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Publication numberUS2734879 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 14, 1956
Filing dateApr 29, 1952
Publication numberUS 2734879 A, US 2734879A, US-A-2734879, US2734879 A, US2734879A
InventorsFrank H. Lyons
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Wood finishing composition and method
US 2734879 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent WOOD FINISHING COMPOSITION METHOD OF MAKING Frank H. Lyons, Memphis, Tenn., assignor to E. L. Bruce Company, Memphis, Tenn., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Application April 29, 1952, Serial No. 285,060

5 Claims. (Cl. 260-22) This invention relates to a wood finishing composition, more particularly a composition of the penetrating seal type adapted for the finishing of wood flooring and a method of making the finish.

The penetrating seal finish in accordance with this invention uniformly penetrates the surface andthe immediate sub-surface of hardwoods usable for flooring and thus provides a high degree of durability. Further, due to the uniformity of its penetration, it tends to prevent worn areas in flooring and obviates the necessity of removing any excess of the finish which has failed to penetrate.

Further, the finish in accordance with this invention provides a uniform finish-for wood having a pore structure varying from large to small in the same piece.

Further, it gives a uniform finish to a floor or unit of floor manufacture formed of different woods. This is of great utility, since it enables the flooring manufacturer and the fioor layer to use mixed floor wood, such as hackberry, elm, pecan, sycamore, ash, beech, persimmon, holly, locust and southern maple indiscriminately within the same unit. The customary hardwoods such as oak, maple, birch, and the like can be used either by themselves or also indiscriminately in the same unit.

The finish according to this invention lends itself to use in factory finishing where heat for curing or drying the finish is available, since it will dry tack-free in less than two minutes when exposed to conventionally used infrared lamp banks.

The finish when used in the field will air-dry in about four hours and may be combined with a filler-pigment so that on application of the finish the floor is at once filled, colored and finished.

The penetrating seal composition in accordance with this invention comprises a resin which is formed by reacting drying oil fatty acids, a pentaerythritol ester of rosin, dilinoleic acid, pentaerythritol and phthalic anhydride.

By way of more specific example, the drying oil fatty acids may be, for example, drying oil fatty acids free of both elaeostearic acid and licanic acid, such as linseed oil, soybean oil or perilla oil. A number of drying oil fatty acids containing elaeostearic acid and licanic acid, for example, oiticica oil or China-wood oil, may be substituted provided that the total of the elaeostearic acid and the licanic acid taken together does not exceed 40% by weight of the total oil fatty acids used.

The drying oil fatty acids referred to herein, including the specific examples, are the fatty acids in the normal commercial proportions derived from the specified oils.

The proportions can be modified but must not contain over 16% saturated fatty acids or over 40% oleic acid. Dilinoleic acid is readily available commercially.

The pentaerythritol ester of rosin will be the reaction product of pentaerythritol and rosin reacted to have an acid number of less than 20. This starting material is well known to the art and readily available commercially 2,734,879 Patented Feb. 14, 1956 ice as, for example, Pentalyn A, which is manufactured by the Hercules Powder Company.

More specifically, in the formation of the resin used in the penetrating seal finish in accordance with this invention, the drying oil fatty acids will be present in an amount from about 30 to by weight of the resin. As set forth above, the drying oil fatty acids may contain a total of from 0 to 40% elaeostearic acid and licanic acid. The pentaerythritol ester of rosin will be present in an amount of from about 18 to 35% by weight of the resin. The dilinoleic acid will be present in an amount of from about 5 to 15% by weight of the resin. The pentaerythritol will be present in an amount of from about 10 to 15 by weight of the resin. The ingredients in the amounts described will be batched together and a major portion reacted to completion to have an acid number of about 40 or less.

Phthalic anhydride will be used in an amount of from about 11 to 20% by weight of the resin and reacted with the above mentioned ingredients, the resinous product thus formed being reacted to substantial completion.

Preferably the actual acid number of the resin thus constituted will be from about 40 to 60, the products in this range having many advantages over the broader range products. In any event, the acid number must not be lower than 20 or higher than 85. The difference between the actual and calculated acid numbers is attributable to impurities found in commercially available products and to slight losses during manufacture and not to any substantial incompleteness of reaction, the reaction being preferably over 97% complete and, in all events, must be over 95% complete.

