US 2726116 A
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. 6, 1955 J. E. BARBER COLORED FOUNTAINS 3 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Oct. 20
JOHN 6'. 6172359,
' 19-55 J. E. BARBER COLORED FOUNTAINS 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 20, 1951 JOHN 5. 5 76559,
J. E. BARBER COLORED FOUNTAINS 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Oct. 20, 1951 JOHN 5 5149559 INVENTOR.
' United Statesv Patent COLORED FOUNTAINS John E. Barber, North Hollywood, Calif.
Application October 20, 1951, Serial No. 252,379
7 Claims. (Cl. 29 9-4 This invention relates to ornamental colored. fountains and has as its prime object the provision of a novel, and ornamental colored fountain adapted for use in parks, gardens, courtyards and the like.
Heretofore the colored illumination of ornamental fountains has been limited to the successive fading-in and fading-out of dilferently colored flood lights directed towards said fountain. The area solely subject to a single one of these flood lights exhibits the color. of that light. The area where these lights overlap exhibits a compound color produced by the mixture of the colors of the overlapping lights. This type of colored flood lighting for fountains has been widely used and has great aesthetic merit. As in all artistic displays, however, there is a constant demand for new techniques.
It is accordingly another object of this invention to provide a method and apparatus for introducing color into a fountain which is distinctly different from the floodlighting technique above mentioned and which will produce a distinctly different kind of manifestation of color in a fountain.
A further object of the invention is to provide an ornamental colored fountain and method of producing the same in which diiferent areas of said fountain which are located at successively greater distances from the source of the fountain exhibit distinctly different colors in a subtantially constant pattern.
A still further object of the invention is to provide such a colored fountain and method in which a substantially constant color pattern is exhibited, yet in which this pattern has a movement perceptible to the observer in which the various succession of colored areas in the pattern travel in a given direction.
The manner of accomplishing the foregoing objects,
as well as further objects and advantages will be made manifest in the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which: Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic side elevational view of a preferred embodiment of the invention discharging continuously a spiral stream of water, this view illustrating the shape assumed by said stream at a given instant in the operation of the invention.
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic elevational view similiar to Fig. 1 with the fountain of the invention producing a spiral stream of water in the same manner as shown in Fig. 1, but illustrating the optical illusion which is created for the observer by the play of lights from said fountain on said spiral stream.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged plan view of the fountain shown in Fig. 1 and taken on the line 3-3 therein.
Fig. 4 is an enlarged vertical sectional view taken on the line 4--4 of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is an enlarged detail view taken on the line '5-5 of Fig. 4. v
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional view taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. 4. v Fig. 7 is a wiring diagram ofthe invention.
Fig. 8 shows a modified drive system of the invention.
Referring specifically to the drawings, the invention is there shown as embodied in an apparatus 9 (Fig. 4) for performing the method of the invention to produce a colored fountain 10 (Fig. 2). Apparatus 9 includes a housing 11, a circular upperwall 12 of which has a downwardly extending peripheral flange 13 providing lugs 14 to which a bottom housing wall 15 is secured as by screws 16. The apparatus 10 is supported by legs 17 fixed on the wall 15 and extending downwardly therefrom.
The upper wall 12 of the housing 11 has a central opening 18 a water-tight covering of which isprovided by a window 19 formed of clear, transparent glass or plastic material which is held in place by a mounting ring 20 secured to the upper face of the wall 12. Mounted concentrically on the wall 12 and extending upward therefrom is a light stack 25. This stack hasa 'water drainage hole 26 provided therein near its lower end, and a hole 27 which is disposed opposite a slide aperture 28 provided in a pitman guide plate 29 which is secured to the outer face of the stack 25.
Fixed in an upper portion of the stack 25 is a nozzle supporting spider 31 having a central ring 32 which snugly receives a rubber packer 33 into which is upwardly inserted a tubular nozzle 34 the lower end 35 of which is bent laterally to connect with a flexible hose 36 which extends outwardly through a hole 37 in the stack 25. Integrally connected with the nozzle 34 is a rod 33 which is axially aligned with said nozzle and has spaced collars 39 and 40 on its lower end. Surrounding the rod 38 between the collars 39 and 40 so as to be retained on said rod is a pitman head 41, this being mounted on one end ofa'pitman 42 which extends outwardly through holes 27 and 28 (Figs. 4 and 5) and has a similar pitman head 43 mounted on its outer end.
