|Publication number||US2733789 A|
|Publication date||Feb 7, 1956|
|Filing date||May 16, 1950|
|Publication number||US 2733789 A, US 2733789A, US-A-2733789, US2733789 A, US2733789A|
|Inventors||Hubert Femand Tolle|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (14), Referenced by (19), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 7, 1956 H. F. TOLLE 2,733,789
WATERTIGHT JOINTS FOR GLAZING AND THE LIKE Filed May 16, 1950 2 Sheets-Sheet l K 7L 76% Huem' TERNM/DLLE ag: ybzfw Feb. 7, 1956 H. F. TOLLE WATERTIGHT JOINTS FOR GLAZING AND THE LIKE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May 16, 1950 y U'Hvenl-or.- Hamam" FMA/Alva TOLLE.
United States Patent() -WATERTIGHT JOINTS FOR GLAZING AND THE LIKE Hubert Fernand Tolle, Paris, France, assignor to `Societe "Anonyme des Automobiles Peugeot,- Paris, France, a
French body corporate Application May 1s, lasavserial No. 162,230
Claims priority, application France May 20, 1949 9 Claims. Cl. 189-l7'8) Theiinvention relates to -improvementsin watertight joints for glazings and their process of manufacture. It relates more particularly toglazings for motor car bodies, such as wind-screens, rearwindows, port deadlights, etc., as Well as `building glazings, consisting-of one, 'two or -several parallel panes.
The Vinvention is concerned with glazings consisting of sheets or plates of conventional or-hardened-glass,
safety laminated glass consisting of -several glass sheets glued together by an intervening film of plastic material a'iidit hasforits object-` to provideat thepe'riphe'ry thereffof fai watertight rnbberjoint.
" Considering -the particularcase where-a windisereen i-isdo'ibe mounted 'insideitsframegaspeciie object of Sthelin'v`ent-ion consists lin providing a'jjo'int which, onthe Yonefiialiidj will halve such" a'f1"e's`iliency "as'A to`-protect Athe wind-screen as much asposib'leagainstshocksand Avibra- -'ti' `ns;und;I mathe utherihand; 'will e' thoroughly "watertightiin ordento preventrain fmltle'aing into't-he 'car. 'Theefonvenfional r'nefhodffconsi'sts in engagingthe Vedges -fofft fwinds'dreenlinto the rabbet-of alri-'lbberjointniem- Pbergtalg'lue being "interposedjfand lsect ngi thel whole -lin a metallic mounting. After the glue-@hasibeen-allowed *to dry ,forl a'suitableltime, the jointfislsupposedito'tpr -fvide the de'si'red v'wat'erti'ghtrlessw- *Actually this'f method certain metals or alloys, andfthat'fglassfcanbecoated With' 'highly adherent 'metallic tlayers "accordingito well @known processes.
= il he process f according :toj thel invention' `es'seiftia'lly'lcon- As a rule, between the metal and the rubberiis'inter- .p'osed-I a; |glue which, byrdryingrfubaking,polymerization l"or ivulcanizatiomfetc. will adherebothlto-"ietal and natural: orLs'ynthetic rubber.
YMInstead .offmoulding or otherwise prefrrriing-fthe rub- `-sbjer .joint element, the vulcanizing operation, vliichf 1resquires- Ya' vulcanizing mould, :will =be'advantageous]ybmzbined lrvitlifthe mouljdingeoperation.
'these'arrangements secure a perfect watertightness'between glass and rubber anda satisfactory watertightness 2,733,789 1tPaiV-.ented Feb. '7, 1956 ice sists in `inserting into a suitably shaped vulcanizingmould the ymetal-platedmargins of a glazing, either single or made'up, of several'glass panes rseparated by' suitable marginal distance'pieces, and unvulcanized rubber, in
moulding said rubber in position around the glazing while simultaneously cementing the rubber to the metal-plated margins of the glazing by vulcanization.
This improved process not only' avoidsthe necessity for a preforming operation (moulding, extruding or rolling) 4of the joint,l 'but it affords some other :important ladvantages: as therubber joint is shaped over the `periphleryv of the glazing, distortion and abnormal stresses which are often responsible'for the lack'lof watertightness or the short duration ofjthe' joint, particularly "in rounded parts having a small"radius,a`re lcompletely avoided.
Moreover, watertightness'is as leiicient with a glass sheet, the surface of which'is formed withY intaglio or relief designs (chequered, rippled, corrugated`,"hammered and the`like)i`as'with glass panes or plates having a smooth surface.