In order to avoid the confusion resulting from theoretical reactions, reactions with pure materials approaching the theoretical, and reactions with commercial materials, the calculated acid numbers used herein were determined by using the reacting purity of the commercial materials. By taking the reacting purity of pentaerythritol as 88%, we automatically compensate for the impurity of phthalic anhydride and the fatty acids. The following are the theoretical acid numbers used:

Drying oil fatty acids 200 Dilinoleic acid 200 Pentaerythritol ester of rosin l4 7 Phthalic anhydride 756 1 gram of pentaerythritol has the neutralizing effect of 1645 milligrams of KOH. Thus, taking the reaction purity of pentaerythritol as 88%, 1 gram pentaerythritol has the neutralizing effect of 1447.6 milligrams of KOH. When the resin is prepared by fusion the acid number may be slightly less than the calculated acid number due to a slight volatilization of the phthalic anhydride or to the fact that the pentaerythritol was slightly purer than assumed.

It is important to select the reaction times and temperatures to obtain completeness of reactions as indicated above. The times and temperatures will vary somewhat depending upon the selection of ingredients. A temperature range of 400 F. to 450 F. will be satisfactory. The reactiontime will be determined by close watching of the acid number or by azeotropic distillation and weighing the water, both means giving satisfactory indication of the completeness of reaction.

The drying oil fatty acids, the pentaerythritol ester of rosin, the dilinoleic acid and the pentaerythritol will be first reacted in, for example, a conventional jacketed reactor at a temperature of from about 400 to 450 F.

and the initial reaction carried to a completeness of; over 50%. A time of about one hour is required.

temperature raised to within about the range of 400 to 450 F. The reaction will go to the completion of 97' to 98% in from two to three hours.

. The resin product thus formerlis added to a solvent in a cooling tank in order to give the final product a viscosity of Al to A3 (Gardner scale). In order to achieve this "iscosity the product at. this stage will comprise from about 25 to 50% resin solids. Solvents conventionally used in forming. floor finishes may be used. Thus, for example, conventional floor finishing solvents such as aromatic petroleum solvents having a kauri butanol range of 50 to 80; mineral spirits or naphtha each having a kauri butanol number of about 37; coal tar solvents, such as benzene, toluene, xylene; methyl acetone, butyl Cellosolve and other solvents which are well known to the art as floor finishing solvents, may be used.

One or more driers will then be added to the preparation. Conventional cobalt driers and manganese driers are satisfactory. Mixed cobalt and manganese driers are satisfactory. Thus, for example, cobalt naphthenate, cobalt tallate, manganese naphthenate and manganese tallate, or mixtures thereof, are satisfactory. it is desirable to have calcium present in the drier.

By way of more specific example, the drier may be a combination drier having a cobalt content of .06 to 12% by weight, a manganese content of .15 to .3% by Weight and calcium .05 to .15% by weight of the resin.

Where it is desired, a filler such as, for example, silica, asbestine, gypsum, diatomaceous earth, kieselguhr, calcium carbonate and talc may be included in conventional amounts.

Further, pigment such as, for example, raw sienna, burnt umber, iron oxide, titanium dioxide, burnt sienna, lamp black, Prussian blue, precipitated lakes, zinc chromate and chrome yellow may be added.

There is given below a schematic representation of the resin product of this invention as used in the penetrating seal finish where linseed oil fatty acids are used. It will be understood that the schematic representation is of only one of the many isomeric forms which the product can take. In the schematic representation R equals rosin, LOFA equals linseed oil fatty acid, the references to the constituents of the product being made to the starting material and the crossing of lines indicating linking of the starting materials through condensation of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. The phthalic acid is derived from the phthalic anhydride which is used as a starting material, the phthalic anhydride acting as a dehydrating agent forming phthalic acid and promoting overall reaction.

mi imum;

r u qtmew a I Pentaerythritol Phthallc C 0 0H Phthalie O 801d I I Pbthallo acid The following examples will be further illustrative of the above described resin and a penetrating seal finish including said resin:

7' 2,784,879 r T '3 m4 4 EXAMPLE 1 I Resin Percent by Weight Linseed oil fatty acids 33.3 Pentaerythritol ester of rosin (Acid No. 14) 22.4 Pentaerythritol 12.0 Dilinoleic acid 15.0 Phthalie anhydride 17.3

100.0 Additional ingredients Mineral spirits-kauri butanol No. 37, by weight of resin Drier:

Cobalt naphthenatecobalt content of .08% by weight of resin Manganese naphthenatemanganese 20% by weight of resin Calcium naphthenatecalcium content of .10% by weight of resin The linseed oil fatty acids, pentaerythritol, dilinoleic acid and pentaerythritol ester of rosin of the above formula. were heated at 420 F. for one hour to react to 62% of completion. The phthalic anhydride was then added and the temperature again raised to 420 F. and maintained for two hours. The resulting product had an acid number of 55., and a calculated acid number of 56.8.

The thus formed resin was run into the solvent contained in a cooling tank and the drier combination added. The resulting product had a viscosity of A2.

content of Petroleum aromatic solvent-kauri butanol No. 74 to produce solution of 40% resin solids, 150% by weight of resin Drier:

Cobalt naphthenate-coba1t content of .06% by weight of resin Manganese naphthenate-manganese 330% by weight of resin Calcium naphthenate-calcium content of .10% by weight of resin The soybean oil fatty acids, pentaerythritol, dih'noleic acid and pentaerythritol ester of resin of the above formula were heated at 410" F. for '70 minutes to react to content of 70% of completion. The phthalic anhydride was then added and the temperature again-raised to 420 F. and maintained for two hours. The resulting product had an acid number of 28 and a calculated acid number of 27.8.

The thus formed resin was run into the solvent contained in a cooling tank and the drier combination added.

The resulting product had a viscosity of A2.

EXAMPLE 3 Resin. Percent by weight Perilla oil fatty acids 31.0 Pentaerythritol ester of rosin (Acid No. 14) 26.8 Pentaerythritol 11.7 Dilinoleic acid 14.5

Phthalic anhydride 16.0

Additional ingredients Mineral spiritsB. P. 330 F. to 345 F.--kauri butanol No. 37 to produce solution of 40% resin solids, 150% by weightof resin Drier:

Cobalt naphthenatecobalt content of .12% by weight of resin Manganese naphthenate-manganese content of .20% by weight of resin Calcium naphthenate-calcium content of .05% by weight of resin The perilla oil fatty acids, pentaerythritol, dilinoleic acid and entaerythritol ester of rosin of the above for mula were heated at 440 F. for one hour to reach to 72% completion. The phthalic anhydride was then added and the temperature again raised to 410 F. and maintained for 100 minutes. The resulting product had an acid number of 48 and a calculated acid number of 46.4.

The thus formed resin was run into the solvent contained in a cooling tank and the drier combination added. The resulting product had a viscosity of A3.

EXAMPLE 4 Resin Percent by weight Linseed oil fatty acids 20.7 China-wood oil fatty acids 13.0 Pentaerythritol ester of rosin (Acid No. 14) 21.8 Pentaerythritol 13.5 Dilinoleic acid 11.0 Phthalic anhydride 20.0

Additional ingredients Xylene to produce a solution of 40% resin solids, 150% by weight of resin Drier: V

Cobalt naphthenate-cobalt content of .08% b weight of resin 1 Manganese naphthenate-manganese content of 20% by weight of resin Calcium naphthenate-calcium content of .05 by weight of resin The linseed oil fatty acids, China-wood oil fatty acids,

pentaerythritol, dilinoleic acid and entaerythritol ester of rosin of the above-formula were heated at 420 F. for one hour to react to 63% of completion. The phthalic anhydride was then added and the temperature again raised to 420 F. and maintained for two and one-half hours. The resulting'product had an acid number of 51 and a calculated acid number of 48.2.

The thus formed resin was run into the solvent contained in a cooling tank and the drier combination added. The resulting product had a viscosity of A3.

