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Publication numberUS2730328 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 10, 1956
Filing dateDec 18, 1952
Priority dateDec 18, 1952
Publication numberUS 2730328 A, US 2730328A, US-A-2730328, US2730328 A, US2730328A
InventorsEastman Brown Guy
Original AssigneeEastman Brown Guy
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Deflecting tools
US 2730328 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 10, 1956 5. BROWN 2,730,328

DEFLECTING TOOLS Filed Dec. 18, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 I r I I II I W i I 1 l l I l i l 1 /7-\ l 6U [.Bro y INVEN B .62 mum/U A TTOR/VEKS Jan. 10, 1956 G. '2. BROWN 2,730,328

DEF'LECTING TOOLS Filed D80. 18, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Guy E. B r 0 W0 INVENTOR.

oL/ fi, ,6 M ATTORNEYS United States Pate'ntO 2,730,328 DEFLECTING TOOLS Guy Eastman Brown, Fayetteville, Ark.

Application December 18, 1952, Serial No. 326,694

7 Claims. (Cl. 2551.6)

This invention relates to new and useful improvements in deflecting tools.

One object of the invention is to provide an improved deflecting tool for effectively drilling a well bore at an angle from the vertical whereby directional drilling of the well may be accomplished.

An important object of the invention is to provide an improved deflecting tool adapted to be connected in the lower portion of a drill pipe or string and having normally retracted means which when expanded functions to constantly urge the lower portion of the drill pipe and drill bit attached thereto toward one side of the well bore, whereby subsequent rotation of the drill pipe and bit results in drilling the well bore at an angle with respect to the upper portion of said bore.

A particular object is to provide a deflecting tool in cluding an expansible deflecting element or shoe which is normally in retracted position and which is adapted to be moved into expanded or extended position merely by imposing the weight of the drill pipe thereon after the drill bit at the lower end of said pipe engages the bottom of the well bore; the arrangement assuring automatic actuation of the deflecting element when the drill bit -is on bottom and drill pipe weight is imposed thereon to commence the drilling operation. 7

Another obgect is to provide a deflecting tool, of the character described, wherein the deflecting element or shoe is non-rctatably mounted on the tool body when in a retracted position whereby the element may be properly oriented within the well bore; expansion of said element or shoe also functioning to release the shoe for rotation with respect to the tool body whereby the drill pipe, tool body and drill bit may rotate with respect to the shoe during subsequent drilling while said deflecting shoe remains in contact with the wall of the well bore and moves only in a longitudinal path within said bore as the drilling progresses.

Still another object is to provide a deflecting tool, of

the character described, having an improved deflecting element constructed of a plurality of pivoted members which are so arranged that maximum expansion of said element may be obtained with a minimum movement of the actuator which controls said expansion.

A further object is to provide a deflecting tool for connection in a drill pipe, which tool is simple in construction and yet extremely rugged so as to be capable of withstanding the vibration and jar occasioned by the drilling operation. 1

The construction designed to carry out the invention will be hereinafter described, together with other features thereof.

The invention will be more readily understood from a reading of the following specification and by reference to the accompanying drawings forming a part'thereof, wherein an example of the invention is shown, and wherein:

Figure 1 is a view, partly in section and partly in elevation, of a deflecting tool constructed inaccordance with the invention and showing the same connected in a drill pipe with the tool in its operating position,

Figure 2 is an enlarged transverse, sectional view of the upper portion of the deflecting tool with the deflecting element thereof in its retracted position, v

Figure 2A is a continuation of Figure 2, illustrating the lower portion of the tool,

Figure 3 is a fragmentary elevation, showing the mounting of the locking spring, and

, Figures 4, 5 and 6 are horizontal cross-sectional views, taken on the lines 4 4, 5-5 and 6-6, respectively, of Figures 2 and 2A.

In the drawings the numeral 10 designates the usual drill pipe or stem which is adapted to extend through the well bore W and which is utilized to impart rotation to a drill bit 11. The improved deflecting tool generally indicated at A and comprising the present invention is arranged to be interposed between the drill pipe 10 and the drill bit 11. The tool A includes a deflecting means in the form of deflecting elements or shoes B which are movable radially of the tool between a retracted and an expanded position. When in an expanded position the outer surfaces of the elements or shoes engage the wall or" the well bore W atone side thereof, as shown in Figure 1, and thereby function to urge the lower portion of the drill pipe 10 and the drill bit 11 in a direction which is opposite the points of contact of said elements or shoes with the wall. Upon subsequent rotation of the drill pipe and bit, the bit is caused to drill the bore at an angle with respect to the main portion of said bore with the shoes B maintaining a constantly applied lateral force against the bit during such drilling.

