|Publication number||US2733088 A|
|Publication date||Jan 31, 1956|
|Filing date||Jan 31, 1952|
|Publication number||US 2733088 A, US 2733088A, US-A-2733088, US2733088 A, US2733088A|
|Inventors||L. H. Fisler|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (16), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
31, 1956 L. H. FISLER ETAL 2,733,088
DOOR LATCH OPERATING DEVICE Filed Jan. 31, 1952 3 Sheets-Sheet l 4 L INVENTORS HTFOP/VE Y L. H. FISLER ETAL DOOR LATCH OPERATING DEVICE Jan. 31, 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 31, 1952 I N V EN TORJ' L 4 END i 775% L)? Jan. 31, 1956 L. H. FISLER ETAL 2,733,083
DOOR LATCH OPERATING DEVICE Filed Jan. 31, 1952 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 FTTOPNEV United. StatesPatent DOOR LATCH OPERATING DEVICE Leland H. Fisler, New Britain, Nicholas A. Welch, West Hartford, and Frank J. McConnell, New Britain, Conn., assignors to The American Hardware Corporation, New Britain, Conn., a corporation of Connecticut Application January 31, 1952, Serial No. 269,168 12 Claims. (Cl. 292-1) This invention relates'to a door latch operating device and more particularly to a latch operating unit of the cylindrical type. v
The invention is embodied in a latch operating unit of the cylindrical type which-is insertable into .an opening extending latch unit which is disposed in a hole'in the edge of the door that extends perpendicularly to the axis of the said opening.
Conventional door latch operating units of the cylindrical type commonly comprise a basic unit in which the components forming the inner and outer portions of the unit differ in construction. In order to provide such units with different operating characteristics, or locking functions, it is necessary to disassemble the basic unit, remove some of the parts and substitute diiferent parts for the elements removed. Since each function requires parts that are different from the parts required in other functions, and the parts of the conventional basic units vary in form on the inner and outer sides of the units, it has been necessary for the manufacturer to' produce and maintain a large supply of parts which can be assembled into the basic unit in order to provide the locking function called for. This procedure renders the lock expensive to manufacture and difiicult to produce. In addition, when it is desired to change the function of a lock after 'it has been installed upon a door, it becomes necessary to obtain many new parts or to purchase an entire new lock since it is often found that the parts of the original lock can not be used with the parts required for the new function.
An object of this invention, therefore, is to provide a transversely through a door for operating a.
door latch operating unit of the cylindrical type com prising a basic unit which is constructed of parts that are identical on both the inner and outer sides of the unit. A further object of this'invention is the provision ofa basic operating unit whose construction remains thesame for all functions of theunit tothereby eliminate the necessity of disassembling or changing the construction of the basic unit to provide the various functions."
A still further object of the invention is the provision of a basic operating unit into which parts may be inserted to change its function without disassembling the entire unit.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a cylindrical latch operating unit which is rendered inexpensive to manufacture by having the majority of parts for the various functions identical and thereby eliminating the necessity of manufacturing ormaintaining a large parts inventory. a 5 r Further objects and advantages of this invention will be more clearly understood from the-following tion and the accompanying drawingsin which:
Fig. 1 is a plan view of the basic latch operating unit with parts thereof in central horizontal section.
Fig. 2 is a similar view, but with additional parts in:
section, to more clearly illustrate the construction'of the Fig. 3 is a sectional end view on line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
descrip- Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view, on line 4-4 of Fig. 3, further'illustrating the construction of the operating unit.
Fig. 5 is a side view, partially in central vertical section on line 5-5 ofFig. 2.
Fig. 6 is a sectional end view of a portion of the latch operating unit on line 6-6 of Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 is a similar view on line 7-7 of Fig. 5.
Fig. 8 is an end view, partially in section, illustrating the construction of the knob retainer employed in our improved operating unit. a
Fig. 9 is a similar view illustrating the knob retainer in depressed position.
a Fig. 10 is an end view of a portion of our improved operating unit taken on line 10-10 of Fig. 1 and illustrating the construction of the casing thereof.
Fig. 11 is an exploded perspective view illustrating some of the parts of our improved latch operating unit and the relative positionswhich they occupy.
Fig. 12 is a fragmentary viewof a' portion of the latch construction shown in Fig. 2, illustrating a modification adapting the latch as an exit door structure.
