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Publication numberUS2732305 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 24, 1956
Filing dateNov 7, 1950
Priority dateNov 7, 1950
Also published asDE941766C
Publication numberUS 2732305 A, US 2732305A, US-A-2732305, US2732305 A, US2732305A
InventorsRussell P. Easton
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Silver hal
US 2732305 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 24, 1956 s. RICHMAN ETAL 2,732,305

ANTI-HALATION LAYERS CONTAINING FATTY ACID AMIDES Filed Nov. 7. 1950 SILVER HAL/D5 E/l/Z/LS/O/V F/LM BASE ALKAL/ SOLK/EZE A/V77-HAL/J770V LAMS? CO/VTA/N/IVG /1 FA 777 40/0 AM/DE 0F FROM 8 70/8 CHRBO/V 1470445 SEYMOUR RIC/{MAN RUSSEL F. 14572? INVENTORS ATTORNEYS United States Patent ANTI-HALATION LAYERS CONTAINING FATTY ACID AMIDES Seymour Richman and Russell P. Easton, Binghamton,

N. Y., assignors to General Aniline & Fiim Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware Application November 7, 1950, Serial No. 194,57 9

12 Claims. (Cl. 95-8) This invention relates to anti-halation layers for photographic materials and particularly to such layers containing an alkali soluble resin.

The present day photographic materials, such as black and white and multilayer color films, have an anti-halation layer interposed between the support and silver halide emulsion layer, as an overcoating over the silver halide emulsion layer when such emulsion is exposed through the support, or as a backing layer, i. e., on the support opposite the silver halide emulsion layer. In order to prevent light scattering or the halation effects caused by reflection of light rays from the support on to the sensitized layer, the general practice in preparing such layers is to disperse or dissolve an anti-halation dye or pigment in a colloidal dispersion of gelatin or in a solution of an alkali soluble resin. In some films, such as motion picture film, the gelatin layer is undesirable not only because of its high coefficient of friction, its low abrasion resistance, and its lack of flexibility, but also because it offsets and blocks readily. Although alkali soluble resins are currently used to replace gelatin and have many advantages over gelatin, i. e., readily soluble in alcohols and in alkaline developers, they too, like gelatin, offset and block readily.

The primary object of the present invention is to provide a new anti-halation layer which will not offset and block.

Other objects and advantages will be apparent by reference to the following description in which its preferred details and embodiments are described.

We have discovered that the addition of a small quantity of a fatty acid amide of from 8 to 18 carbon atoms or mixtures thereof to an alkali soluble resin having dispersed or dissolved therein the usual anti-halation dye or pigment minimizes and, in most instances, precludes the highly undesirable effect of ofiset and blocking, i. e., the separation of'the anti-halation layer from the support and emulsion layer. This separation occurs whenever the film is wound or when the back layer and the emulsion layer are brought into contact with each other by some other means. As a consequence, the silver halide emulsion layer is covered by the offset anti-halation layer which is too difficult to strip off and leads to a film which for all practical purposes must be discarded as useless.

The concentration of the fatty acid amide or mixtures thereof may vary from to 50% of the weight of the alkali soluble resin. Inasmuch as all alkali soluble resins, i. e., those readily soluble in the usual alkaline photographic developing baths, are susceptible to offset and blocking, any one of them may be stabilized against these effects by the addition of the fatty acid amides. Resins of this type'are legion and no difficulty Will be encountered by those practicing this art to select any resin-for a particular film:

As illustrative examples of such resins, the following may be mentioned: The polymerization products of styrene and acrylic acid, vinyl isobutyl ether and maleic acid, vinyl butyl ether and maleic acid, and styrene and maleic acid disclosed in U. S. P. 2,077,789. The condensation products of phenoxyacetic acid and formaldehyde prepared according to the methods disclosed in U. S. P. 2,075,145, 2,089,764, and 2,282,890. The water soluble acid form of cellulose ace'tate-phthalate as described in U. S. P. 1,954,377. The polyvinyl phthalides containing a free carboxylic acid group as disclosed in U..S. P. 2,131,747 and the like.

Alkali soluble resins in which the acid groups are in the form of anhydrides as described in U. S. P. 2,161,788 may be employed. In addition, the copolymers of maleic acid anhydride and styrene, or vinyl butyl ether, vinylisobutyl ether, or vinylethyl ether may also be employed.