EXAMPLE 5 Resin Percent by weight Linseed oil fatty acids 30.0 Pentaerythritol ester of rosin (Acid No. 14) 35.0 Pentaerythritol 1 1.7 Dilinoleic' acid 5.4 Phthalic anhydride 17.9

Additional ingredients Toluene and mineral spirits mixture having kauri butanol No. 55 to produce solution of 40% resin solids, 150% by weight of resin Drier: t I

Cobalt n'aphthenzite-cobalt content of .05% by weight of resin Manganese naphthenate-manganese content of .20% by weight of resin Calcium naphthenate alcium content of .20% by weight of resin EXAMPLE 6 Resin Percent by weight Linseed oil fatty acids 36.0 Pentaerythritol ester of rosin (Acid No. 14) 21.8 Pentaerythritol 11,7 Dilinoleic aci 14.6 Phthalic anhydride 15.9

Additional ingredients Benzene having a kauri butanol No. 60 to provide a solution of 10% resin solids, by weight of resin Drier:

Cobalt tallate, .43% by weight of resin The linseed oil fatty acids, pentaerythritol, dilinoleic acid and pentaerythritol ester of rosin of the above formula were heated at 440 F. for 45 minutes. The phthalic anhydride was then added and the temperature again raised to 440 F. and maintained for one hour. The resulting product had an acid number of 54.4 and a calculated acid number of 55.0.

The thus formed resin was run into the solvent contained in a cooling tank and the drier combination added. The resulting product had a viscosity of Al.

EXAMPLE 7 Resin Percent by weight Linseed oil fatty acids 41.0 Pentaerythritol ester of rosin (Acid No. 14) 21.8 Pentaerythritol 11.7 Dilinoleic acid 14.5 Phthalic anhydride 11.0

100.0 Additional ingredients 1 Mineral spirits-kauri butanol No. 37, 150% by weight of resin Drier:

Cobalt naphthenat'ecobalt content of .08% by weight of resin Manganese naphthenatemanganese content of .20%

by weight of resin Calcium naphthenatecalcium content of .10% by weight of resin The linseed oil fatty acids, entaerythritol, dilinoleic acid and entaerythritol ester of rosin of the above formula were heated at 420 F. for one hour to react to 60% ofcompletion. addedv and the temperature again raised to 420 F. and maintained for two hours. The resulting product had an acid number of 28 and a calculated acid number of 27.8.

The phthalic anhydride was then 7 The thus formed resin was run into the solvent containedlin a cooling tank and the drier combination added. The resulting product had a viscosity of EXAMPLE 8 Resin Percent by weight Linseed oil fatty acids 33.7 Pentaerythritol ester of rosin (Acid No. 14)--.. 21.8 Pentaerythritol 14.0- Dilinoleic acid 10.5 Phthalic anhydride 20.0

Additional ingredients Methyl acetone to produce a solution of 25% resin solids, 300% by weight of resin Drier:

Manganese naphthenate-manganese content of 30% by weight of resin The linseed oil fatty acids, pentaerythritol, dilinoleic acid and pentaerythritol ester of rosin of the above formula were heated at 410 F. for 90 minutes to react to 80% of completion. The phthalic anhydride was then added and the temperature again raised to 415 F. and maintained for two hours. The resultingproduct had an acid number of 40.0 with a calculated acid number of 40.0.

The thus formed resin was run into the solvent contained in a cooling tank and the drier combination added. The resulting product had a viscosity of A3 EXAMPLE 9 Resin Percent by weight Linseed oil fatty acids 47.2 Pentaerythritol ester of rosin (Acid No. 14) 21.8 Pentaerythritol 10.0 Dilinoleic acid 5.0 Phthalic anhydride 16.0

Additional ingredients Naphtha having a kauri butanol No. 37 to produce a solution of 40% resin solids, 150% by weight of resin Drier:

Cobalt naphthenate-cobalt content of .14 percent by weight of resin The linseed oil fatty acids, pentaerythritol, dilinoleic acid and pentaerythritol ester of rosin of the above formula were heated at 440 F. for one hour to react to 75% of completion. The phthalic anhydride was then added and the temperature again raised to 420 F. and maintained for two hours. The resulting product had an acid number of 85 and a calculated acid number of 82.6.