Supported as by a bracket 44 on an outer face of th stack 25 in a vertical radial plane of the stack containing the hole 28 is an electric motor 45, the shaft 46 of which extends downwardly and is provided with a collar 47 having a crank pin 48 .which pivotally receives the pitman head 43 which is retained in place thereon by a head 49 on said pin. It is thus seen that when the motor 45 is energized the collar 47 is rotated which reciprocates the pitman 42 in the guide 29 causing a rotary motion to be imparted in a horizontal plane to the lower end of. the rod 38. This causes the nozzle 34 to oscillate about the vertical axis of the apparatus 9.
The lower wall 15 of the housing 12 has a central hole and a light well 61 is secured to the housing bottom 15 by screws 62 in concentric relation with said hole. The light well 61 has ventilating holes 63 and has a light receptacle 64 mounted on a floor 65 of said well. An electric service cord 66 extends through a grommeted opening 67 in the light well 61 to the receptacle 64 to energize an electric lamp 68 mounted in said receptacle. This lamp may be of any preferred type, although a builtin-reflector type flood lamp is shown in the drawings.
The bottom wall 15 has an opening 70 through which the shaft 71 of an electric motor 72 extends upwardly, this motor being supported by brackets 73 which are secured by screws 74 to the bottom wall 15. Fixed on the upper end of the shaft 71 is a pulley 75. Fixed on the wall. 15 inside the housing 12 is an arm 76 from which a shaft 77 extends upwardly, said shaft being located adjacent to the central hole 60 in the housing bottom wall 15.. Rotatable on the shaft 77 is a filter wheel 80 which includes a hub 81, a rim 82 and spokes 83 which connect said hub and said rim. The hub 81 is externally grooved to cause this to serve as a pulley which is connected to the pulley by an endless belt 84. The spokes 83 of the filter wheel divide the area within the rim 82 into three equal sectors which are cov- 3 ered by transparent material of different colors so as to form three individual filters 85, 86 and 87. These filters may be of any selected colors desired, but, for the purpose of illustration, it will be assumed these are respectively green, red and blue.
Referring now to Fig. 7 the wiring system 90 of the invention includes leads L1 and L2 which connect to the primary winding of a transformer 91 and to lamp 68 and have a manually operated switch 92 for closing and opening the circuit including said transformer and said lamp. The transformer 91 has dual secondary windings 93 and 94 which have variable speed connections, respectively, with motors 45 and 72, so that the speed of each of these motors may be varied at will.
The hose 36 is connected with any suitable supply of water and may, if desired, be connected to a faucet of a domestic water system and a supply of water to the nozzle 34 thus be controlled from said faucet.
Operation As in all colored fountains, the fountain produced by this invention is displayed to best advantage in the dark. It has been exhibited to good effect, however, in an electrically lighted hall but to get the full richness of the color pattern exhibited therein it should be shown out of doors and in the dark.
To set the apparatus 9 in operation, to produce the fountain 10, it is merely necessary to supply water through the hose 36 to the nozzle 34 so that a stream of desired height is discharged upwardly from said nozzle and to close the switch 92 so as to energize the lamp 68 and the motors 45 and 72. The variable secondary windings 93 and 94 of the transformer 91 are ordinarily set so that the speed of the motors 45 and 72 is such as to cause the nozzle 34 to be oscillated and the filter wheel 80 to be rotated at the same speed. This speed may vary widely while still producing the characteristic color display of the invention, and speeds between 300 R, P. M. and 900 R. P. M. have been found to be especially effective.
The water discharged from the nozzle 34 produces a spiral stream 100 made up of water droplets which are in free flight upwardly from said nozzle. Each of these droplets travels upwardly from said nozzle along a trajectory, the character of which is approximately'indieated by the broken line 101. If an instantaneous photograph were to be made of the fountain 10 in operation, the spiral stream 100 would appear in the photograph as shown in Fig. 1. In other words, the successive turns of the spiral stream 100 are seen to be spaced apart along the axis A of the fountain 10, the interval between successive turns being substantially twice the vertical thickness of the stream 100. Bearing these facts in mind, it is to be noted that the spiral stream 100 is being generated continuously so as to progress upwardly while maintaining its spiral form. Thus each group of particles discharged from the nozzle 34, which is embraced within a halfturn B of the stream 100, travels upwardly successively through the positions occupied in stream 100 (Fig. 1) by half-turn C, half-turn D, half-turn E, etc.
