US 2735665 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
H. E. LANCE CARBONATOR Feb. 21, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 12, 1953 INVENTOR.
United States Patent CARBONATOR Harold E. Lance, Royal Oak, Mich, assignor to Temprite ProductsCorporation, Birmingham, Mich., a corporation of Michigan Application November 12, 1953, Serial No. 391,562
4 Claims. (Cl. 261=27) orous agitation in the carbonating vessel has made it impossible during active carbonation to make rapid withdrawal from the vessel of the carbonated liquid without also withdrawing suspended bubbles ofundissolved gas; and when these bubbles of compressed gas are drawn into a drinking vessel at atmospheric pressure their explosive expansion causes the well-known spitting which is unacceptable to users of carbonating apparatus and also represents a substantial waste of gas.
Accordingly a principal object of the invention is to provide an improved apparatus which is not only capable of carbonating liquid to a high degree at a rapid rate, but is also capable, at an equally rapid rate, of delivering the charged liquid free of undissolvedgas.
A further object of the invention is to provide carbonating apparatus of the above-specified character, which is also characterized by small size and simple, low cost construction.
With the foregoing objects in view, the invention consists in certain forms, combinations and arrangements of parts hereinafter described and explained in connection with the accompanying drawings showing a preferred embodiment of the invention and hereinafter defined in the claims appended to the description.
In the drawings, I
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view of a carbonator embodying the invention, the section being taken through the vertical axis of the carbonator tank or shell. The figure also includes a diagrammatic showing of automatic means for introducing the liquid to be carbonated.
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the carbonator shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a vertical section on the line 33 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a horizontal section on the line 4- 3 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 is a detached plan view of amodified form of baffie plate.
Fig. 6 is a vertical axial section showing thelower part of the carbonator structure with a modified form of baflle construction.
Referring in detail to the construction illustrated, and first to that shown in Figs. 1-4, 1 designates as an entirety a carbonator embodying the present invention. The carbonator comprises a tank or shell having a tubular side wall 2 of sheet metal, a bottom Wall 3 also of sheet metal, and a top wall 4 of heavy metal plate, the joints between the side wall and the bottom and top walls, "re- 2,735,665 Patented Feb. 21, 1956 spectively, being suitably welded to provide a hermetically tight vessel.
Within the tank is a baffle structure generally designated by the numeral 5 consisting of a tubular member 6 and a fiat plat 7 which is apertured to receive the lower open end of the tube 6 to which it is welded. The upper end of tube 6 is welded to the under side of closure plate-4 so that the baflle structure 5 is rigidly supported in the tank. The upper end of tube 6 is notched at 6a so that the spaces inside and outside of the tube are in free communication with each other at the upper end of the carbonator chamber. The diameter of the circular baffle plate 7 is somewhat smaller than the interior diameter of the shell wall 2 so that there is a small circumferential opening a between the periphery of the plate 7 and the wall 2.
The closure plate 4 is formed with a threaded aperture to receive a liquid inlet fitting generally designated by the numeral 8 which consists of a tubular part 9 threaded to engage the said aperture in the plate 4, a rubber check valve it) of conventional type and a pipe coupling member 11 which is threaded into member 9 and secures the check valve 1% in operative position. The lower end of the part 9 is formed with a straight elongated passage 9a designed to introduce liquid under pressure into the carbonator in the form of a solid stream or jet pointed di rectly toward the upper surface of the baffle plate 7, so as to avoid directing the introduced liquid through the openinga.
Diametrically opposite the liquid inlet fitting 8, the
- closure plate 4 of the carbonator shell is provided with an unthreaded aperture to receive a liquid outlet fitting 12 which is welded in position in the plate with a hermetically tight joint. The upper end of fitting 12 is threaded to receive a pipe coupling. A liquid discharge tube 13, which has its upper end welded in the bore of the fitting 12 with a hermetically tight joint, extends downward to the bottom of the tank chamber where it is curved inward and has its open lower end 13a disposed approximately at the vertical axis of the shell and the central bafile tube 6. The plate F is notched at 7a to accommodate tube 13.
Within the bafile tube 6 is disposed electric liquid'level control means generally designated by the numeral '14 and comprising a pair of short and long electrode rods 15 and 16 mounted in an insulating body 17 which, in turn, is mounted with a gas tight joint in a threaded me'tal fitting 18 which tightly closes a central threaded aperture in the closure plate 4. Rods l5 and '16 have their lower ends fitted with enlarged tips 15a and 16a to provide bottom contact surfaces of adequate area. These tips are preferably made of carbon. Between the tips 15a, 15a and the body 17 the rods are protected by tubular sheathings 15b, 165, respectively, formed of suitable noncon'du'cting plastic material. The upper ends of the electrode rods 15 and 16 are connected, respectively, with conductors l9 and 2%) of a cable which also includes a conductor 21 which is grounded on the fitting 18.