The thus formed resin was run into the solvent contained in a cooling tank and the drier added. The resulting product had a viscosity of A3.

Drier:

Additional ingredients Naphtha having a kauri butanol.No. 3.7 to produce asolu tion of 40% resin solids, 150% by weight of resin Cobalt naphthenate-cobalt content of .14% .by

weightot resin The linseed oil fatty acids and oitica oil fatty acids, pentaerythritol, dilinoleic acid and pentaerythritol ester of rosin of the above formula were heated at 410 F. for one hour to react to 63% of completion. The phthalic anhydride Was then added and the temperature again raised to 410 F. and. maintained for one hour. The resulting product had an acid number of 83, and a calculated acid number of 83.6.

The thus formed resin was run into the solvent contained in a. cooling tank and the drier added. The resulting product had a viscosity of A3.

EXAMPLE 1i Resin Percent by weight Perilla oil fatty acids 31.0 Pentaerythritol ester of rosin (Acid No. 13) 26.8 Pentaerythritol 1 1.7 Dilinoleic acid 14.5 Phthalic anhy d 16.0

The perilla oil fatty acids, pentaerythritol, dilinoleic acid and pentaerythritol ester of rosin of the above formula were heated at 440 F. for one hourtoreach to V 72% of completion. The phthalic .anhydride was then added and the temperature again raised to 410 F. and maintained for minutes. .The resulting product had arfir acid number of 48 and a calculated acid number of 4 .4.

' The thus formed resin was run into the solvent contained in a cooling tank and the drier combination. added. The resulting product had a viscosity of A3.

EXAMPLE 12 Resin Percent by weight Linseed oil fatty acids 20.7 China wood oil fatty acids -1 13.0 Pentaerythritol ester of rosin (Acid No. 15) 21.8 Pentaerythritol 13.5 Dilinoleic acid 11.0 Phthalic anhydride 20.0

Additional ingredients Xylene to produce a. solution of 40% resin by weight of resin Drier:

Cobalt naphthenate-cobalt content of .08% by weight of resin Manganese naphthenate-manganese content of. 20% by weight of resin 7 Calcium naphthcnate-calcium content of .05% by weight of resin solids,

The linseed oil fatty acids, China wood oil fatty acids, pentaerythritol, dilinoleic acid and pentaerythritol ester of rosin of the above formula were heated at 420 F. for one hour to react to 63% of completion. The phthalic anhydride was then added and the temperature again raised to 420 F. and maintained for two and one-half hours. The resulting product had an acid number of 51 and a calculated acid number of 48.2.

The thus formed resin was run into the solvent contained in a cooling tank and the drier combination added. The resulting product had a viscosity of A3.

What is claimed is:

1. A penetrating seal finish having a resin comprising the reaction product of drying oil fatty acids in an amount from about 30 to 50% by weight of the resin, and containing not in excess of 16% saturated fatty acids and not in excess of 40% oleic acid, a pentaerythritol ester of rosin having an acid number of less than 20 and being in an amount from about 18 to 35% by weight of the resin, pentaerythritol in an amount from about 10 to 15% by weight of the resin, dilinoleic acid in an amount from about to 15% by weight of the resin, a major portion of all said ingredients reacted to completion and further reacted to substantial completion with phthalic anhydride in an amount from about 11 to 20% by weight of the resin, said resin having an acid number within the range of about 20 to 85 and a solvent, the penetrating seal finish having a viscosity of about Al to A3 Gardner scale.

2. A penetrating seal finish having a resin comprising the reaction product of drying oil fatty acids in an amount from about 30 to 50% by weight of the resin, and containing not in excess of 16% saturated fatty acids and not in excess of 40% oleic acid, a pentaerythritol ester of rosin having an acid number of less than 20 and being in an amount from about 18 to 35% by weight of the resin, pentaerythritol in an amount from about to 15% by weight of the resin, dilinoleic acid in an amount from about 5 to 15% by weight of the resin, a major portion of all said ingredients reacted to comple tion and further reacted to substantial completion with phthalic anhydride in an amount from about 11 to by weight of the resin, said resin having an acid number within the range of about 20 to 85, a solvent and a metallic drier, the penetrating seal finish having a viscosity of about Al to A3 Gardner scale.

