|Publication number||US2738040 A|
|Publication date||Mar 13, 1956|
|Filing date||Dec 26, 1951|
|Priority date||Dec 26, 1951|
|Publication number||US 2738040 A, US 2738040A, US-A-2738040, US2738040 A, US2738040A|
|Inventors||Paul B Waldin|
|Original Assignee||Paul B Waldin|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (6), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
P. B. WALDIN PROTECTIVE SHUTTER FOR WINDOW OPENING Filed Dec. 26, 1951 March 13, 1956 um-ma,
INVENTOR 64 BYPAUL B w-ALD1N 65 amummuummn United States Patent PROTECTIVE SHUTTER FOR WINDOW OPENING Paul B. Waldin, Oakland, Application December 26, 1951, Serial- No. 263,233 4 Claims. (Cl. 189-62) My invention relates to shutter or screen assembly adapted for mounting either on interior or exterior window frame portions and which is particularly designed to provide protection against sun, wind and especially blast effects, to act to retard fire and to serve as a light control.
Window surfaces of buildings are subject to damage by numerous phenomena of nature and activities of man due to the fragility of the glass employed therein whereby they no longer perform the useful purposes for which they are employed. For example, in the event of fire", the glass fractures and falls from the frame thereby creating drafts which fan the flames to blast furnace intensity. Winds of high velocity may blow the glass inwards endangering persons within the building. A problem of control of the passage of light through the window open ing may be presented as when the exclusion of sunlight in certain regions is necessitated or the prevention of the egress of light at night is required as in times when blacl= out conditions are imposed.
When subjected to the blast effects of ordinary bomb explosions and especially of atomic bomb explosions glass Windows are shattered and the fragments forcibly propelled so as to become a veritable hail of death directed against persons who may be present within the building. Moreover, intense light and heat radiation may enter the window so as to ignite materials within the building and subject persons located behind the windows to flash burns.
Accordingly it may be seen that there exists: a widespread need for an easily installed device which may serve to control the passage of light througha window, to protect the window itself from damage, to assume the closure functions of the broken panes, and to prevent the hazards to life and limb resulting from the shatteringof the window glass. Such a device must be sturdily built and solidly anchored as must be realized when it is considered that wind velocities measured in the hundreds of miles per hour resulting in the application of commensurately high pressures may be exerted against window surfaces when under certain of the conditions noted above.
Now I have devised a sturdy shutter or screen assembly including a frame which may be securely and appropriately attached and arranged upon interior or exterior windows and further includes a series of leaf members secured within said frame and fitted with manipulative, locking and reinforcing means whereby the hazardous conditions enumerated above may be alleviated or the several utilitarian functions served. Moreover such assembly is especially designed to conserve materials and adapted for economical fabrication by modern mass production methods.
Therefore it is an object of my invention to provide a protective shutter or screen assembly which may be applied to the window frame of a building; I
It is another object of my invention to provide a shutter device which may be applied to' a window frame and adjusted to control the passage of light therethrough.
Still another object of my invention is to provide a S'dfe'en assembly which may be ap lied to interior 1561"- does of a window frame to prevent the hazardousentry of window fragments and harmful light and heat radiation emanating from explosive or atomic bomb blast;
A further object of my invention is to'' provide a rotective window shutter or screen which is especially designed for fabrication by modern mass-production methodsand whichconsumes a minimum of material.
A still further object of my invention is to provide a protective window shutter 01'' screen assembly whieh is adapted t absorb and minimize Blast effects resulting from explosions.
The invention possesses other objects and features of advantage, some or whih; Wit-1i the foregoin will be set forth in the following description of the preferred form of the invention which is illustratedin the drawing accompanying and forming part or the specification. It is to be understood, however, that variations in the SHOW ingmade by the said drawing may be adopted within the scope of the invention as set forth in the claims;
With reference to said drawing Figure 1 is an elevational view of the protective shutter or screen assembly ofthe; invention shown mounted on inner window frame portions with the component leaf members disposed horizontally andin closed po ition;
Figure 2 is a similar view of the protective shutter or screen of the invention with the component leaf members disposedvertically and closed position;
Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view taken along the plane 3= 3 as indicated on Figure 1- and illt'ist ratirig the method of mounting th'eshutter or screen assembly on inner window frame portions;
Figure 4 is a similar sectional view however illust fat ing the method of mounting the shutter or screen assern bly on exterior edge portions of a window frame;
Figure 5 is a fragmentary cross sectional view taken in the direction 5 5 as indicated in Figure 1, illustrating constructional details in the region of the attachment of the leaf members to the frame portionswitir the leaf members arranged in open position;
Figure 6 is a similar fragmentary cross sectional view, however,- with the leaf members arranged in closed position;
Figure 7 is afragmentary horizontal sectional view of awindow frame illustrating further details of the assem bly as mounted therein;
Figure 8 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional- View taken through the central axisin the end region of one of the leaf members;
Figure 9 is a perspective view of a portion of the ideatieal upper and lower frame sections of Figure 1;
Figure 10 is a perspective view of a'portion of the lock ingmember employed to retain end bearing portions of leaves within the side frames;
Figure 11 is a perspective view of an end portion of a side frame as illustrated in Figure 1; and
Figure 12 is a perspective view of an end portion of the leaf position control bar.