The series of groups of particles comprised in halfturns B, C, D and E are all disposed towards the observer from axis A of the fountain. While there is some overlapping in the illumination of the spiral 100 as one light filter is followed by another in the path of the light delivered upwardly from the lamp 68, it may be said for practical purposes that the spiral stream 100 is subjected successively to periodical illuminations by one colored light at a time.
Now let us assume that the spiral stream 100 is positioned as shown in Fig. 1, while it is being illuminated with the color green by light from the lamp 68 passing through the filter 85 as shown in Fig. 6. Thus the halfturns B, C, D, E, etc. of the spiral stream 100 will all be illuminated green with these half-turns positioned as shown in Fig. -1. By virtue of the filter rotating at the same speed as the nozzle 34 oscillates, the next time the spiral stream is illuminated green, half-turn B will be in the position of half-turn C, half-turn C will be in the position of half-turn D, and half-turn D will be in the position of half-turn E.
As the fountain continues to operate, therefore, the observer will receive the optical illusion of seeing the areas 103 (Fig. 2) occupied by half-turns B, C, D and E in the total area 102 of the fountain 10 as constantly exhibiting the color green.
By the time the red filter 86 has arrived over the lamp 68 so as to illuminate the entire spiral stream 100 red, this stream will have moved upwardly from the position in which it is shown in Fig. 1 so that the half-turns B, C, D and E will occupy areas 104 (Fig. 2) disposed just upwardly from the areas 103 which were occupied, respectively, by these half-turns when positioned as shown in Fig. 1. As the periodical illumination of the spiral stream 100 with the color red will always find corresponding half-turns of this stream in the areas 104, the illusion experienced by the observer will also include the impression of seeing areas 104 of the total fountain area 102 constantly illuminated by the color red.
By the time the blue color filter 87 arrives over the light 68, the spiral stream half-turns B, C, D and E are still further advanced upwardly into areas 105 (Fig. 2) and as corresponding half-turns of the stream 100 always occupy these areas when the stream 100 is illuminated blue, by light from the lamp 68 passing through the blue filter 87, the illusion experienced by the observer also includes the effect of areas 105 (Fig. 2) being constantly illuminated with the color blue.
The composite illusion produced in the fountain 10, as shown in Fig. 2, is the constant illumination of the entire area 102 covered by the spray of said fountain in a pattern in which said entire area is divided on spiral lines into groups of areas each group comprising three areas each of which is constantly illuminated with one of the three colors embodied in the color filters 85, 86 and 87.
Where it is preferred to have the pattern shown in Fig. 2 remain fixed, a positive geared or chain drive connection as shown in Fig. 8 is provided between the mechanisms for oscillating the nozzle 34 and rotating the color filter Wheel 80 so that these always oscillate and rotate at exactly the same speed.
A modified drive system is shown in Fig. 8 in which a single motor 111 drives a filter wheel 112 by the latter being mounted directly on the motor shaft 113 which extends upwardly through a water-tight packing 114 and has a sprocket 115 by which it is connected, at a one-to-one ratio, by a chain 116 with a sprocket 117 fixed on a rotary nozzle 118 mounted on the inner race of a sealed ball bearing 119 fixed in a cup 120 fixed on the inner end of a tube 121 through which water is delivered to said nozzle, and which is fixed on a light stack 122.
The use of separate drives for the nozzle 34 and the filter wheel 80 is for the purpose of making it optional to either secure the oscillation of the nozzle and rotation of the filter wheel at the same rate or to actuate these at different rates. Where the nozzle 34 is oscillated at a slightly higher rate than the filter wheel 80 is rotated, the stable pattern shown in Fig. 2 is clearly manifested to the observer but appears to rotate in a given direction about the axis A of the fountain 10. This makes the various spiral elements in the pattern seem to either be screwing down into the fountain or screwing up out of the fountain. Producing an opposite variation in the rate of actuation of the nozzle 34 and the filter wheel 80 produces a rotation of the color pattern in the opposite direction around the fountain axis A.