The anti-halation dyes or pigments which may be incorporated into the dispersion of the alkali soluble resin are well known and need not be illustrated in detail. However, as a guide, we have found that silver salts of hydroxyazaindolizines, such as 6 [5,7 disulfonaphthalene 1 azo] 7 hydroxy 5 methyl 1,3,4 triazaindolizine, 5 [3,5 dicarboxy phenyl 1 azo] 4- hydroxy-6-methyl-2,3,7-triazaindolizine, and the like, disclosed in U. S. P. 2,390,707; xanthylium dye salts, such as 3,9 dihydroxy 6 p-methoxystyrylxanthylium chloride, 3,9 dihydroxy 6 p diethylaminostyryhtanthylium chloride, 3,9 dihydroxy 6 p dimethylarninostyrylxanthylium chloride, and the like, disclosed in U. S. P. 2,461,485; pyrylium dye salts, such as 4(4-dimethylaminostyryl) 7 hydroxy Z-phenylbenzopyrylium chloride, 2,4 dihydroxy 2 styryl benzopyrylium chloride, 4-hydroxy-2-styrylbenzopyrylium chloride, and the like, as disclosed in U. S. P. 2,461,484; the triphenylmethane derivatives disclosed in U. S. P. 1,912,797, 2,098,891, 2,147,112, 2,150,695, and 2,282,890; the dyestuff combinations disclosed in U. S. P. 1,923,485; the methine and polymethine dyes disclosed in U. S. P. 2,268,798, 2,298,731, and 2,298,733; Prussian blue, titanium dioxide, manganese dioxide, carbon black, and the like, may be employed.

The only prerequisites imposed upon the anti-halation dyes and pigments are that they be readily dischargeable or dispersible in the usual photographic processing baths or optional alkaline pre-baths which may be used for the removal of the resin layer prior to development. As examples of suitable fatty acid amides and mixtures thereof, the following are illustrative:

Caprylamide Capramide Lauramide Myristamide Palmitamide Stearamide Oleamide Oetadecadieneamide The addition of any one or a mixture of the foregoing fatty acid amides not only precludes the undesirable effect of offset and blocking but precludes the formation of calcium or magnesium ions, especially when the processing solutions contain hard water. In our experiments to find suitable agents which would preclude offset and blocking, we have found that gelatin coated with chlorides of fatty acids and gelatin coated with alkali metal salts of fatty acids do not impart these characteristics.

In practicing the present invention, a 0.5 to 5% by weight solution of an alkali soluble resin which is readily soluble in the usual developing agents is dissolved in a lower alkyl alcohol or mixture of such alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, N- bntanol, and the like. To this solution is then added 0.2 to 4% by weight of an anti-halation dye or pigment. The concentration of fatty acid amide to be added to the dye solution may vary,

as pointed out above, between and 50% based on the weight of the alkali soluble resin.

In the accompanying drawing, the single figure is a sectional view of a photographic film constructed according to our invention. As shown therein, a film base has coated thereon, a layer 11 of a gelatino silver halideemulsion and on the opposite side, an alkali soluble anti-halation layer 12 containing a resin soluble in alkaline photographic processing solutions, an anti-halation dye and a fatty acid amide of from 8 to 18 carbon atoms.

The following examples described in detail the methods for accomplishing the above objects, but it is to be understood that they are merely inserted for the purpose of illustration and are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention. The parts given are by weight.

Example I Grams Polyvinyl isobutyl ether-maleic acid anhydride 2.0 Ethanol 48.0 Isopropanol 48.5

3,9 dihydroxy 6-p-methoxystyrylxanthylium chloride 1.5 Stearamide 0.5

The foregoing solution when coated as a backing layer on a base on which was coated the usual silver halide emulsion layer did not separate from the base when the film was wound.

8% palmitarnide 5% stearamide 5% oleamide This solution was coatedin the normal manner as an anti-halation backing of a film base containing the usual gelatino silver halide emulsion layer. When the film was tightly wound and stored for a period of six months, upon unwinding, no offset or adherence of the backing layer to the gelatino silver halide emulsion was noted.

Example III Grams Styrene maleic acid anhydride interpolymer 2.0 Ethanol 60.0 Isopropanol 36.0 Malachite green (C. I. 657) 1.5

Fatty acid amide mixture consisting of:

20% stearamide 60% oleamide 0.5 20% octadecadieneamide When this solution was applied as an anti-halation backing layer in the usual manner, it did not separate from the support nor did it adhere to the emulsion layer when the film was kept Wound for a period of thirty days storage under conditions of elevated temperature and humidity.

It will be understood that the term soluble in alkaline photographic processing solutions as used herein and in the appended claims is intended to include alkaline prebaths. which may be used for the removal of the resin layer prior to development.

We claim:

1. A light sensitive photographic element comprising a support carrying a gelatino silver halide layer, said element having an anti-halation backing layer comprising a resin soluble in alkaline photographic processing solutions, and having dispersed in said backing layer, a fatty acid amide characterized by the following general formula:

RCONI-I2 wherein R represents an aliphatic hydrocarbon chain of from 7 to 17 carbon atoms.

2. A light sensitive photographic element comprising a support carrying a gelatino silver halide layer, said element having an anti-halation backing layer comprising a resin soluble in alkaline photographic processing solutions, said backing layer having caprylamide dispersed therein.

3. A light sensitive photographic element comprising a support carrying a gelatino silver halide layer, said element having an anti-halation backing layer comprising a resin soluble in alkaline photographic processing solutions, said backing layer having lauramide dispersed therein.