With particular reference to Figure l of the drawing a I protective shutter or screen assembly constructed in ac: cordance with the invention and generally indicated at 2!) may be fitted and attached to a conventional window frame 21- comprising a header section 22, side sections 23 and 24 and a lower section 25: More particularly, the assem bly 20 is constructed with a. frame 26 including an upper frame portion 27, left and rightside frame portions 28 and 29, respectively, and a lower frame portion 30 which provides the principal integral support for the assembly;
Go'nstructional details ofthe upper and lower'frame portions 27 and 30 may bestbe seen by reference to Fig= ure 9 of the drawing. The frame portions 27 and 30 are formed of sheet metal with the general configuration of a channel having a web section 31 joining a forward flange 32 and a somewhat wider rear flange 33 and with the free end of the flange 33 folded back upon itself as by suitable folding or rolling operations. Further the web 31 and flange 33 may be provided with rows of perforation 34 by punch press methods to provide for attachment to inner or edge surfaces of a window frame 21 by means of screws or bolts (not shown). Such portions 27 and are arranged with the channel cavities facing each other when in proper operative position.
Constructional details of the side frame portions 28 and 29 may best be seen by reference to Fig. 11 wherein there is illustrated an end of a typical left frame portion 28. Right side frame portion 29 is of matching dimensions but is formed with a mirror image configuration appropriate to the reversal position which is occupied in the frame.
Such frame portions 28 and 29 are most conveniently formed by a series of rolling, bending and punching operations of strips or ribbons of sheet metal to provide a centrally disposed raised rectangular channel portion 35 with a flat surface 36 portion extending horizontally forward from the lower edge of the forward side wall 37 thereof to terminate in a forward rolled edge 38. The rear edge of the sheet metal of the frame portions is folded upwardly to provide a rear lip 39 somewhat wider than the height of the channel 35, generally parallel to the rear wall 40 of the channel 35 leaving a horizontally disposed flat portion 41 between the lower edges thereof which is coplanar with respect to flat surface 37. Perforations 42 formed in the lip 39 and flat portion 41 are provided to aflord attachment by means of screws or bolts (not shown) to inner or edge surfaces of the window frame 21.
Accordingly it will be appreciated, that when mirror image side sections 28 and 29 are arranged together with the upper (27) and lower (30) sections with the respective ends thereof in abutting position to form the frame 26 there will be presented in an inward direction, external surfaces of the raised channel 35, forming a ridge, and an inwardly projecting rearwardly disposed lip 39. Moreover, the channel 35 will define an exterior groove 43 extending the lengths of the two side frame portions 28 and 29.
To adapt the side frames 28 and 29 for the reception of supporting pivotal bearings of the leaf members to be described below, the web section 44 of the channel 35 is formed as by punching to provide perforations 45 at spaced intervals and slots 46 extending axially downward therefrom. The sides 47 of said slats 46 are bent so as to project outwardly into said groove 43 and to diverge in an outward direction. Thereby such slats 46 may be said to taper inwardly as the interior of the frame is approached which taper is used to advantage as will be described more fully hereinafter.
Particular details of the construction of leaf members 48 which are arranged to cover the central opening of the frame may be seen by reference to Figs. 5, 6, 7, and 8 of the drawing. Conveniently such leaves 48 may be formed as by corrugating strip sheet metal. A variety of metals may be employed for this purpose consistent with the function which is to be provided. If sun protection, light wind protection and similar mild conditions may be expected, aluminum or similar materials of moderate strengthmay be employed. However, to resist the more rigorous conditions of blast, high temperatures and others,- mild steel or even cold rolled steel of improved characteristics are required to afford maximum protection.