Our improved door latch operating unit includes a bly of parts including an inner end plate 6 and an outer end plate 7 having integral sleeves 8 and 9 extending therefrom respectively. The end portion of each of said sleeves 8 and 9 is of a reduced diameter and it will be noted that the end plates 6 and 7 and their respective sleeves 8 and 9 are identical in form with the exception of a portion of the sleeve 9 which is provided with a screw thread 10.
Each of the end plates 6 and 7 is provided with oppositely disposed pairs of horizontal slots 11 for the recep tion of ears 12 and 12-a which project from the inner and the outer sides, respectively, of a retractor guide 13 which is in the form of a U-shaped member that is received between the plates 6 and 7. The forward edge of each of the ears 12 and 12-a is provided with a notch 14 which receives the'forward edge 11a of the corresponding slot 11, upon rearward transverse movement of the end plates relatively to the retractor guide, to,
thereby secure said end plates to'the guide in coaxial position and against axial movement relatively thereto.
The retractor guide 13 is provided with a pair of longitudinally extending grooves 15-15 in the inner surface of each of its leg portions 13a: and 13-b for the.
reception of ball members 16 which support a retractor 17 in the retractor guide 13. 1
The retractor 17 is formed of a single piece of sheet metal and includes an inner side portion 18 from whichbent inwardly'and extend across the retractor to provide rollback platforms 23-23 onsaid retractor, The portions forming the outer side, the rollback engaging portions ,and a portion of the inner side of the retractor are spaced apart to provide a slot 24 therein'to accommodate additional-parts which are insertable into the basic-unit to provide different operating characteristics. The outer ends of the retractorlegs 19 and 20-extend inwardly to. provide fingers 25 and 26 which engage a retractor bar extending from a conventional latch unit, not shown, .to transmit movement of the retractor to the .-latch bolt in am The outer surfaces ofithe' l s-1,9 and 20 of the retractor are grooved, as at 273 forthe reception of the;v
balls 16 which provide anti-friction bearings for the retractor trs facilitate its movement in the retractor guide 13. The balls 16 are maintained in proper relative position by cages 28-28 which are located between the legs of the retractor guide 13 andlthe legs of the retractor 17 as clearly illustratedinfigs. 3-andi Thelegs'ifi-a and 18.=b of. the retraeton guide: are: properlyspaieed: by the ears 12 and 12-a as they are inserted into the slots 11 inttheendz plates 6ands7' during assembly,- of theunitt to thereby provide the proper clearance for the;balls;1:6t
The: inner end. of the; retractor guide: i=3 has seemed thereto a spring support 29-fi'om1 which projects a pair of fingers Silt-30 that support. the rear ends of compressionlspringsflla 32i Th'e=free'ends;of the'spring32 project: into' the: retractor I7 and' engage; ears; 33-35= which extend from the opposite sides3s1+-3z4:oa.- Ll-shapedi guidememher 35 and; are: supported: by; the rollback-e gaging portions 23-23 of the retracton. Thtesides 34-34 ofithe-guid'e'. membersiiare spaced. apart a.distance:substantiallyi equal to: the: width: 0E the 510x24 and. extend: between the: sprihgsi tcr provide: guide: means; for. thevarie ous dogging bars; that: are: insertable' into the the. unit. It: willt. be understooict that the guide; rnerrrbee'35- is retained in the retracton'by-the: springs; 32-32 and said. springsnrge the. retractor outwardly. withrespect to the casing;
The innerxsleevr: 8 and the: outer? sleeve 9- are eachv provided.withtidentically formed; bearing members 36-36 which fit within. the sleeves, as. illustrated: in Fig; 2,.and: are prevented from rotating: relatively thereto by) means of tabs 37 which; are bent. inwardly from. each oil saidv sleevesv and projectinto: a slbt 38L- extending the length of. eachof saidlbearings. Movement? offe'ach of SaltiibEHI- ings 36 longitudinal. of: its. respective sleeve is. prevented; by meansof. a finger 39 which. is bent inwardlyfrom each of said. sleevesrinto. a-notch 411 formed in the: rean edge of each of sa'ichbearihgs;
The bearing 36 in each of said sleeves 8 and 9Y0 tatably supports a= tubular spindle member: 415 which. provides an inner and an outer: actuator for the. retractor. Each ef'the spindles 41-41 is identioal inform and has: a segmental portion 42 projecting therefrom into the casing 5. The: opposite edges: 05 said portions 42- are bent outwardly to providerollbacl portions -43-43 which engage the:platforms 23-23 of the retractor to both limit the: outward: movement of the retractor under the' force of the spring-s32 and cause retraction thereof when either of the spindles i's rotated. The outer; ends of the spindles contain notchesAl-a and 41-h for the receptionof other meehanism wliich isinsertable into said spindles to provide thevariousdbclting fhnctions required.
