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Publication numberUS2722100 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 1, 1955
Filing dateNov 2, 1946
Priority dateNov 2, 1946
Publication numberUS 2722100 A, US 2722100A, US-A-2722100, US2722100 A, US2722100A
InventorsEsther C Goddard
Original AssigneeDaniel And Florence Guggenheim
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for feeding a liquid fuel, a liquid oxidizer and water to a combustion chamber associated with rocket apparatus
US 2722100 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 1, 1955 H GODDARD 2,722,100

APPARATUS FOR FEEDING A LIQUID FUEL, A LIQUID OXIDIZER AND WATER TO A COMBUSTION CHAMBER ASSOCIATED WITH ROCKET APPARATUS Filed NOV. 2, 1946 United States Patent C) P APPARATUS FOR FEEDINGA. LIQUID FUEL, A

LIQUID OXIDIZER AND WATER To COMBUS- TION CHAMBER Asso olArum WITH ROCKET APPARATUS Robert'H; Goddard,- deceased; late of A'nnapolis', Md., by

Esther C. Goddard, executrix,- Worcester, Mash, assignor oftone-half to The .Daniel and Florence- Guggenheim Foundation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application' Novmher 2; 1946, Serial N o. 707,351 4 Claims. (Cl. 60-39316) This invention relates to combustion chambers as used in rockets and rocket craft, and relates more particularly to devices for feeding liquid fuel to such a combustion chamber.

It is at times desirable to add a small proportion of water to the gasoline or other liquid fuel before it is fed to the combustion chamber but the presence of this water tends to retard ignition.

Accordingly, it is the object of the present invention to provide means to separate the fuel and water as the intermingled liquids fed to the ignition point and in such manner that the oxidizing agent will engage and combine with the separated fuel before said oxidizing agent can be engaged and diluted by the separated water.

A further object of the invention is to provide a deflecting device in a combustion chamber by which intermingled liquid fuel and water will be separated in accordance with their different specific gravities.

A preferred form of the invention is shown in the drawing, in which Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a combustion chamber embodying the invention;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional elevation of certain parts shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a detail view, looking in the direction of the arrow 3 in Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 is a detail sectional view, taken along the line 4-4 in Fig. 1; and

Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4 but showing a slight modification.

Referring to Fig. 1, a combustion chamber C is shown, having a nozzle portion N and enclosed within a jacket casing 10. Liquid fuel, as gasoline, is supplied under pressure to the casing through a pipe 11. The liquid fuel receives a certain proportion of water as it passes through an annular casing 12 having feed openings 14 and supplied with water under pressure through a pipe At the front or closed end of the combustion chamber the jacket casing It) is contracted as shown in Fig. 2 and a plurality of feed openings are provided, through which jets of intermingled fuel and water are projected against the sharply concave side surface of an annular deflecting ring 22, mounted on spaced ribs or supports 23 within the combustion chamber.

Liquid oxygen or other suitable oxidizing liquid is fed under pressure through a pipe 30 to the outer end of the jacket space between a chamber extension C and its jacket casing 32. The inner or rear end of the casing 32 is Welded or otherwise permanently secured to the adjacent end of the jacket casing 10, and a plurality of feed openings 33 are provided for the liquid oxygen, said feed openings being inclined forwardly and toward the chamber extension C.

When the intermingled gasoline and water are injected under pressure against the concave annular side surface 21 of the deflector ring 22, there is a very abrupt change ice easily deflected and is projected along; the lines of the arrows b. At the same time the 'liquid'oxygen is projectedinto the chamber extension C along the liues'of thearrows d.

Satisfactory operation requires-that the liquid pressure be high enough to eject the intermingled liquids at the velocity necessary to produce the described and definite deflecting and separating action, and of-course the pressure-must substantially exceed the-vapor pressure in the:

combustion chamber.

It will be evident from Fig. 2 that the liquid oxygen, proceeding along the lines of the arrows a, will intercept the gasoline or other liquid fuel entering along the lines of the arrows b before the oxygen can be engaged by the water entering along the lines of the arrows a. The liquid oxygen and liquid fuel are thus intermingled in such manner that they may be easily vaporized and ignited, while the water is thereafter absorbed by the combustion gases and by any partially consumed liquids or vapors as they are ejected from the chamber extension C and are projected into the combustion chamber C Where further and more complete combustion takes place.

For most effective operation, the liquids are supplied to the deflector 22 only in such quantities as will form a relatively thin film on the annular concave side surface of the deflector ring. Under some operating conditions, however, this film may be more effectively formed if the small circular feed openings 20 for the intermingled fuel and water are replaced by elongated openings or slots as shown at 40 in Fig. 5.

By this simple addition of a concavely recessed annular deflecting ring, prompt ignition and complete combustion of the liquid fuel is greatly facilitated.

Having been thus described, the invention is not to be limited to the details herein disclosed, otherwise than as set forth in the claims, but what is claimed is:

1. In a combustion chamber of rocket type, means to inject intermingled liquid fuel and water under pressure in excess of the combustion chamber pressure, a deflector ring mounted Within said chamber and in the path of the injected liquids and having a sharply concave annular surface engaged by said liquids and effective to deflect the fuel and water by relative deflection along diverging conical paths, and additional means to inject a liquid oxidizer along a path which intercepts the cone of liquid fuel before it intercepts the cone of separated water.