To provide for attachment and attendant support from the frame, the leaves 48 are fitted with axially-projecting, terminally-attached bearing pins 49. More particularly, the pins 49 are axially slotted in one end to 'receive the leaf material and to be securely attached to the leaf material. At the projecting end the pins 49 are provided with a tapered head 50 which is adapted to be inserted into the perforations 45 in the side frames 28 and 29 and slide downwardly into the slots 46 whereby a wedging force is exerted on the tapering sides by the layered slot sides 47 tensioning the leaves 48.
When arranged on the inner surfaces of the window frame 21, a locking bar 51, constructed as shown in Fig. 10 and attached as shown in Fig. 7, is employed to lock the pins 49 in the slots 46. More particularly, the bar 51 is formed from a strip of sheet metal by bending an edge portion providing a flange 52 projecting perpendicularly outward therefrom and the other edge portion is similarly bent in the opposite direction yielding a flange 53. The flange 52 is punched to produce a series of transverse stop portions 56 projecting outward therefrom and adapted to slide into the slots 57 formed transversely in the side wall 37 of the channel 35 immediately above the terminus of the slots 46 so as to securely retain the pins therein. Also the locking bar may be located in the exterior surfaces of the side frame sections. In general it is contemplated that the locking bar is to possess projecting tabs which normally retain the pivotal bearing pins 49 from passing through the slots 46 thereby permitting withdrawal of the leaves. However, by removing the bar, it is a simple matter to remove one or all of the leaves from the frame assembly. Under normal conditions, the bearing pins will be gravitally retained in the slots 46, but under abnormal conditions, the use of the bar 51 will ensure such retention.
When mounted as indicated above the leaves 48 occupy a generally parallel position in which the edges of adjacent leaves may overlap slightly or lie side by side as required. To provide for adjustment of the leaf position short pins 60 are attached to the outer edge of each of the ends of the leaves in a position parallel to that of the bearing pins 49. Tilting bars 61 provided with a series of clips 62 at spaced positions is attached by said clips to the pins 60 whereby a vertical movement of the bars 61 causes the leaves to be tilted in any position between a horizontal open position shown in Fig. 5 or a vertical closed position shown in Fig. 6.
In detail the tilting bars 61 may be fashioned of sheet metal as shown in Fig. 12 as a U channel form' 63 having a flange 64 projecting outwardly from a side wall 65 thereof.
As described hereinbefore, the shutter assembly of the invention is suitable for milder conditions which may be encountered. However, where more severe conditions may be encountered as those resulting from explosion, reinforcement is provided by engagement of the leaves 48 with bars 69 supported by upper and lower frame portions 27 and 30. More particularly, the bars 69, formed as of sheet metal into a rectangular or other suitable cross section, is inserted through cutout sections 70 of forward wall portions 71 and 72 of the upper and lower frame portions 26 and 30 respectively, and slid transversely so as to be supported by remaining portions of the walls 71 and 72 so as to bear upon outwardly disposed surfaces of the leaves 48. With such reinforcing bars in place, the shutter assembly has easily withstood wind loadings equivalent to lbs. per square foot corresponding to 200 P. H. velocities. As will be understood, the bars 69 may be positioned as indicated in Figure 1 of the drawing so as to permit ready movement of the leaves 48 to open or overlapping relation as may be desired.
- However, in event of expected abnormal conditions, the
leaves may be turned to their closed position, and the bars manually rotated to the edgewise position indicated in Figure 2 so as to bear against the leaves and prevent rotation thereof in their bearings. The invention will provide the maximum protection, with more severe conditions, when mounted interiorly and on inner window frame surfaces as indicated in Figs. 1, 3 and lower portion of Fig. 7. Otherwise, such assembly may also be employed, exteriorly, likewise mounted on inner window frame surfaces as indicated in the upper portion of Fig. 7 on an edge portion of such window frames as indicated in Fig. 4.
It is to be noted that edge and end surfaces of the leaves are not in close contact with adjacent frame structure as it has been found that this arrangement allows the resilience of the shutter assembly to best absorb the maximum shock loads imposed.