The deflecting tool A is clearly shown in Figures 2-6, and the upper end of the tool includes a drive housing 12 which has connection through a sub 13 with the drill pipe 10. The main portion of the bore of the drive housing is angular in cross-section toprovide a drive socket 14 and above the socket the bore is enlarged as illus trated at 15 whereby an internal annular shoulder 16 is formed between the socket and said enlarged portion. An elongate tubular mandrel 17 which forms the main support of the tool has its upper portion formed with a threaded pin 18 which receives a collar 19 on which suitable packing 20, preferably of the chevron type, is mounted. The packing is retained in place by a retaining ring 21. Obviously the collar and packing assembly forms an enlargement on the upper end of the mandrel 17 and this enlargement is slidable within the enlarged portion 15 of the bore of the drive housing. Movement of this enlargement relative to the drive housing is limited in one direction by the shoulder 16 and in the opposite direction by the lower end of the sub 13 (Figure 1), and thus the mandrel and drive housing have a telescoping connection which permits limited longitudinal movement of one with respect to the other.

Immediately below the threaded end of the mandrel, said mandrel is formed with an angular drive section 22 which, as shown in Figure 4, is slidably engaged within the drive socket 14 of the housing 12 to provide a rotative connection between the drive housing and the mandrel. The length of the section 22 is sufficient to maintain the rotative drive connection between the parts in all telescoping positions of the mandrel with respect to the housing. The mandrel extends throughout the length of the tool and has its lower end formed with a threaded pin 23 to which is secured a supporting coupling or sleeve member 24, and said coupling has connection through a suitable sub 25 with the drill bit 11 (Figure 1). An axial bore 17a extends entirely through the mandrel 17 and drilling fluid circulated downwardly through the drill pipe 10 may-flow downwardly through pin 18 at the upper the tubular mandrel or support 17, through the coupling 24, sub and to the drill bit in the usual manner.

The supporting coupling 24 has an annular bearing race ring 26 secured to its upper end and. suitable ball bearings 27 are supported on the ring. A supporting or lower collar 28 is rotatably supported upon the bearings 27, said collar having a bearing race ring 29 at its lower end. The upper portion 2800f the bore of the. collar 28 is of. a diameter slightly larger than the external diameter of the mandrel 17 and below the portion 28a the collar is counterbored as, indicated at 28b and 28cv forming internal shoulders 28d and 28a within the collar. An enlarged sleeve 30 is secured on the mandrel 17 and is disposed within the. counterbores off the collar,. being confined between the annular shoulder 28d of the collar, and an internal shoulder. 24a formed within th coupling 24. With this arrangement the. mandrel may undergo axial. movement with respect to the collar, Such movement being controlled by the spacing between the ends of the sleeve 30 and the shoulders 24a and 28d. To maintain axial alignment of the collar and to further reduce friction, additional ball bearings 3.1 and 32 are mounted in the counterbore 28c of the collar 28..with these bearings being spaced from each other by hearing raceway sleeves 33.

It will be evident that the collar 28 is rotatably supported upon the coupling 24 whereby thesaid collar may be held stationary while the mandrel and coupling may rotate to impart rotation to thedrill bit. As will be hereinafter explained, the collar 28 has connection with the deflecting shoes B, and it is necessary thatsaid collar be held against rotation while the shoes are in expanded position in contact with the wall of the bore. The collar 28 ismaintained in engagement with the supporting cou pling by means of a coil spring 34 which surrounds the mandrel 17. The lower endof the, spring engages hearing rings 35 which rest upon the upper end of a sleeve member 36, the lower end of said sleeve engaging the upper end of the collar. The upper end of the spring 34 is in engagement with bearing rings 35a which contact the lower end of a sleeve member 36a,.and obviously the spring is constantly urging the sleeves 36 and 36a in a direction away from each other.