Each of the spindles- 41-413 carriesathrust washer 44-which; as fully=disclosed in 'thecopendi'ng application of Franlt J'=. McConnell, Serial No: 275,618, filed March 8, 1952, is in the form of an annular ring having an opening 44'-a' therethrough into which the spindle projects. Theopening 44-a' has radial lugs 45-45 which enter notches-46-46 inthe' end of-the-spi'ndle and extendbehind the rollbaclc portions 43 -4? to-th'ereby'prevent axial movement'of' the spindle relatively totlie'thrust washer; As-ill'ustratedi'n Figs. 2 and i i't'will be'noted that the thrust washers lie' between the sides of the legs of" the retractor guide andthe ihner surface of the end plates to t thereby permit rotatiorr of'tliewasher witli i't's spindle; but prevent axial movement thereof Tn order to provide theproper. clearance between the sides of theretractorguide and the end plates toprevent Bihdihg of thethrust washers, the; said retractor has lateral extensions 13'-c' and 13-d thereonwhichengage saidemf plates. Each. of: said spindles carriesa' l'tnob 47 having-a shank 48: extending: therefrom which receivesthe spindle and. enters'the' reduced portion of the sleeves=8 and 9 to-pro-- vide: a bearing for the out'er' end of the spindles ZIS llllIlS* trated in Fig. 2. Each of the knobs is identically eorrstructed. and 5 the-.shanl portions: thereof have a projection 49 which extends into a slot 50' running' the length of tfie spindle to thereliy prevent rotation of the knob relatively to the spindle.
In order to prevent removal of the knob from its spindle we have provided aanovel knob retainer of the type fully described in the copending application of Leland H. Fisler, Serial No. 303,529, filed August 9, 1952, which is in the form offasemiizircular catch 51 which is positionedinthe interior ofthe spindle and has a tongue 52 projecting therefrom through a slot 53 in the spindle into-a slot 54 in the: knob shankas: illustrated in Fig. 8.
Thecatch 511 has alateral; extension. 55 on one end thereof: which. projects into a slot 56* in the spindle to thereby provide a guide fo'rtlie' catch. The other end of the catch. lies against an ear 57- which isbent inwardly from the spindle and pivotally supports the catch to permit movement from its retaining position, illustrated in Fig. 8, to its depressed position illustrated in in Fig. 9. The catch is urged into locking position by means of a springcSS which extends longitudinal of the spindle and is supported therein; by bridging members- 59-59 1 formed in the spindle. The spring is retained in position by hend' in'g aportionofiit' downwardly'hetiveen the bridging members'. as illustrated at A guard 61 isabent inwardly to preventinterference of the springwith parts of the locking: mechanism wliichare insertahl'e into the spindle;
Ih orderrto assemble.- the parts of our'novel operating unit, the guide member 35 is first inserted into the retractor and. the; springs: 32 -32- are then placed on the fingers: 30-302 oft the spring support 29'. The retractor 147." is: inserted: into the retractor guide 13 with the balls L and:tlie'-cages.28=improper position. The thrust washersa 44K are: then: placed. uponi the spindles 41' by passing them: over" the; enrh of; the: spindleuntil the lugs 45-45 areilocatedi hehindithe rollback portions 43-43 and in the notches 46-461 The-spindle is compressed slightly andl il'lt,-W8Sh61'"i$fth6llfpassettonto theend of the spindle. The:inherentresiliencysof the spindle will retain the washerin: position thereon and: yet: allow: a small degree of movement oh the washer: relativelythereto to permit proper. alignment. ofi thepantsv as. they" are assembled into the-operating-unit.