Moreover, the need for a cementng operation in order 'to assemble together the ends of the joint girdle is avoided.
Furthermore, this yprocess permits of producing: a rubberframed glazing havingthesame precision .in the dimensions as vthe frame adapted to accommodate the glazing The periphery of the joint vmay `be formed with packing ribs adapted to "be compacted Within the rabbetof the frame upon mounting or with slits or grooves adapted to accommodate projecting ribs onthe window or frame;
between the rubber joint and the rabbet ,of the frame. 'Further features of the invention will -be apparent from kthe following description, withrefe'rence tothe attached drawings, whichishow, `by"waygof example, several embodiments of the invention and in which:
` Fig. l'is' a diagrammatic cross-sectional view of' a mould used for manufacturing a joint according to the in ventiom'the4 mould being shown in the open position.
Fig. 2`is a view similar lto Fig. 1, showing the mould in the closedoperative position.
Fig. 3 is alpartial perspective View of a rubber-girdled glazing.
Fig. 4 isa cross-sectional view of a part ofthe glazing, mounted Within itsframe. p
Figi 4a is a View similar to Fig. 4,`showir 1g a modiiication. l
Fig. 5 is a diagrammaticalview `of' a length of 'such a joint,VA with cross-sections atthe ends, to show a joint moulded on a glazing having .an irregular edge.
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatical section of a joint formed V-on the edge of adouble glazing.
i on the edgesofwhich a rubber joint is to beformed. -For this purpose, a marginal` vportion of the glazingis coated over a suitable"width [with a metal layer 2., 2a,
' onf each face of `the glazing,` by one ofthe well known metal-depositing processes, in order to-l providean anprove the-surface bonding of rubber by vulcanization, as is well known in the art. This glazing is then inserted into a vulcanizing mould, consisting for instance of two halves 3 and 4, which, when they are brought close together (Fig. 2), are in contact along their marginal walls ab, a'b. Recesses such as 5, 5a, 6, 6a, 7, 78', facing each other are adapted to form, whenthe mould is closed, a small recess 8, a large recess 9 and a slot 10, the latter accommodating glazing 1 with a certain amount of clearance. The halves 3 and 4 of the mould are pro vided with heating means, for instance steam ducts 11.
To vulcanize a joint on the glazing, a strip 12 of non-vulcanized rubber is laid into recess 6a, the glazing is laid in position, and another strip 13 of non-vulcanized rubber is laid on the metal-plated margins of the glazing. Then the mould is closed, and the required pressure is applied, for instance by inserting the moulds between the plates A and B of a hydraulic press (Fig. 2). The amount of rubber which is introduced into the mould should be in excess over the capacity of recesses d and 9, so that the surplus of plastic unvulcanized rubber is extruded or expelled, as the mould is closed, between the walls of slot and of glazing 1, thus forming two thin iilms of rubber 14, 14a and possibly two beads 15, 15a. In this way, recess 9 will be with all security entirely filled with rubber.
Then the mould is heated under pressure to the vulcanizing temperature, for the required time; the mould is thereafter opened and the glazing, framed with a strongly adhering rubber joint, is removed. A portion of such a rubber-girdled glazing is shown in Fig. 3. The rubber joint proper 16, is strongly joined to the metal layers 2, 2a, which, in turn, are joined to the glass in a very tenacious manner. On the contrary, the thin films 14, 14' and beads 15, 15a of extra rubber do not bind to the glass and they can be easily removed by cutting them ush with joint 16, as shown in ed, by means of any suitable cutting tool. In the small recess or groove 8 is formed a rib 17, the purpose of which will be apparent from Fig. 4. ln this gure, the glazing 1 is shown as mounted in the rabbet of a metallic frame 18, covering a wooden frame 18, for instance, the joint 16 being pressed into the rabbet by a covering strip such as 19, held by screws 20. The'peripheral dimensions of joint 16 and rabbet 18 are so selected as to leave the required clearance for an easy positioning of the glazing and to cause elastic deformation of the rib 17, which in this manner resiliently presses against the bottom of the rabbet.
Two or more ribs, such as 17, may also be provided, extending over one, two or three sides of the joint to improve the watertightness and to form a series of restricted passages opposing water leakage; these multiple ribs may form on the sides of the joint a kind of corrugation.