The upper sleeve 36a engages the lower endof an actuatingcollar 37 which is-somewhat similar in construction to the lower collar 28. The actuating collar 37 rotatably surrounds the mandrel 17 and hasits upper end urged into contact with ball bearings. 38.disposed' between said collar and the drive housing- The lower end: of the drive housing hasa suitable bearingrace ring Mat-secured thereto while theuppercnd of the actuating collar has a similar bearingrace ring 29 1 mounted thereon. The actuate ing collar hasthe lower portion 370. of itsvbore ofa diametcr slightly larger than the mandrel 17 and is then counterbored at 37b. and 370, the internal construction of the actuatingcollar being substantially. the same as the internal construction of the lower-collar. An enlarged sleeve 39 is mounted on themandrelzbelow the drive section 22, and thissleeve is disposed within the counterbores of the actuating collar and, is-confined-hctween a shoulder 37d formed in said collar and an internal shoulder 12a formed within the lower end oftthe drive housing 12. It is thus evident that the actuating collar lower end of the drive housing 12 while the lower collar is maintained in constant engagement with the supporting coupling 24.

The deflecting shoes B are clearly shown in Figure 6, and each deflecting shoe is generally elongate and arcuate in cross-section with its rear surface being provided with longitudinal wall engaging ribs 40. The upper end of each deflecting shoe B is pivotally connected at 41 with an actuating link 42and' the upper end of each link is pivoted upon a pin 43 which extends transversely across a recess 44 formed in the lower portion of the actuating collar (Figure 3) The lower end of each deflecting shoe B is pivoted at 45 to a lower actuating link 46 and the lower end of saidlink is pivotally mounted on a pivot pin 47 which extends across a recess 48 provided in the upper end of the lower collar 28.

When the spring 34 is maintaining the collars at their limits ofv movement away from each other the links and deflecting shoes are in the position shown in Figures 2 and 2A, which is the retracted position of the deflecting shoes B. When the drill bit 11, which is connected to the supporting coupling 24, engages the bottom of the well bore W the downward movement of the supporting couplingand lower collar 28 is halted. The continued lowering of the drill pipe 10 and the drive housing 12 connected therewith imposes the weight of the drill pipe upon the actuating collar 37 and telescopes the drive housing and actuating collar with respect to the mandrel 17 and-the lower collar. As the actuating collar slides downwardly with respect to the mandrel and with respect to thelower collar 28, the distance between the pivot pins 43 and 47 of each deflecting shoe assembly is reduced, and this results in an outward swinging of the links 42 and 46, whereby the deflecting shoes B are moved radially outwardly to the position shown in Figure 1. Such radial expansion or outward movement of the defleeting shoes is eflected against the pressure of the coil spring 34, which is, of course, compressed during this operation. The telescoping movement of the drive housing 12. with respect to the mandrel continues until the shoes B contact the wall, and at this point the deflecting shoes B have engaged the wall of the well to urge the 1 lower portion of the pipe 10 and drill bit to one side of may undergo a limited axial movementwith respectto the mandrel. Foraxial alignment of the actuating collar on the mandrel, additional bearings 31a and 32a spaced apart by a spacer 33a are mounted within the counterbore 370 of the actuating collar.

From the foregoing it will be evident that the lower collar 28 and the actuating collar 37 are rotatably mounted upon the mandrel 17 and are eachcapable of a limited axial or longitudinal movement thereon. The. collars 28 and 37 are constantly urged in a direction away'from each other by means of the coil spring 34 so that the actuating collar is maintained in cohstant engagement with the the well bore. Thereafter, subsequent drilling may be carried out and the weight of the drill pipe is imposed upon; the bit, through the drive housing, actuating collar 37, sp1 ing 34 and lower collar 28. If desired the limit of movement between the drive housing and mandrel may be so arrang d-that the sub 13 may engage the upper endof the mandrel when the shoes B are expanded, in which event theweight of the drill pipe would be imposed upon the. bit directly through the mandrel.

The deflecting shoesB are disposed on the same side of the mandrel 17 and are illustrated as being located approximately apart, although this spacing is subject to; variation; actually, a single shoe would function satisfactorily and the invention is not to be limited to two shoes which furnish an amplified contact with the wall of the bore. The. engagement of the shoes B with the wall on one side of the mandrel results in constantly urging thedrill bit and lower portion of the drill pipe in a direction away from the side of the well bore engaged bysaid shoes, and thus, as drillingcontinues the bit is constantly urged. toward one side of the well bore to cause angular drilling. During such drilling operation theactuating collar, lower collar 28 and anchoring shoes are heldagainstv rotation and as drilling proceeds the shoes merely slide downwardly upon the wall of the bore; the shoes are-held in expanded position by the weight of the drill pipe whichv is imposed on the actuating collar.