The spindles are inserted into. their" respective sleeves and through; the bearingimemben'36i. Interference from thetongue'52on' the knoli catchz51 isiavoided bydepressing; the catchtto permit; it: to. pass? diroughtthebearing 36 whereupon thespning SS WiIk pizojectiit to itsn'ormal position The: end plates; 6-: and 7' are: then placed upon the ears;12-and-l2-airespectivelys'ofi the retractor'guide and.
whenalocatediagainsu the. SldCSz'Of, the'guiiie theya're moved rearwardly relatively to the guide:so as to bringrthe edges lit-a ofv the slotsl-linto-themotches I4=thereby locating the. entire' assembly in the:- proper: position: with. the rollback portions, 43-43; ini engagement with the portions 23-23- of the retraoton. 'Whcrn theaend plates. are thus assembled to. the: retractor guide, the: nearward portion ofi' then guide;, which joins the: legs thereof, and. the forward. free.- ends: of! said; legs are: substantially flush with.
theperipheral edges of. said end plates as clearly illustratedintFig. 3.
Thev retractor 1-7.- is.-then; depressed against the' springs 32-32 and a cup-shaped cover 62 is passed over the entire. assembly, to.thepositioniillustrated.in Figt 1 wherein the.tabs.63.projecting fromtthe cove: are bent downwardly over; the outer. end plate. '1- tothereby permanently secure the cover. iii. assembledpositionr Ittwilltbeiseena from; Fig. 3; that thev annular: walhof thm cover: 62: fits? closely around the assembled end plates and retractor guide-and'prevents relativetransversei movement. thereof: and: disengagement of the; connecting: meansz therefor: The surface of; the cover 62 containsaanzopeninptiitathroughtwhich.thefingers 25; andi 26 oh the: retractorr normally project so as to permit engagementofi saidfingers: with the retractor bar im the: latch: uniti which. is guid'erh into position relatively tothe latehoperating unit by edges -65 of the" opening 64 in the conventional manner. The end wall sesame 66 of the cover 63 contains a rectangular opening 67 to provide a clearance for the inner sleeve 8.
The latch operating unit is properly located in the hole extending through the face of the door by means of outer and inner circular clamping plates 68 and 69 respectively.
The outer clamping plate 68 has a threaded sleeve 68-a projecting perpendicularly therefrom which is threaded to the sleeve 9 to permit axial adjustment of the clamping plate relatively to the casing to adapt the unit to doors of different thicknesses. The outer clamping plate also has a pair of spurs 70-70 projecting therefrom which pierce the door and prevent rotation of said plate .by persons attempting to remove the unit from the outer side of the door. A decorative rose 71 is permanently secured to the clamping plate and projects outwardly therefrom over the sleeve 9.
Before the latch operating unit is inserted into the hole in the door and into engagement with the conventional latch unit projecting into said hole from the edge of the door, the outer clamping plate is placed over the end of the outer spindle 41, but is not threaded onto the sleeve 9. The shank 48 of the outer knob 47 is then placed over the outer spindle with the projection 49 thereon in alignment with the slot 50 in the spindle. The knob is pressed onto the spindle until the end of the shank engages the tongue 52 of the knob catch 51 which projects through the spindie. The said tongue, which is accessible through a slot 72 in the sleeve 9, is then depressed with a suitable tool, as illustrated in Fig. 9, and the knob shank is urged inwardly on the spindle until the slot 54 in said shank is in alignment with said tongue whereupon the spring 58 will project the tongue outwardly through said slot 54 and lock the knob to the spindle.
The clamping plate 68 is then threaded onto the portion of the sleeve 9 and properly adjusted thereon in accordance with the thickness of the door. The entire unit is then inserted into the hole in 'the door and moved therethrough until the clamping plate 68 abuts the outer surface of the door.
The inner clamping plate 69 has an annular raised portion 73 which projects into the hole in the door and prevents movement thereof relatively to the door. The said plate is further provided with oppositely disposed pairs of openings 74 which receive the ears 12 projecting from the retractor guide to permit immediate alignment of the holes 7575 in said plate with threaded holes 7676 in the end plate 6. An opening 77 is formed in said clamping plate 69 to receive the sleeve 8 and said opening is bounded by outwardly extending arms 78 which are bent from said plate and engage the sleeve 8 to supportthe inner end of the operating unit.
