US 2738298 A
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March 13, 1956 D. J. DAVID ETAL NoNwovEN DECORATIVE RIBBoNs Filed DCT.. 7, 1953 United States Patent NONWDVEN DECORATIVE RIBBONS Donald l. David, Lakeland, and Robert H. Hanson, New Canada rTownship, Ramsey County, lVIinn., assignors to Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company, St. Pani, Minn., a corporation of Delaware Application October 7, 1953, Serial No. 384,624
4 Claims. (Cl. 15453.6)
This invention relates to novel non-woven decorative ribbons of the picot type, having pearl-edges formed of projecting fiber loops.
These ribbons are and must be individually manufactured, as distinguished fromy ribbons that can be slit from fabric webs. A feature of the invention is that the ribbons have a structural design such that they are capable of being manufactured in a relatively simple and inexpensive manner and without the need of complicated equipment.
A further feature is that a great variety of ribbons can be produced by simple Variations in the manufacturing operation, and many different color combinations are easily obtained.
One type of ribbon is a narrow ribbon (less than onehalf inch width) of adequate tensile strength and knot strength for use in tying packages in place of using string or woven ribbon; which is inexpensive and yet novel and attractive in appearance. Other types can be made which are wider and more elaborate and can be used in fashioning ornamental bows and pompons for decorating de luxe gift packages, floral corsages, bouquets, wreaths, potted plants, and the like. These ribbons are not damaged by contact with water, which is a very desirable feature for florist usage as flowers are often wet or moist. They have good workability, are non-puckering when looped or tied into a bow, and the bows and loops have the proper combination of resiliency and stiffness to be well-formed, iirm and crisp, and yet are flexible and yieldable.
The lengthwise tensile properties of the ribbon are primarily due to a layer of lineally-aligned viscose-rayon (regenerated cellulose) filaments that are continuous and extend from end to end of the tape. These filaments have a hair-like flneness and a large number are employed in any given ribbon. They may extend uniformly across the width of the filament layer, or constitute two or more spaced-apart strips. They may be present in the form of twisted yarns, or in the form of tows that are spread out. In addition to their important mechanical function in the structure, these lineally-aligned continuous-filaments have a decorative function that is equally important. They can be colored in various ways and they provide a shiny lengthwise striping effect.
The rayon iilaments may be coated with a water-resistant organic-polymer binder sizing, such as a suitable vinyl resin, which provides an almost imperceptible flexible coating that serves to hold the filaments in position and prevents fraying, but does not materially stiien the fabric or conceal the filament structure. This sizing may be colored and thereby provide the desired colored appearance of the filament strip or strips, or it may be clear and transparent to reveal the coloration of the filaments when dyed filaments are employed. The sizing polymer may be included in a dye bath and the filaments simultaneously dyed and coated. The use of a binder sizing is not necessary when the filaments are present in the form of twisted yarns. v
The filament layer carries a superimposed open-mesh 2,738,298 Patented Mar. 13, 1956 layer bonded thereto (preferably autogenously by direct union with the sizing if present or by direct union with the filaments, as distinguished from use of an extraneous adhesive to glue them together). This open-mesh layer is formed of a plurality of continuous lineally-directed sinuous mono-fibers, which are mutually offset from each other and are fused together at their crossing points to form a unitary network having a lineally repetitive pattern.
This network serves an essential mechanical function in holding together in crosswise direction the elements of the filament layer, in providing an adequate crosswise strength for the composite ribbon, and in providing a desired degree of crosswise andlenghtwise stiiiness in combination with adequate flexibility and resiliency. lt also serves k'an essential decorative function in providing an ornamental design that pleasingly combines with the lineal striping appearance of the filament layer. Having an open mesh, it permits the latter to be seen through it, and it` can be given a contrasting coloration if desired. A further essential function, both mechanical and decorative, is that of providing loops that project beyond the sides of the filament layer and .form pearl-edges in the ribbon, thereby making it a picot ribbon.
The network does not carry the lengthwise strain when the ribbon is pulled or jerked, the continuous-iilaments primarily carrying the load and preventing the network from being pulled out and distorted. The filaments also provide a degree of elasticity and resiliency that improves shock resistance. They are present in sufficient number such that the ribbon has a lengthwise tensile strength of at least ten pounds.
The mono-fibers of the network are composed of cellulose acetate, and they have a thickness in the range of about l to 4 mils, in contrast with the much finer size of the lineal filaments. They can be formed and combined in a virtually simultaneous operation, by extruding a viscous cellulose acetate solution from the holes of a spinneret head, downwardly upon the filament layer that is travelling on an endless belt, the spinneret head being reciprocated transversely to lay the iibers in an overlapping sinuous manner. The wet fibers coalesce or fuse at their crossing points and also bond to the sizing coating of the filaments, or directly to the filaments when unsized yarns are employed, being activated to a soft and adhesive state by the solvent; resulting in a unitary and non-tacky ribbon product upon subsequent evaporation of the solvent in an oven and stripping of the ribbon from the casting belt. These extruded mono-fibers have a flattened base due to gravity and to flow of the viscous material, and are several times as wide as thick; and this feature is valuable both from the physical and decorative standpoints.
The general process of forming mono-liber fabrics by extrusion of a temporarily plastic mono-fiber composition from an oscillating spinneret upon an endless moving belt, including'simultaneous lamination to an interposed Woven foundationy fabric carried upon the belt, if desired, was published more than fifty years ago in British specification No. 17,549 (1898). Rayon filaments and cellulose acetate have been well known and commercially available for a great many years. However, to the best of our knowledge, no one had previously conceived of using that kind of process and these materials in combination, to manufacture a ribbon material of the type which we have invented and which is uniquely different from any ribbon heretofore known to the trade so far as we have been able to determine.