As is diagrammatically shown in Fig. l, the cable conductors i9, 20 andZl are extended to a relay 22which, in turn, is connected to the terminals of an electric motor 23 which drives a pump 24 connected to supply water or other liquid to the fitting 8 of the carbonator. The motor driven pump and the electrode control means operate in known manner to automatically supply water to be carbonated and the electric devices diagrammatically indicated in the drawingmay be ofknown character such, 'for example, as those shown in S. Patent No. 2,249,994.
The plate closure 4 of the carbonator tank is formed with a threaded aperture to receive a C02 gas inlet fitting which may be structurally identical with the liquid inlet fitting 8 and is therefore not separately shown in detail.
Diagrammatically opposite the gas inlet fitting 25, the plate 4 is apertured to receive a relief valve which is designated generally by the numeral 26. This valve comprises a nipple 27 which is threaded to engage the aperture and is formed at its upper end with a seat for a valve 28. The valve is pressed toward its seat by coil spring 29, the tension of which can be varied by adjustment of the nut so that the valve will open at a predetermined maximum pressure within the carbonator.
In accordance with the usual practice, all parts of the carbonating apparatus which are contacted by the carbonated liquid are formed of corrosion resistant metal such as stainless steel.
With the carbonator connected with a source of CO2 gas adapted to supply the gas at a suitable pressure, such as 80 p. s. i. and with the liquid pump connected with a source of liquid and designed to supply liquid to the carbonator fitting 8 at a pressure of 120 to 140 p. s. i., the operation of the apparatus is as follows.
The motor driven pump under control of the electrodes is started and stopped to maintain the level of liquid within the carbonator between the maximum and minimum levels coinciding with the lower ends of the electrode tips 15a and 16a, respectively. When, because of draft of carbonated liquid from the carbonator, the liquid level in the carbonator falls to the bottom of the lower electrode and the supply pump 24 is started, liquid at the pump discharge pressure is delivered through the supply fitting 8 until the liquid level in the carbonator rises to the bottom of the shorter electrode, whereupon the pump is automatically stopped. The liquid is delivered through fitting 8 in the form of a solid jet which is projected into the body of liquid in the carbonator at high velocity and causes the liquid to vigorously boil and bubble in the presence of the compressed gas which is maintained under the predetermined supply pressure. The space surrounding the battle tube 6 and above the bafile plate 7 is thus occupied by the vigorously agitated mass of mixed liquid and gas and the large liquid surfaces thus developed favor rapid absorption or solution of the gas in the liquid. However, the space within the baflle tube 6 is relatively quiescent so that the electrodes are able to perform their motor control function with adequate uniformity. The space below the bafile plate 7, although it is in communication with the space above the plate through the restricted circumferential opening a, is also relatively quiescent. Nevertheless, during draft of carbonated liquid, the space below baffle plate 7 to a substantial extent receives small bubbles of undissolved gas which pass downward with liquid through opening a. ture of liquid and bubbles moves from opening a downward and radially inward toward the inlet opening 13a of the discharge tube 13, the bubbles rise and find their way into baffle tube 6 where they move upward through the quiescent liquid and deliver their gaseous contents to the gas space above the liquid level in the carbonator.
The described separation of the bubbles of undissolved gas from the liquid entering the discharge tube 13 is both rapid and remarkably complete so that it is possible for the carbonator to deliver highly carbonated liquid free from undissolved gas at the high rate of carbonation attained by the vigorous agitation method herein described.
Accordingly the output of the carbonator is very high in relation to its size. For example, a carbonator having a shell 3% inches in diameter and 9 inches high is capable of charging 100 gallons of water per hour to four volumes of CO2 and delivering the charged liquid substantially free of undissolved gas.