The inner clamping plate is provided with a detachable rose 79 which is secured to the plate in the conventional manner.
After the operating unit is in proper position in the door, the inner clampingplate is passed over the end of the inner spindle and the sleeve 8 and rotated until the openings 74 are in alignment with the ears 12 extending from the retractor guide. The clamping plate is then moved onto said ears and screws 80-80 are inserted through the holes 75-75 therein and threaded into the holes 7676 in the end plate 6. The screws 8080 are tightened thereby drawing the outer and inner clamping plates securely against the door to properly position the lock therein.
The inner rose is passed over the end of the inner spindle and the inner knob is applied thereto in the same manner as the outer knob; access to the inner knob catch 51 being had through the slot 72 in the sleeve 8. The inner rose 79 is then secured to the clamping plate 69 and the installation is complete.
It will be noted that the inner rose 79 and the outer rose 71 project outwardly from their respective clamping plates and over the sleeves 8 and'9 to thereby cover the slots 72-72 in said sleeves and prevents access to the knob catches 51. This is of particular importance on the outer side of the lock, where the rose 71 is permanently secured to the clamping plate, since it prevents removal of the outer knob by unauthorized persons attempting to force entry into a house when our improved operating unit is used as a door lock.
It will also be understood that by securing the end plates to the .retractor guide through the engagement of the ears 12 and 12-a with said end plates, the operating unit is rendered extremely strong since all of the end thrust applied to the knobs is carried by the retractor guide and not the cover 62 thereby making it possible to reduce the thickness of the material forming the cover and conseqnently provide a saving in the cost of manufacture.
It will be understood from the above description that our improved latch operating unit is constructed of parts which are identically formed thereby reducing the cost of manufacturing the unit. Furthermore, by simply re-- moving the knobs from the spindles and inserting various parts into the spindles the operating characteristics of the basic unit may be changed to provide many different lock functions according to the use to which the lock is put.
It will be understood that the mechanism disclosed herein is adapted for use in doors which do not require a lock since rotation of either of the knobs will rotate its respective spindle and through engagement of the rollback portions on the spindle with the portions 23 or 24 of the retractor will cause retraction of said retractor to withdraw the bolt and permit opening of the door.
By merely bending the tab 37 in the outer sleeve 9 downwardly into the slot 50 in the outer spindle, as illustrated in Fig. 12, the basic passage unit may be transformed into a lock for an exit door since the sides of the slot in said spindle will provide abutments which engage the tab to prevent said spindle from turning and it is, therefore, inoperative to retract the retractor while the inner spindle remains operative at all times.
In addition to providing a cover for the knob catch 51 to secure said catch against release, the outer rose 71 also prevents access to the tab 37, when the unit is installed upon a door.
1. In a door latch operating device, an assembly comprising a separate substantially U-shaped member including an upper and a lower leg and a portion connecting said legs, an inner and an outer end plate disposed against the opposite sides of said member, cooperative means on said end plates and said member for locating said end plates co-axially with respect to each other, an
outer casing closely fitting around said assembled end plates and membenand means on said casing engaging said end plates and holding said end plates and member in assembled relationship.
2. In a door latch operating device, an assembly comprising a separate substantially U-shaped retractor guide including an upper and a lower leg and a rearwardly disposed portion connecting said legs, an inner and an outer end plate disposed against the opposite sides of said retractor guide, means detachably connecting said end plates to the opposite sides of said guide and holding them against axial movement relatively thereto, and a cover member positioned over and closely fitting around said assembled end plates and guide and holding said plates and guide against disengaging movement which would cause separation of said connecting means.
3. In a door latch operating device, an assembly com prising a separate substantially U-shaped retractor guide, ears extending from the opposite sides of each of the retractor guide legs, an inner and an outer end plate disposed against the opposite sides of said retractor guide and having slots therethrough to receive said ears whereby said end plates are positioned co-axially with respect to each other against the sides of said guide, an outer casing closely fitting around said assembled retractor guide and end plates, and means on said casing engaging said end plates and holding said retractor' guide and end plates in assembled relationship.