2. In a combustion chamber of rocket type, a jacket enclosing said chamber and having forwardly and inwardly directed feed openings adjacent its closed end portion, means to feed intermingled liquid fuel and Water to said jacket and to inject said liquids into said chamber through said openings under pressure in excess of the com bustion chamber pressure, a deflecting device mounted within said chamber and in the path of the intermingled injected liquids and engaged by said liquids and effective to separate the fuel and water by relative deflection into concentric forwardly directed cones, with the fuel cone outside of the water cone, and means to inject jets of a liquid oxidizer to said chamber, which jets are intercepted by said fuel cone before being intercepted by said Water cone.

3. In a combustion chamber of rocket type, a jacket surrounding said chamber and enclosing a jacket space, means to inject intermingled liquid fuel and water from said jacket space to said chamber under pressure in excess of the combustion chamber pressure, deflecting means mounted within said chamber and in the path of the injected liquids and engaged by said liquids and effective to Patented N 0v- 1,. 1955.

separate the liquid fuel from the water by relative deflection and to direct said separated liquids forward along separate paths into an extension of said chamber, and means to inject a liquid oxidizer along a path in which it engages and intercepts said liquid fuel in said extension to form a relatively pure combustible mixture before said liquid oxidizer engages and intercepts the separated water.

4. In a combustion chamber of rocket type provided with two sets of feed openings adjacent its closed end portion, means to inject intermingled liquid fuel and Water through one set of feed openings under pressure in excess of the combustion chamber pressure, means to inject a liquid oxidizer through the other set of feed openings, and deflecting means in said chamber effective to separate the liquid fuel from the water and to project said liquid fuel into the path of the liquid oxidizer as said oxidizer enters said chamber and before said oxidizer engages the separated water, and said deflecting means comprising an annular ring mounted within said chamber in the path of the intermingled fuel and water and having a sharply concave annular side surface engaged by said intermingled 5 liquids.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,144,021 Bennett et a1. June 22, 1915 1,531,475 Brandt Mar. 31, 1925 2,430,396 Gollin Nov. 4, 1947 2,470,564 Lawrence et al May 17, 1949 OTHER REFERENCES Astronautics, Journal of the American Rocket Society, article by Truax, pages 9-11, April 1938, No. 40.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1144021 *Oct 11, 1913Jun 22, 1915Smokeless Economisers LtdOil-fuel burner.
US1531475 *Mar 26, 1921Mar 31, 1925Brandt Edmund S RCombustion flask
US2430396 *Sep 23, 1943Nov 4, 1947Asiatic Petroleum Co LtdCooling jacket for combustion chambers
US2470564 *Nov 15, 1944May 17, 1949Reaction Motors IncReaction motor control system
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2859588 *Dec 16, 1953Nov 11, 1958Texas CoFlame holder structure for ram jet combustor
US2974475 *Apr 6, 1955Mar 14, 1961Exxon Research Engineering CoMethod for operating a rocket motor or the like
US3085393 *Jun 3, 1958Apr 16, 1963North American Aviation IncRocket engine starting method
US3134228 *Jul 27, 1961May 26, 1964Thompson Ramo Wooldridge IncPropulsion system
US3168808 *Mar 8, 1961Feb 9, 1965Thiokol Chemical CorpCombustion improvement device
US3724048 *Nov 16, 1971Apr 3, 1973Us Air ForceMethod of preventing the plugging of liquid coolant passages of a regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chamber
US3921389 *Oct 3, 1973Nov 25, 1975Mitsubishi Heavy Ind LtdMethod and apparatus for combustion with the addition of water
US6389814Dec 20, 2000May 21, 2002Clean Energy Systems, Inc.Hydrocarbon combustion power generation system with CO2 sequestration
US6523349Jun 19, 2001Feb 25, 2003Clean Energy Systems, Inc.Clean air engines for transportation and other power applications
US6598398May 21, 2002Jul 29, 2003Clean Energy Systems, Inc.Hydrocarbon combustion power generation system with CO2 sequestration
US6622470May 14, 2001Sep 23, 2003Clean Energy Systems, Inc.Semi-closed brayton cycle gas turbine power systems
US6637183May 14, 2001Oct 28, 2003Clean Energy Systems, Inc.Semi-closed brayton cycle gas turbine power systems
US6824710May 14, 2001Nov 30, 2004Clean Energy Systems, Inc.Working fluid compositions for use in semi-closed brayton cycle gas turbine power systems
US6868677May 24, 2002Mar 22, 2005Clean Energy Systems, Inc.Combined fuel cell and fuel combustion power generation systems
US6910335Aug 22, 2003Jun 28, 2005Clean Energy Systems, Inc.Semi-closed Brayton cycle gas turbine power systems
US6945029Nov 17, 2003Sep 20, 2005Clean Energy Systems, Inc.Low pollution power generation system with ion transfer membrane air separation
US7021063Mar 10, 2004Apr 4, 2006Clean Energy Systems, Inc.Reheat heat exchanger power generation systems
US7043920Jul 8, 2003May 16, 2006Clean Energy Systems, Inc.Hydrocarbon combustion power generation system with CO2 sequestration
US7882692Apr 30, 2007Feb 8, 2011Clean Energy Systems, Inc.Zero emissions closed rankine cycle power system
US8024918Apr 29, 2008Sep 27, 2011Honeywell International Inc.Rocket motor having a catalytic hydroxylammonium (HAN) decomposer and method for combusting the decomposed HAN-based propellant
Classifications
U.S. Classification60/258, 60/915, 60/39.461, 60/39.55, 116/137.00A, 60/260
International ClassificationF02K9/52, F02K9/64
Cooperative ClassificationY10S60/915, F02K9/52, F02K9/64
European ClassificationF02K9/64, F02K9/52