The fountain 10 is exhibited with best effect when the upper end of the stack 25 is above the level of the eyes o r avaaiie of the observer and when the fountain is located out of doors with a clear space thereabove. This is because it detracts somewhat from the pleasure of seeing the fountain if the flashes of light produced by the rotation of the filter wheel 80 are caught by any surrounding surface so that they are visible to the observer. If thefountain is displayed in the open the light flashed upwardly from the lamp 68 brilliantly illuminates the fountain spray as shown in Fig. 2 and is dissipated upwardly without the observer being conscious of the periodical change in the illumination of the water spray 100.
While the invention is herein disclosed as embodied in a fountain discharging water in the form of a spiral stream, it is to be understood that it is capable of use in many other forms. While the successive discharge of groups of discrete particles in free flight through a lighted field is illustrated in Fig. l, with the groups of particles comprised in half-turns B, C, D and E which follow each other consecutively in free flight through the field 102,-it is not necessary to form a spiral stream in order to get an effect of this general character.
For instance, a sequence of groups of particles in free flight through a light field to perform the method of this invention may be produced by delivering water to a stationary nozzle through a valve which rapidly opens and closes thereby discharging water from said nozzle in spaced spurts each of which spurts would break up into a group of droplets as it left the nozzle and be spaced from other groups preceding and following it. Such groups can be directed upwardly, downwardly or at any angle desired. The operation of the valve controlling these spurts must, of course, be timed with a light filter performing the same function as the filter wheel 80 for illuminating the field through which said groups of droplets formed by said spurts are caused to travel. By such an arrangement, a stratification of the color areas in various shapes may be produced.
While the invention is applicable especially to liquid fountains, it may also be utilized in developing novel color patterns in connection with the discharge of solid discrete particles in free flight through a light field. For instance, light solid particles such as popcorn or pufled wheat may be dropped or blown through such a light field and illuminated repeatedly with different colors while in flight to produce such patterns.
It is also to be understood that the present invention may be applied to the illumination of a consecutive series of single discrete particles caused to travel through a light field and illuminated in accordance with the method of the invention thereby producing the illusion of lines of light exhibiting a substantially constant color pattern in which successive sections of each line are differently colored.
Referring to Fig. 1, it will be noticed that adjacent turns in the spiral stream 100 are spaced fairly widely apart in the lower portion of the spiral just above the nozzle 34 and that these turns thicken and slow up so as to approach each other as they proceed upwardly with constantly expanding diameter. Thus the adjacent turns of the spiral stream start out when first generated in distinctly spaced relation and then gradually come closer until they merge towards the top of the spiral.
In the lower portion of the spiral stream 100, the adjacent turns thereof are spaced apart a distance at least twice the vertical thickness of each turn. Thus the areas 102, 103 and 104 in which said turns are disposed when they are successively and repeatedly illuminated with one or the other of three colors do not substantially overlap each other. In other words, the particles in thegroups represented by adjacent half-turns of the spiral stream are to all practical purposes exclusively disposed in these respective areas of illumination at the times that these areas are illuminated respectively by said colors flashing consecutively one color at a time. Where the water particles in the successive half-turns are thus mainly confined within mutually exclusive areas during successive illuminations of the light field, these areas exhibit to the observer the illusion of being constantly illuminated by light of said respective colors.
As the vertical dimensions of adjacent turns of the spiral increase and the space between these decreases, as they move upwardly, an overlapping occurs of the adjacent areas in which each of these turns is illuminated successively with two diiferent colors, the result of this being that in the overlapping portions of said two areas a color is manifested which is the result of the mingling of the colors with which the particles in said areas were separately illuminated.
It is thus to be noted that while preferable to have the consecutive groups of particles located exclusively in different areas of the light field which the latter is successively illuminated by two different colors, it is quite practical and sometimes desirable to have the adjacent respective areas, in which a given group of particles is thus located while successively illuminated with lights of different colors, to have a marginal overlap and thus create a marginal band of a third color produced by combination of said first mentioned two colors.
The invention is not limited, therefore, to the consecutive groups of particles discharged into the light field being always disposed in mutually exclusive space areas in said field throughout the successive illuminations of said field.
These areas may overlap somewhat with the result of enhancing rather than diminishing the aesthetic merit of the fountain. Two things are needed to give the illusion of static individual coloring in adjacent areas of the fountain. One is the provision of space intervals between consecutive groups of particles. The other is timing the successive light flashes with the discharge (or movement) of said groups of particles, so that the repetition of the illumination of the light field with each given color finds the series of groups of particles always (about) in the same series of spaced areas in said field.
