upon a mesh textile fabric whose yarns are of negligible thickness in comparison to the apertures of said mesh fabric and the lengths of the fibers.
9. An unfelted fiber layer which comprises unfelted fibers which are located substantially in respective lateral superposed planes which are substantially parallel to each other, said unfelted fibers in each said lateral plane laterally crossing the fibers in the adjacent lateral planes in laterally non-oriented lateral relation, said unfelted fibers being bonded to each other by wholly separated spots of an adhesive bonding agent.
10. A layer according to clairn 9 in which said layer is bonded at one face thereof by adhesive to a thin and flexible fabric mesh layer, the yarns of said fabric mesh layer being of negligible thickness compared to the apertures of said mesh layer.
11. A layer according to claim 9 which has at least of air by volume.
12. A layer according to claim 10 in which said layer has at least 70% of air by volume.
13. A layer according to claim 9 in which said layer has at least of air by volume.
14. A layer according to claim 10 in which said layer has at least 90% of air by volume.
15, A layer according to clairn 9, in which said adhesive bond is sufficiently weak so that said fibers can be pulled out of said layer in substantially the prebonded structure of said fibers.
16. A fiber layer according t0 claim 9 in which a major part of said fibers have rough surfaces.
17. A fiber layer according to claim 9 in which a major part of said fibers are fur hairs which have rough surfaces.
18. A fiber layer according to claim 9 which is bonded at a face thereof by adhesive to a (hin and flexible fabric mesh layer, the fibers of said layer at said mesh layer being longer than the longest dimension of the apertures cf said mesh layer.
19. A fiber layer according to claim 9, one face of said fiber layer being bonded by adhesive to a thin and flexible fabric mesh layer, the other face of said fiber layer being bonded by adhesive to a closely woven fabric.
20. A fiber layer according to clairn 9, each face of said fiber layer being bonded to thin and flexible fabric mesh layers.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2023273 Leguillon Dec. 3, 1935 2054131 Kollek Sept. 15, 1936 2582915 Sebok Jan. 15, 1952 FOREIGN PATENTS 571,230 France Jan. 30, 1924 433,587 Great Britain 1 Aug. 16, 1935