Instead ofv forming the joint with projecting ribs, it may be provided with grooves or slits such as 179' (Fig. 4a formed upon moulding and adapted to accommodate, with a tight tit, ribs such as 18a, projecting from the frame 1S. This device both improves watertightness and provides for the attachment of the joint inside the frame.
Fig. 5 shows that watertightuess is not affected by dimensional irregularities of glazing 1. It has been assumed in said tigure that the edge of the glazing has an irregularity efgh, strongly magnied in the drawing. It is seen that such an irregularity has no other effect, as illustrated in the endwise cross-sections through e and h, than a more or less deep penetration of the glass into the rubber.
Figs. 6 and 7 show how the process is used for making a double glazing, consisting of two panes or sheets of glass 21, 22 which an intervening marginal distance bar 23, providing an air cushion 24, the rubber joint 25 sealing the edge of the assembly.
For the manufacture of such a joint, the margins of panes 421, 22 are metal coated on their external faces only, as shown at 26, 27. The assembly is then placed in a mould similar to that of Figs. l and 2, with the rubber strips 12 and 13, which are adapted to form the rubber joint 2S, after moulding, vulcanization and removal of the surplus films such as 14, 14a and beads such as 15, 15a. Joint 25 may be provided with peripheral ribs such as 17 (Fig. 4).
It should be understood that the above mentioned process is by no means restricted to the embodiments previously described.
The glazing may be of any suitable shape, either at, or cylindrical or otherwise curved.
By glazing is meant any transparent or translucid glass object which is to be connected in a watertight manner with adjacent structural elements.
Manufacture of multicolour Stained-glass windows, cementing of glass blocks, etc. fall within the scope of the invention.
The nature of the metal to be deposited upon the glass surface will depend, of course, on its aptitude to binding with glass and rubber. Aluminum and its alloys, optionally plated with brass, is particularly well suited.
The thickness of the coating may be of about 0.5 to 0.15 mm. The metal layer in contact with glass may be deposited by any appropriate means. The preferred process consists in spraying molten metal with an oxyacetylenic gun. This technique is well known and does not require any detailed description.
Worth notice is that adherence of metal to glass requires the thorough removal of grease from the surface to be metal-coated. Preheating of the glass pane to 250-350 C. generally improves adherence. If such a preheating is undesired or impossible, the surface to be metal-coated can be previously etched, for instance by means of a sandblast or with an acid.
If a double metal layer is used, the upper metallic coating, such as brass-plating for instance, may be obtained by the same process, but it is preferable to use electroplating, in accordance with the conventional technique. A brass containing 70% of copper and 30% of zinc has given good results.
In order to limit the area to be metal-coated, the adjacent areas can be protected by guards or stencil-plates. If required, panes can be metal-coated on their edge as shown in 2b in Figs. 1 and 2.
The kind of glue or cement to be used for ensuring surface-bonding of rubber on the metal depends on the nature of both materials. Solutions of rubber in solvents or other cements conventionally used in the technique of vulcanizing rubber on metal are suitable for this purpose.
A cement which has given good results consists in a solution, in a solvent, either of rubber hydrochlorate, or
of the product of the reaction of acrylic nitrile and natural and chlorinated rubber, for instance the products known under the trade names of Ty-Ply Q on the United States market, and of canite on the French market.
When the rubber joint is preformed and heating is superfluous or to be avoided, cold gluing can be carried out with a glue or solution of rubber of the type used for cold gluing of rubber on metal.
If necessary, the metal-plated area should be cleaned of grease before glue is applied and it will consequently be advisable to apply the glue on the metal-plated area as soon as possible, in order to protect the latter against fouling and alteration and to ensure that the glue shall be thoroughly dry before the joint is moulded and vulcanized.
In the preceding description, it has been assumed that the plastic mass is placed in the mould in the form of more or less shapeless strips of cords 12, 13. However, the consistency and the form in which this mass is used may vary from a fluid or paste which is poured or injected into the mould, preferably under pressure, to a still plastic joint blank having approximately its nal shape, preformed by moulding, extrusion, rolling, etc.,
through more or less-roughly shaped `blanks as the'strips or cords above mentioned.`
`The mass Vof raw material'may already possess substantially the `same properties as the final joint, and for instance, it may ybe a-:preflormed blank of vulcanized rubber, the heating under'pressure having no other effect than to Vensure surface lbonding to the metal,but, as aforesaid, it is much more advantageous -to use a raw material which, beforebeing moulded, is plastic enough to be able to completely -iill'the mould,'the surplus being expelled in the form of films `14, 14a and which, after hot lmouldin g, is chemically altered to loose its plasticity and acquire-the desired resiliency. "Unvulcanized rubber-and some synthetic rubbers undergo such a transformation.