It may bedesirable to orient the deflecting shoes into a known position within the well bore, and for this purpose the enlarged sleeve 39 on the mandrel is formed withra radial slot or recess 49, such recess being disposed in its lower edge (Figure 5). The recess is adapted to be engaged by a flat spring member or projection 50 which is secured to the actuating collar and which extends radially inwardly from the upper portion of the recess 44 within which one of the upper actuating links 42 is pivoted. When the deflecting shoes are retracted, as shown in Figures 2 and 2A, the spring member or projection 50 is engaged with the recess 49, and this locks the actuating collar and deflecting shoes against rotation with respect to the mandrel. Since the mandrel is rotatably connected at all times with the drive housing 12 and drill pipe, the drill pipe may be oriented into the hole to properly locate the deflecting shoes before actuation. If desired, the lower connecting sub 25 may carry a magnet 51 (Fig. 1), which magnet will bear a known angular relationship to the slot or recess 49. By well known bottom hole orienting means wherein an instrument is lowered opposite magnet 51, the azimuthal position of the recess 49 may be determined which will determine the position of the shoes prior to expansion or radial movement of said shoes. In this way the tool may be lowered with the parts in the position shown in Figures 2 and 2A, and after the position of the shoes is determined the tool may then be actuated to assure that the drill bit will be deflected in the desired direction. After actuation the downward movement of the actuating collar with respect to the mandrel will move the projection or spring member 50 out of the recess so that thereafter the mandrel may be rotated with respect to the actuating collar. After the deflecting operation has been carried out it is only necessary to move the drill pipe upwardly to relieve the actuating collar 37 of the weight thereof and the spring 34 will return the parts to a position retracting the shoes. If the orienting projection is employed this projection will engage the lower edge of the sleeve 39 and upon a rotation of the mandrel with respect to the actuating collar, the recess 49 will again be moved opposite the projection to reengage these parts.

The operation of the device is obvious from the foregoing with the tool A being connected in the drill pipe and the deflecting shoes in retracted position. Upon reaching bottom the weight of the drill pipe is imposed upon the actuating collar which results in expanding the deflecting shoes, and this applies a lateral pressure to the drill bit. Subsequent rotation of the pipe imparts rotation through the mandrel t the drill bit with the deflecting shoe assembly remaining stationary so far as rotation is concerned. So long as pipe weight is imposed to deflect the drilling the deflecting shoes are held in their expanded position. After the drilling operation is complete upward movement of the drill pipe permits the spring 34 to return the deflecting shoes to their retracted position whereby the assembly may be removed from the well bore.

Having described the invention, I claim:

1. A deflecting tool including, a tubular mandrel, a drive housing rotatively coupled to the upper end of the mandrel and mounted for limited telescoping movement relative thereto, whereby the housing may move longitudinally of the mandrel while maintaining a rotative drive connection therewith, a supporting coupling secured to the lower end of the mandrel and spaced from the housing, a lower collar rotatably mounted on the mandrel and supported upon the coupling, an actuating collar rotatable on the mandrel below the drive housing, a coiled spring surrounding the mandrel and confined between the lower collar and the actuating collar for urging said collars into engagement with the coupling and housing respectively, and a deflecting element pivotally connected with the collars and being disposed in a retracted position when the collars are at their outer limits spaced from each other, said deflecting element being moved radially outwardly when said collars are moved toward each other.

2. A deflecting tool including, a tubular mandrel, a drive housing rotatively coupled to the upper end of the mandrel and mounted for limited telescoping movement relative thereto, whereby the housing may move longitudinally of the mandrel while maintaining a rotative drive connection therewith, a supporting coupling secured to the lower end of the mandrel and spaced from the housing, a lower collar rotatably mounted on the mandrel and supported upon the coupling, an actuating collar rotatable on the mandrel below the drive housing, a coiled spring surrounding the mandrel and confined between the lower collar and the actuating collar for urging said collars into engagement with the coupling and housing respectively, movement of the housing toward the support coupling effecting a movement of the actuating collar toward the lower collar, a deflecting element extending longitudinally of the mandrel, and pivoted link-s connecting the upper and lower ends of the deflecting element with the actuating and lower collars whereby movement of said collars toward and away from each other eflects a radial movement of the deflecting member relative to the mandrel.