The flashes of light employed in this invention are substantially instantaneous in that each flash of light endures only a fraction of the time interval between the discharge of successive groups of particles in the formation of the fountain. If the fountain nozzle is rotating at 900 R. P. M. the time interval between the discharge of successive turns of the spiral spray forming the fountain would be about .06 of a second and the duration of each flash of light would be one-third of this or approximately .02 of a second. While these flashes of light naturally have duration, for practical purposes they may be said to be instantaneous flashes of light.
The claims are:
1. In a colored fountain, the combination of: means for discharging, in consecutive spaced relation, groups of discrete particles, at regular time intervals, in rapid flight along a given path through a given space field, there being, at any instant, a plurality of such groups in said field; means for brightly illuminating said field with light of a given color; and means for actuating said illuminating means in timed relation with said particle discharging means to repeatedly illuminate said space field and the groups of particles disposed in said field at the time of each illumination, with a rapid flash of said given colored light, the beginnings of the flashes of each consecutive pair of the same, being spaced apart by a time period which is substantially equal to said time interval, the duration of each of said individual flashes being sufliciently shorter than said time interval to prevent the space area, occupied by a given group of particles at the end of one illumination thereof with said given colored light, from overlapping the space area occupied by said group at the beginning of the next following illumination thereof with said given colored light.
2. In a colored fountain, the combination of: means for discharging, in consecutive spaced relation, groups of discrete particles, at regular time intervals, in rapid flight along a given path through a given space field, there being at any instant a plurality of such groups in said field; means for illuminating said field successively with light of difierent colors; and means for actuating said illuminating means in timed relation with said particle discharging means to repeatedly illuminate said space field, and the groups of particles disposed in said field at the time of each illumination, with a sequence of rapid flashes of colored light, each flash in said sequence having a distinctive color, the beginnings of successive sequer-res bein: spaced apart by a time period which is substantially equal to said time interval, the spacing between centers of successive groups of particles travelling through said field at a given point in said travel being substantially greater than the product of the depth of a single group of particles at said point, measured in the direction of travel of the same, multiplied by the number of flashes in each sequence.
3. In a colored fountain, the combination of: means for discharging, in consecutive spaced relation, groups of discrete particles, at regular very short time intervals, in rapid flight along a given path through a given space field: means illuminating said field with a series of instantaneous flashes of light of distinctly different colors in predetermined sequence, and means for actuating said means for illuminating said field in timed relation with saidparticle discharging means to illuminate said space field with said series of flashes during each such time interval, whereby each group is illuminated with light of a particular color only while it is moving through a series of predetermined spaced positions through which said group passes in its travel through said field, the positions in which said group is illuminated with light of one color being located between the positions in which said group is illuminated with light of a different color.
4. In a colored fountain, the combination of: means for discharging, in consecutive spaced relation, groups of discrete particles, at regular very short time intervals, in rapid flight along a given path through a given space field; means for illuminating said field successively with light of diiferent colors; means for actuating said illuminating means in timed relation with said particle discharging means to illuminate said space field duringeach such time interval with a given sequence of rapid flashes of colored light, adjacent flashes in said sequence having distinctly difierent colors; and means for varying the relative timing of said particle discharge means and said illuminating means to render said two means slightly out of phase and then bring them back into phase.
In a colored fountain, the combination of: a nozzle; means for oscillating said nozzle rapidly, whereby water supplied thereto under high pressure is discharged in the form of a spiral of water particles, adjacent turns of which spiral comprise groups of said particles which travel consecutively in spaced relation away from said nozzle; means for illuminating said spiral of water particles; and means for actuating said illuminating means in timed rela tion with said oscillation of said nozzle to illuminate said spiral only during the same fractional portion of each of the successive oscillation cycles of said nozzle with a flash of light, said repeated flashes of light giving said spiral the appearance of standing still in the area said spiral occupies during said illuminating flashes of light.
6. A combination as in claim 5 in which said illuminating means illuminates said spiral with a sequence of light flashes during each oscillation cycle, adjacent flashes in said sequence having distinctly different colors.
7. A combination as in claim 5 in which said nozzle is mounted for rotation about a given axis while inclined from said axis; and means for rotating said nozzle rapidly to produce oscillation thereof.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,728,456 Stuewe Sept. 17, 1929 1,802,082 Kloppe Apr. 21, 1931 2,537,048 Giblet Jan. 9, 1951