Mixtures of natural 'or synthetic rubbers conventionallyused for manufacturing moulded rubber objects, such as joints, spacers, engine supports, etc., can be advantageously used. These mixtures A.are usually `vulcanized by heating'at 140-15()o C. .for l5 tol 20 minutes. They have a hard-ness of about -50-7709 Shore.
By way of example,"the following mixture has given satisfactory results: h
Raw rubber in the form of a smoked'sheet 100 Carbon `black 30 Zinc oxide Sulphur 3 Stearic acid 3 'To this mixture, the usual-,small amounts of correctors, accelerators, anti-oxygen products, are added.
Similar mixtures, using synthetic rubbers, as for instance Neoprene, may also be employed to obtain better aging properties or a better resistance to atmospheric agents or to certain substances such as oils, solvents, etc.
In the case of laminated glass, use will preferably be made of rubber mixtures adapted to vulcanize at temperatures of about Q-110 C., since higher temperatures would aiiect the intermediate plastic layer.
Of course, the profile of the rubber joint will vary according to the profile of the frame or rabbet. The glazing frame may even be reduced to the rubber girdle itself: thus an opening window sash, or a skylight, etc., can be girdled by a rubber joint which, in the closed position of the window or skylight, is adapted to bear yieldingly and in a watertight manner against a fixed frame. In such case, taking advantage of the deformability and resiliency or` the rubber material of the joint, the hinge of the opening sash may consist of an extension made integral with the joint by moulding, as shown at Fig. 8, wherein the joint is extended on a portion or on the whole of one of its sides by an extension or flap 28, engaged in a rabbet 29 of the xed sash 30, a tightening strip 31 being secured over flap 28 by screws 42. As shown in dotted lines, the opening of the glazing causes a bending of the free part of iiap 23, which forms a hinge and can be, if necessary, reinforced by a skeleton of canvas, or spring steel.
When the glazing is held in a metal frame, the joint may be vulcanized simultaneously to the glazing and to the metal frame during the moulding operation, as shown in Fig. 9, in which a double glazing 2l, 22 is shown, on the periphery of which a joint is being moulded in a mould 7, 7a. The latter is so designed as to receive and posivtion a metal bar 33 or other structural element of the frame, and it has surfaces such as ef, gh adapted to engage the metal bar 33 the latter, thus being in a heat conducting contact with the hot walls of the mould, in such manner as to bring the bar to the temperature of vulcanization and to provide for the watertight and strong surface bonding ot' joint 25 with bar 33. The structural bar may, of course, be of any suitable cross-section and shape, the mould being shaped accordingly.
The metallic parts of the frame bar, which are to be vulcanized to the joint, may be brass-plated, in order to improve surface-bonding. They must be cleaned of grease ,and arerrjeferablyiicidvierbyajslue ormemras previously explained. i
it willbe notedin Eig. 9` that distance bar-34""`wliich serves to ""keepfthe-fspacing `lbt'etwe'en panes' 21 is T-shaped, so as to 'facilitate thejcorrect lpositioningfof -the panes fin'the muld and to" counteractithe tendency 'of the rubberI to Aflow back 'between the panes kduring vpressure melding.
'This' distancebar maybe ot 'any' suitable rigid' or' semirigid material, able to withstand,'without A11'rnierg'oi-nglexcessive deformation, th pressurewhich, during moulding, tends to bring the' panes 'closeltoge'th'er and to tiause rubber tojbe expelledintoi'the spa'cebtween the panes. f tmay be' niadel'ior instan of athermoplastic-orthermos tl-ing material,` of ebonite, oflardi'vulciiized rubbenof ber, ofrnineral or organic glass, of metahetc.
Said distancelba'r will-be "advantageously 4glued" on `each pane to` be assembled, by means of methodsand'products whichpermit a provisional assembly, stro'r'xg :eijlgl to facilitate handling"beforet'moulding; and tight eno'gh to permit moulding under pressure of the rubber jointorthe periphery of theglazingi'w'ithout any penetationbfthe rnpberintd mespacjebeween the panes.