4. A light sensitive photographic element comprising a support carrying a gelatino silver halide layer, said element having an anti-halation backing layer comprising a resin soluble in alkaline photographic processing solutions, said backing layer having stearamide dispersed therein.

5. A light sensitive photographic element comprising a support carrying a gelatino silver halide emulsion layer, said element having an anti-halation backing layer comprising a resin soluble in alkaline photographic processing solutions, said backing layer having palmitarnide dispersed therein.

6. A light sensitive photographic element comprising a support carrying a gelatino silver halide emulsion layer, said element having an anti-halation backing layer comprising a resin soluble in alkaline photographic processing solutions, said backing layer having dispersed therein a mixture of stearamide, oleamide, and octadecadieneamide.

7. A photographic element comprising a support carrying a photographic silver-halide emulsion layer and on the opposite side of said support an anti-halation layer comprising a resin soluble in alkaline photographic processing solutions, said anti-halation layer having dispersed therein, a fatty acid amide characterized by the following general formula:

RCONI-Iz wherein R represents an aliphatic hydrocarbon chain of from 7 to 1-7 carbon atoms.

8. A photographic element according to claim 7 Wherein the fatty acid amide is caprylamide.

9. A photographic element according to claim 7 wherein the fatty acid amide is lauramide.

10. A photographic element according to claim 7 wherein the fatty acid amide is stearamide.

11. A photographic element according to claim 7 wherein the fatty acid amide is palmitarnide.

12. A photographic element according to claim 7 containing dispersed in said anti-halation layer, a mixture of stearamide, oleamide and octadecadieneamide.

References Cited in the fileof this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,139,778 Slack et a1. Dec. 13, 1938 2,278,457 Marasco Apr. 7, 1942 2,533,514 Sawdey et a1. Dec. 12, 1950 2,572,988 Collins et a1. Oct. 30, 1951

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2139778 *Mar 1, 1938Dec 13, 1938Eastman Kodak CoAntistatic photographic film
US2278457 *Jul 13, 1939Apr 7, 1942Du Pont Film Mfg CorpNonhalation photographic element
US2533514 *Nov 19, 1947Dec 12, 1950Eastman Kodak CoPhotographic emulsions containing color couplers and amide coupler solvents
US2572988 *May 7, 1946Oct 30, 1951Ilford LtdProduction of colored colloid layers
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3206311 *May 5, 1961Sep 14, 1965Polaroid CorpStacked photosensitive elements
US3433638 *Apr 20, 1966Mar 18, 1969Fuji Photo Film Co LtdPhotographic light-sensitive films
US3990895 *Apr 23, 1974Nov 9, 1976Polaroid CorporationSilver halide, color screen elements and their use in forming negative color images and diffusion transfer positive silver images
US4275146 *Dec 10, 1979Jun 23, 1981Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Photographic photosensitive materials
US5529891 *May 12, 1995Jun 25, 1996Eastman Kodak CompanyPhotographic element having improved scratch resistance
US5541048 *May 12, 1995Jul 30, 1996Eastman Kodak CompanyLubricant particles, method of preparation, and photographic elements
US5956555 *Jul 27, 1998Sep 21, 1999Eastman Kodak CompanyResists scratching and wear and has excellent toner release properties to provide fused toner images having high gloss.
US6117611 *Dec 13, 1999Sep 12, 2000Konica CorporationImage forming method of a silver halide photographic light-sensitive material
US6153362 *May 14, 1999Nov 28, 2000Eastman Kodak CompanyOvercoat for reticulation control in photographic elements
US6165702 *Jan 18, 2000Dec 26, 2000Eastman Kodak CompanyImages with polymer particles
US6300045Jan 5, 2001Oct 9, 2001Eastman Kodak CompanyReflective support, silver halide photographic image layer on one side and overcoating
US6344310 *Nov 20, 1998Feb 5, 2002Eastman Kodak CompanyThin durable photographic element
US6468339Aug 23, 2001Oct 22, 2002Eastman Kodak CompanyAlumina filled gelatin
US6740480 *Nov 3, 2000May 25, 2004Eastman Kodak CompanyFor optical and digitally compatible silver halide imaging layers.
EP0439181A2 *Jan 25, 1991Jul 31, 1991E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And CompanyElement having improved adhesion of auxiliary layers to film supports containing antistatic layers
EP0789268A1Jan 29, 1997Aug 13, 1997Eastman Kodak CompanyImaging element comprising an electrically-conductive layer
EP0803767A1Apr 10, 1997Oct 29, 1997Eastman Kodak CompanyAqueous coating compositions useful in the preparation of auxiliary layers of imaging elements
EP2385425A1May 2, 2011Nov 9, 2011Fujifilm CorporationSilver halide photographic light-sensitive material for movie
WO2005062123A1Nov 25, 2004Jul 7, 2005Eastman Kodak CoImaging element having improved durability
Classifications
U.S. Classification430/514, 430/536, 430/531
International ClassificationG03C1/825
Cooperative ClassificationG03C1/825
European ClassificationG03C1/825