4. In a door latch operating device, an assembly comprising a separate substantially U-shaped retractor guide, ears extending from the opposite sides of each of the retractor guide legs, an inner and an outer end plate disposed against the opposite sides of said retractor guide and having slots therethrough to receive said ears, means detachably connecting said end plates to said ears, and an outer casing closely fitting around said assembled retractor guide and end plates, the walls of said casing holding said retractor guide and end plates in assembled relationship.
5. In a door latch operating device, a casing comprising a separate substantially U-shaped retractor guide including upper and lower forwardly extending legs and a rearwardly disposed portion connecting said legs, an inner and an outer end plate disposed against the opposite sides of said guide, interengagea'ble connecting means for said end plates and said retractor guide engageable by relative transverse movement between said guide and end plates for securing the end plates to the opposite sides of the guide, and a cover member positioned over said assembled end plates and guide, and holding said plates and guide against disengaging movement which would cause separation of said connecting means.
6. In a door latch operating device, a casing comprising a separate substantially U-shaped retractor guide, including upper and lower forwardly extending leg portions and a rearwardly disposed portion connecting said leg portions, an inner and an outer end plate at the opposite sides of said guide, interengageable connecting means for said end plates and said retractor guide engageable by relative transverse movement between said guide and end plates for securing the end plates to the opposite sides of the guide, the opposite ends of said retractor guide, when in assembled and connected position, being substantially flush with the adjacent edges of said end plates, and a cover member positioned over said assembled end plates and guide to prevent transverse disengaging movement thereof and disengagement of the end plates from the opposite sides of the retractor guide.
7. In a door latch operating device, a casing comprising a separate U-shaped guide having ears extending from the opposite sides of the upper and lower legs thereof, an inner and an outer end plate disposed against the opposite sides of said retractor guide and having slots therein through which said ears extend; the corresponding edges of said ears each 'being provided with a notch which is disposed in alignment with its respective end plate and is adapted to receive the edge of the respective slot therein upon lateral movement of said end. plate relatively to the guide to secure said end plates against axial movement relatively thereto, and means normally retaining said end plates and. guide in engagement.
8. In a door latch operating device, a casing comprising a separate substantially U-shaped retractor guide having an upper and a lower forwardly extending leg and a rearwardly disposed connecting portion, a plurality of ears extending from the opposite sides of said legs, an inner and an outer end plate disposed against the opposite sides of said guide and having slots therein through which said ears extend; the corresponding edges of said ears each having a notch therein disposed in alignment with its respective end plate and adapted to receive the edge of the respective slot in said end plate upon lateral movement of said end plate relatively to said guide to retain said end plates against axial movement relatively thereto; the opposite ends of said retractor guide being substantially flush with the adjacent edges of said end plates, a cover member extending over said end plates and normally engaging the opposite ends of said guide to prevent relative lateral movement thereof and disengagement of said end plates from said notches, and means on said cover member retaining it in position.
9. The subject matter set forth in claim 3, wherein the slots in said end plates are spaced apart a predetermined distance to properly space the upper and the lower legs of the retractor guide when said ears are inserted thereinto.
.10. In a door latch operating device of the kind normally including a casing having retracting means therein, and an inner and an outer spindle rotatably carried by said casing for operating said door latch, an abutment means on said outer spindle; a bendable spindle locking means carried by .said casing adjacent to and in alignment with said abutment means when the outer spindle is in normal relaxed position, said locking means being bendable into engagement with said abutment means to prevent rotation of the outer spindle and thereby convert said device to an exit door latch operating device.
11. In a door latch operating device of the kind nor mally including a casing having retracting means therein, and an inner and an outer spindle rotably carried by said casing for operating said door latch, an inner and outer end plate, an inner and outer sleeve extending from each of said end plates respectively, said inner and outer spindles being journalled for rotation in a corresponding sleeve, a slot in the outer spindle; a bendable spindle locking means on the outer sleeve, said locking means being adjacent said slot and bendable into engagement therewith to prevent rotation of the outer spindle and thereby convert said device to an exit door latch operating device.
12. A door latch operating device as set forth in claim 11, wherein said spindle locking means is in the form of a tab that is formed integrally with the outer sleeve.
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|U.S. Classification||292/1, 292/169.14, 292/169.22, 70/464, 292/336.3, 70/448|
|International Classification||E05C1/16, E05C1/00|