It is also to be noted that the shutter assembly may be arranged with the leaf member arranged horizontally as indicated in Fig. l or vertically as indicated in Fig. 2 to afford the appropriate light control. Moreover, individual leaf members may be removed to provide partial coverage of the window area. a
The effect of a sudden wind blast on the structure of my invention will be briefly discussed. Due to the end bearing arrangement, and the fact that such bearings are capable of slight axial movement, upon deflection of the leaves due to wind pressure, the shutter leaves will breathe by permitting air to pass between the ends of the leaves and their supporting frame, the opening being equal on each end and in direct proportion to the force imposed. Thus, maximum deflection of the leaves will be at their center, or centrally of the compression struts 69. The wind pressure will be distributed through and effectively disposed of by various portions of my assembly. First, the wind blast will deflect the individual leaves. The next resistance is offered by contacting of the overlapped edges. Thirdly, the tapered bearings and their seats will offer tensional and bearing resistance; and also, the lock bars or compression struts will take the balance of the pressure. Thus, the load is transmitted in a plurality of steps rather than in one blast directed at the weakest portion of the assembly.
1. Apparatus of the character described including therein a frame comprising oppositely mounted channel end portions and side frame portions adapted for attachrnent to a window frame which side frames have an inwardly projecting longitudinal channeled ridge section and the web portion is formed with a plurality of spaced tapered slots diverging outwardly from theplane of the said web portion and a wider interconnected perforation at the upper end of the respective slots, leaf members adapted for parallel positioning therebetween with tapered-head pivotal bearing pins projecting axially from the ends thereof for engagement with said slots through said perforations, and locking bars having projecting tab portions bearing on said pivotal bearing pins and attached to said side frame through slots in the latter disposed generally normal to the longitudinal axes of said tapered slots.
2. A protective covering fora window or like opening in a building structure including a generally rectangular frame, means on opposed portions of said frame defining a plurality of spaced slots, said slots having side walls which diverge from the plane of said frame, a plurality of leaf members, bearing means of generally diverging form adjacent the ends of said members for rotatably supporting the latter in said slots and with the longitudinal axes thereof in substantial parallelism with the other edge portions of the frame, means for simultaneously rotating said members in said frame including a tilting bar movable along said opposed edge portions and rotatably engageable with portions of said menibers, lock means for resisting withdrawal of said bearing means from said frames, and means on said opposed portions defining a plurality of slots substantially perpendicular to said first mentioned slots for receiving said lock means.
3. A protective covering for a window or like opening in a building structure including a generally rectangular frame having upper, lower and side portions, means in said side portions defining a plurality of longitudinally spaced slots and enlarged openings in communication with said slots adjacent the ends of the latter, a plurality of leaf members, tapered diverging bearing pins secured to said leaf members adjacent the ends thereof and engageable in said slots and having relative rotation therewith, means in said side portions adjacent said slots defining a diverging channel disposed adjacent said diverging tapered pins, a locking bar having a plurality of projections thereon, said projections being engageable with said side members and preventing withdrawal of said pins from said slots and into said enlarged openings, means for rotating said leaf members, said latter means including a tilting bar moveable in a direction parallel to said opposed edge portions and rotatably engaged with portions of said leaf members, said leaf members in one position of rotation thereof being generally perpendicular to the normal plane of said window and in another position of rotation thereof being angularly related to the plane of such window and in overlapping relation.
4. Apparatus as set forth in claim 3, including means for preventing deflection of said leaf members in a direction normal to the plane of said window, said means including a rigid member releasably secured to said upper andlower edge portions with an edge thereof substantially immediately adjacent said leaf members, and means on said upper and lower edge portions for releasably receiving said rigid member.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Great Britain Dec. 29, 1932
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US6449903 *||Dec 29, 1999||Sep 17, 2002||Norb Borcherding||Snap-together shutters with moveable louvers|
|US6658801||Jul 3, 2001||Dec 9, 2003||Patrick Kilduff||Portable fire curtain system|
|US6708457||Dec 5, 2001||Mar 23, 2004||William E. Ballough||Concealed retaining channel for storm shutter attachment|
|US6820381||Feb 6, 2004||Nov 23, 2004||William E. Ballough||Concealed retaining channel for storm shutter attachment|
|US7584579||Dec 28, 2007||Sep 8, 2009||Thomas Joseph Everitt||Storm panel attachment system of plastic composition|
|US9283413||Apr 2, 2015||Mar 15, 2016||Polo Custom Products||Fire curtain assembly and method of use|
|U.S. Classification||49/74.1, 49/389, 49/64|
|Cooperative Classification||E06B9/02, E06B2009/005|