It is believed that an important feature of the carbonator responsible for its large gas separating capacity is As this mixthe arrangement of the inlet opening 13a of the liquid discharge conduit in the quiescent zone in such relation to the baffle means that the path of all liquid moving from the communication opening a between the agitation and quiescent zones to the said inlet opening 13a must pass beneath the lower open end of the baffle tube so that bubbles of gas in the advancing liquid have opportunity to rise into and through the tube to the gas space above the liquid in the carbonator, this result being facilitated by the low velocity of the liquid approaching opening 13a and the downward direction of its flow. It is of course desirable that the communication opening between the two zones shall be sufficiently restricted in at least one direction, to prevent the large gas bubbles in the agitation zone from passing into the quiescent zone. The long annular form of the opening a in the construction shown is advantageous as its radial dimension can be made small without unduly restricting its capacity to pass a large volume of liquid.
Obviously, the carbonator shown is very small in relation to its capacity, is of simple construction and free of moving parts other than the liquid and gas check valves, and susceptible of manufacture at low cost.
It will be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific construction above described. For example, the balfle structure may take different forms, some of which are shown in Figs. 5 and 6.
Fig. 5 shows an alternative baffie plate 7b in which a chordal segment is removed from one side of the plate to accommodate the discharge tube 13. While this form of construction provides a larger opening between the carbonating space and the quiescent draw-off space of the carbonator at one side of the bafile tube, the construction has been found to operate satisfactorily since the liquid inlet nozzle of the carbonator is disposed on the diametrically opposite side of the carbonator from the discharge tube and the liquid agitation is not so great adjacent the chordal opening as in the inlet side of the carbonator.
In the modification of Fig. 6 the bottom element of the batiie structure has its central part made in truncated cone form and is rigidly attached to the lower end of a shortened baffie tube 61), the peripheral part of element 7c being notched or cut away at one side to accommodate the discharge tube 13. This last form of construction in effect enlarges the bottom opening of the bafile tube and is somewhat better adapted to facilitate the escape of the gas bubbles from the liquid discharge current into the bafile tube.
It will, of course, be understood that in the practice of the invention various modifications of the first described construction other than those illustrated herein, may be used without departing from the invention as defined in the claims.
What is claimed is:
1. Liquid carbonating apparatus comprising a closed tank for holding carbon dioxide gas and liquid to be carbonated; bafile means in the tank chamber comprising an upright tubular part with its lower end open and its upper end in communication with the surrounding tank chamber and a bottom part extending from the lower end of the tubular part across the tank chamber toward the side wall thereof and above and substantially separated from the bottom wall thereof, the battle means serving to divide the tank chamber into a liquid agitation zone overlying the bottom part and surounding the tubular part of the baflle means and a liquid quiescent zone below the bottom part and within the tubular part of the bafile means and there being between the bottom part of the agitation zone and the part of the quiescent zone below the bottom part of the bafiie means a communication opening adjacent the side wall of the tank formed and arranged to restrict the passage from the agitation zone to the quiescent zone of bubbles of undissolved gas while permitting large volume flow therethrough of liquid; means for conducting gas under pressure into the tank chamber; means for conducting liquid under pressure into the tank chamber comprising a nozzle arranged to deliver a solid jet of liquid directly into the agitation zone of the chamber and the body of liquid therein to strongly agitate the liquid and intimately intermix it and the gas present in the said zone by formation of a great mass of bubbles therein, the nozzle having its axis disposed to direct the liquid jet directly toward the upper surface ofthe bottom part of the bafie means; means disposed in the quiescenttzone within the tubular part of the bafile means for controlling the admission of liquid through the nozzle and maintaining the level of the liquid in the tank above the level of the said communication opening between the agitation and quiescent zones of the tank chamber; and a carbonated-liquid discharge conduit having an inlet opening in the quiescent zone affording a free and unobstructed discharge flow of carbonated liquid through said conduit, the said opening being disposed directly below the lower open end of the tubular part of the baffle means and in a relation to the bafiie means such that the path of all liquid moving from the said communication opening between the agitation and quiescent zones to the inlet opening of the discharge conduit must-pass beneath the lower open end of the bafiie tube and approach the said inlet opening in a downward direction at a velocity that is much lower than the of the tank, the communication opening between the agitation zone and the quiescent zone is disposed between the periphery of the bottom part of the bafile means and the side wall of the tank and the inlet opening of the liquid discharge conduit has its center disposed approximately at the axis of the baffle tube.
3. 'Carbonating apparatus as claimed in claim 1 in which the entire bafile means is attached to and supported by the top wall of the carbonator tank.
4. Carbonating apparatus as claimed in claim 1 in which the baffle means comprises a tubular part and a fiat plate part apertured to engage an open end of the tubular part.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,235,357 Conklin Mar. 18, 1941 2,414,607 Phillips Jan. 21, 1947' 2,497,741 Quirnper Feb. 14, 1950