The loflkywi'ng iglu maybe AV us`ed`,'for instance, for this purpose: `'s'ilicatfejgl n r, rubber' glues, ,cellulosic' glues,` Fsyjn- 'theticlg'lueg` vinylic glues; etc.; `glues capable of growing mouldy or lferrnenting beingpreterably excluded.
The distan'cehbar-34' rny consistjof the innerweb 'of a structural framebar-orftheilatter may be reduced'to said distancebar; as snwniniig. i1-0, Ain' which suenefessaid web, inserted between panes 21 and 22. 'Gnthisfexarnpla the joint is reduced to two rubber strips 36, 37 vulcanized both on the metal-plated areas 38, 39 of the panes, and on web 35.
In the modification shown on Fig. ll joints 36, 37 are housed in grooves 40, 41 of web 35.
in all devices embodying the invention, the glazing and the joint form an integral unit, manufactured in mass production in the workshop in the best conditions of rapidity accuracy and saving, and the contractor or user is supplied with standard elements of little fragility which can be mounted in turn in the best conditions. The precision obtained by the moulding operation, which can reach the hundredth of a millimeter, is such that the unit can be perfectly adjusted in mass production. It will be noted that the watertightness of the glazing so obtained is not dependent on any external tightening.
In all the above described double glazings, it is possible, when the panes are placed in the mould, to insert between these panes various materials and, particularly, insulating materials such as glass wool or materials capable of absorbing moisture, such as silica gel.
A valve or fitting 42 (Fig. 7) or any other appropriate device may be provided, extending through joint 25 and distance bar 23 and allowing the atmosphere within the space comprised between the panes and the joint to be conditioned, or permitting of evacuating said space or of establishing an overpressure or of introducing any suitable fluids.
One or both sides of the panes may be provided, by the process already mentioned of gun spraying, with metallic heating resistances, whereby simple or double glazings can be used as anti-dew or anti-frost devices.
The formation, by way of moulding, of a joint of some millimetres in thickness on the periphery of glazings permits the use of rough-cut panes, which need not be machined to very accurate dimensions, the excess of raw material used for providing the joint offsetting differences in sizes of the order oi magnitude of the millimetro.
It the available moulding and vulcanizing outfit has not dimensions large enough to t at one time the whole periphery of the pane, moulding and vulcanizing may be carried out on successive sections ot' the periphery by moving the glazing between the parts of the mould and the plates of the press.
Of course, the invention is not-restricted to the details of execution above described, which have been given only as examples. Y Y f Y Having now described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. As a new industrial product, an integral unit comprising in combination a glass element, an adhering marginal metal coating extending along the periphery of said glass element and a rubber girdle vulcanized to said metal coating to form a watertight joint.
2. As a new industrial product, an integral rubbergirdled glazing comprising in combination a glass sheet, an adhering marginal metal coating extending along the periphery of said glass sheet and a channel rubber girdle vulcanized to said metal coatings to form a watertight joint.
3. The product claimed in claim 1, wherein said coating is of aluminium.
4. The product claimed in claim 1, wherein said coating comprises an aluminium underlayer and a brass upper layer. y 5. As a new industrial product, an integral unit comprising in combination two parallel glass sheets, an intervening marginal spacing bar, adhering marginal metal Vcoatings on the external faces of said glass sheets, and a channel rubber girdle vulcanized to said metal coatings to form a watertight joint.
6. The product claimed in claim 5, comprising means, extending through said spacing bar and rubber girdle, for temporarily connecting the space between said glass sheets with the exterior.
having metallic webs extending between pairs of glass sheets to form distance pieces therebetween and said rubber joint being vulcanized to said webs.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,975,895V Geyer Oct. 9, 1934 1,982,351 Phillips Nov. 27, 1934 2,030,869 Haven Feb. 18, 1936 2,198,578 Hazelton, Jr., et al Apr. 23, 1940 2,213,395 Hopfield Sept. 3, 1940 2,235,681 Haven et al Mar. 18, 1941 2,278,360 Owen Mar. 31, 1942 2,282,831 Shutts May 12, 1942 2,336,544 Hopield Dec. 14, 1943 2,459,742 Bradley Ian. 18, 1949 2,468,239 Saulino Apr. 26, 1949 2,502,575 Lemyre Apr. 4, 1950 2,601,337 Smith-Johannsen June 24, 1952 2,683,678 Adams July 13, 1954
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|U.S. Classification||52/204.597, 52/764, 156/107, 52/204.595, 156/293, 428/432, 156/109|