3. Method of making a penetrating seal finish resin which comprises heating a mixture of drying oil fatty acids in an amount from about to 50% by weight of the resin, and containing not in excess of 16% saturated fatty acids and not in excess of 40% oleic acid, a pentaerythritol ester of rosin having an acid number of less than 20 and being in an amount fiom about 18 to by weight of the resin, pentaerythritol in an amount from about 10 to 15% by weight of the resin and dilinoleic acid in an amount from about 5 to 15% by weight of the resin, said heating being carried out at a temperature within the range of from about 400 to 450 F. to react a major portion of all said ingredients to completion, reacting the thus reacted mixture with phthalic anhydride in an amount from about 11 to 20% by weight of the resin at a temperature of from about 400 to 450 F., said reaction being carried to substantial completion and providing a resin having an acid number Within the range of about 20 to and adding said resin to a solvent in a cooling tank.

4. A penetrating seal finish having a resin comprising the reaction product of drying oil fatty acids containing not in excess of 40% by weight of elaeostearic acid and licanic acid, said drying oil fatty acid being in an amount from about 30 to 50% by weight of the resin, and containing not in excess of 16% saturated fatty acids and not in excess of 40% oleic acid, a pentaerythritol ester of rosin having an acid number of less than 20 and being in an amount from about 18 to 35% by weight of the resin, pentaerythritol in an amount from about 10 to 15 by weight of the resin, dilinoleic acid in an amount from about 5 to 15% by weight of the resin, a major portion of all said ingredients reacted to completion and further reacted to substantial completion with phthalic anhydride in an amount from about 11 to 20% by weight of the resin, said resin having an acid number within the range of about 20 to 85 and a solvent, the penetrating seal finish having a viscosity of about Al to A3 Gardner scale.

5. Method of making a penetrating seal finish resin which comprises heating a mixture of drying oil fatty acids containing a total content of elaeostearic acid and licanic acid not in excess of 40% by weight of the drying oil fatty acids, said drying oil fatty acids being in an amount of from 30 to 50% by weight of the resin, and containing not in excess of 16% saturated fatty acids and not in excess of 40% oleic acid, a pentaerythritol ester of rosin having an acid number of less than 20 and being in an amount from about 18 to 35% by weight of the resin, pentaerythritol in an amount from about 10 to 15% by weight of the resin and dilinoleic acid in an amount from about 5 to 15% by weight of the resin, said heating being carried out at a temperature within the range of from about 400 to 450 F. to react a major portion of all said ingredients to completion, reacting the thus reacted mixture with phthalic anhydride in an amount from about 11 to 20% by weight of the resin at a temperature of from about 400 to 450 F., said reaction being carried to substantial completion and providing a resin having an acid number Within the range of about 20 to 85 and adding said resin to a solvent in a cooling tank.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,065,331 Kienle Dec. 22, 1936 2,346,409 Anderson Apr. 11, 1944 2,584,300 Simmers Feb. 5, 1952

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2065331 *Jun 21, 1929Dec 22, 1936 Method of preparing mixed esters
US2346409 *Apr 22, 1941Apr 11, 1944Hercules Powder CompanyCoating composition
US2584300 *Dec 9, 1948Feb 5, 1952Johns ManvilleLiquid binder
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3154507 *Dec 30, 1960Oct 27, 1964Pure Oil CoPreparation of alkyd resins from complex carboxylic acids prepared from solvent extracts
US3240735 *Sep 14, 1961Mar 15, 1966Eastman Kodak CoThermoplastic polyesters of bisphenols and dicarboxylic acids having increased modulus of elasticity due to presence of stiffness improving additives
US5653789 *May 23, 1994Aug 5, 1997Permagrain Products, Inc.Water base conditioner for acrylic wood flooring
Classifications
U.S. Classification106/222, 106/227, 106/252, 106/7
International ClassificationC09G1/16, C09G1/00, C09F7/00
Cooperative ClassificationC09F7/00, C09G1/16
European ClassificationC09F7/00, C09G1/16