3. A deflecting tool including, a tubular mandrel, a drive housing rotatively coupled to the upper end of the mandrel and mounted for limited telescoping movement relative thereto, whereby the housing may move longitudinally of the mandrel while maintaining a rotative drive connection therewith, a supporting coupling secured to the lower end of the mandrel and spaced from the housing, a lower collar rotatably mounted on the mandrel and supported upon the coupling, an actuating collar rotatable on the mandrel adjacent the drive housing, a coiled spring surrounding the mandrel and confined between the lower collar and the actuating collar for urging said collars into engagement with the coupling and housing respectively, movementof the housing toward the support coupling effecting a movement of the actuating collar toward the lower collar, and a radially movable deflecting means having connection with the collars and operated by the movement of the collars with respect to each other, said deflecting means comprising a pair of longitudinally disposed deflecting shoes which are movable from a retracted to an extended position, each shoe having its upper end connected through a pivoted link with the actuating collar and having its lower end connected through a pivoted link with the lower collar, whereby movement of the collars toward each other imparts outward radial movement to the deflecting shoes.

4. A deflecting tool as set forth in claim 3, wherein the pair of deflecting shoes extend in parallel relationship and are disposed not greater than ninety degrees from each other in an annular path.

5. A deflecting tool as set forth in claim 3, together with an annular enlargement on the mandrel, said enlargement having a radially extending orienting recess, and a projection secured to the actuating collar and engageable in said recess, the position of the enlargement and the recess upon the mandrel being such that the projection is engaged within the recess when the deflecting shoes are in a retracted position for locking the actuating collar against rotation on the mandrel, movement of the actuating collar relative to the lower collar to effect radial outward movement of the deflecting shoes resulting in a disengagement of said projection from the recess, whereby the mandrel may thereafter be rotated independently of the actuating collar.

6. A deflecting tool as set forth in claim 5, together with means on the actuating collar for engaging a coacting means on the mandrel to latch said collar against rotation on the mandrel, said latch means being in engaged position when the actuating collar and the lower collar are at their outer limits relative to each other, movement of the collars toward each other which telescopes the actuating collar relative to the mandrel effecting a release of the latch means, whereby subsequent rotation of the mandrel may occur independently of said actuating collar.

7. A deflecting tool as set forth in claim 5, together 7 8 with a radially directed latching recess on the mandrel, to thereby disengage the projection from the latchingand a radial projection on the actuating collar adapted recessand allow rotation of the mandrel independently to engage the recess, the position of the recess on said of the actuating collar. mandrel =be'ing such that the projection is engaged therein to latch the actuating collar against independent rota- 5- References Cited in the file of this patent tion on the mandrel when the actuating collar and the lower collar are at their outer limits spaced from each UNITED STATES PATENTS other, movement of the actuating collar downwardly rel- 2,061,315 Brack etal Nov. 17, 1936 ative to the lower collar resulting in a downward move- 2,061,317 'Brack Nov. 17, 1936 ment of the actuating collar with respect to the mandrel 10 2,197,227 Strength Apr. 16, 1940

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2061316 *Dec 20, 1935Nov 17, 1936Brack John DDrill hole deflector
US2061317 *Jun 24, 1936Nov 17, 1936Louisiana Supply CompanyDirection changing drilling device
US2197227 *Oct 17, 1938Apr 16, 1940Strength Thomas CDirectional well drilling tool
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3098534 *Jun 14, 1960Jul 23, 1963Denver Wood MerlinDirectional drill with hydraulically extended shoe
US3129776 *Mar 16, 1960Apr 21, 1964Mann William LFull bore deflection drilling apparatus
US3156310 *Dec 7, 1959Nov 10, 1964Eastman Oil Well Survey CoStabilized knuckle joint
US3196959 *Aug 14, 1961Jul 27, 1965Kammerer Jr Archer WDirectional drilling apparatus
US5213168 *Nov 1, 1991May 25, 1993Amoco CorporationApparatus for drilling a curved subterranean borehole
US7216726 *Jun 10, 2002May 15, 2007Pilot Drilling Control LimitedDownhole fluid-tight flexible joint
US20030024742 *Jun 10, 2002Feb 6, 2003George SwietlikSteerable downhole tools
Classifications
U.S. Classification175/73, 175/45
International ClassificationE21B7/04, E21B7/08, E21B7/06
Cooperative ClassificationE21B7/062
European ClassificationE21B7/06C