The invention can best be described in further detail in connection with the accompanying drawing.
In the drawing:
Fig. 1 is a schematic perspective view of apparatus for manufacturing the ribbon product and also serves as a flow-sheet illustrating the process as applied in the making of a particular type of ribbon.
Figs. 2 and 3 are plan views of two additional illustrative ribbon products.
Referring to Fig. l, there is shown a complete manufacturing process for making a narrow ribbon (suitable for use as a tying ribbon) comprised of a uniform single strip of untwisted continuous filaments coated with a binder sizing and bonded to a network formed of ve sinuous mono-fibers that are uniformly offset and are fused at their crossing points, each mono-fiber winding across the full width of the tape.
A tow l consistingy of a large number of viscose-rayon continuous-filaments hunched together in untwisted relationship, is shown being drawn into the feed end of the apparatus, coming from a rotating package or creel (not shown). The laments are drawn over and under a series of smoothing bars 2 which spread them out in a flat strip and cause the laments to lie approximately parallel to one another. The strip of filaments then passes between two teeth of the positioning rake 3, to align the filaments and produce the desired width, and then over the coating roll Li which dips into the bath 5 which contains dye and sizing resin dissolved in a volatile solvent. The coating solution is transferred from the roll to the filament layer and penetrates and coats the filaments so as to simultaneously dye the filaments and bind them together. The filament strip is then drawn under smoothing bar d and over smoothing bars '7, and then under the positioning bar 3, located so that the strip will be in proper position to meet the upper surface of the endless carrier belt 9 as it passes over supporting roll lf3.
This carrier belt moves in a clockwise direction to and through the drying oven ll (passing around rolls therein, not shown) and emerges from the bottom of the oven, passes under roll i2, up to and around roll 13, and then up to and around the supporting roll where it meets the entering strip of filaments as just described. The belt may be a metal screen, or a sheet material (such as a polyethylene film reinforced with glass filaments and supported on a screen), adapted to receive and hold the ribbon elements and from which the finished ribbon can be stripped. The belt is driven at a constant predetermined speed by driving means (not shown).
A vertical spinneret head ifi is mounted above the carrier belt so as to be positioned above the strip of filaments and just beyond the supporting roll 10. The spinneret head is fed with a viscous cellulose acetate solution through flexible tube 15 which is connected through a feed line to a pump (not sh wn) that is adjusted to feed the solution. at the desired rate. The spinneret extruder plate, in this illustrative case, has five holes, uniformly spaced, positioned in a straight line that is parallel to the direction of motion of the carrier belt, so as to extrude ve viscous mono-fibers in lineal alignment upon the strip of filaments. The Spinnerei is carried by a bar (not shown) that. is reciprocated transversely of the belt by a suitably driving mechanism (not shown), the stroke or travel being adjusted to lay down the extruded monotioers in the desired band width, somewhat wider than the strip of laments.
The resultant effect of the lineal motion of the strip ot' filaments and the transverse motion of the spinneret with its lineally aligned holes, is to lay the viscous monobers in a sinuous manner, each mono-iber advancing in a wave-like direction from edge to edge and being crossed by each of the others. The axes of the Wave lines are lineal and parallel, and hence the mono-fibers are lineallydirected although mutually offset and overlapping. rthe fiber turns, where direction is reversed, 'Jroiect beyond the edges of the strip of filaments and provide loops forming pearl-edges and a picot ribbon structure. The viscous mono-fibers merge together at their crossing points to fuse the fibers, resulting in a unitary network. The viscous fibers in being extruded upon the strip of filaments and the carrier belt, are liattened on the contacting bottom portions, due to gravity and viscous flow of material, thereby increasing the area of contact, and a strong bond is effected with the binder sizing coating which is still in a viscous and tacky state, thereby unifying the two layers. The solvents in the mono-fibers and in the sizing composition are selected to produce compatibility adequate to cause a strong bonding without excessive iiow of the mono-fiber at the point of contact that would weaken it.
The freshly formed ribbon product 16 is shown moving toward the drying oven, where the volatile solvents present in the viscous mono-fibers and in the sizing coating are evaporated and the elements of the ribbon are thus set-up to their dry final state. The ribbon product i7 is stripped from the carrier belt as the latter moves from roll 12 and is drawn to a wind-up roll (not shown).
lt is obvious that a number of ribbons can be made simultaneously with this type of apparatus, using a corresponding number of spinneret heads, but for simplicity the making of 4a single ribbon has been illustrated.
Many different structural designs can be achieved by varying the relative speeds of the spinneret and the .carrier belt, the mode of reciprocation of the spinneret (thus a harmonic motion will produce a different pattern than a non-harmonic motion), and thc number and arrangement of the extrusion holes. The distance of the spinneret above the belt, and the viscosity of the extruded solution, will also effect the laying down of the monofibers and the precise pattern. instead of the filaments being uniformly spread in a single strip, they may be divided to form two or more spaced-apart strips. Twisted filament yarns may be used, forming either a single strip or two or more spaced-apart strips. ln these latter cases the binder sizing may be omitted, as the viscous mono fibers will press against the yarns and flow so as to penetrate the filament structure, interlocking and physically anchoring to the filaments that are contacted, the twist holding the filaments together and bringing them into position for bonding at various points along their lengths.
Details involved in making a preferred tying ribbon of the Fig. l type described above are as follows: The ribbon had a total width of LV1@ inch and a tensile strength of i9 pounds. The continuous-filament strip had a width of Mi inch and was formed from a 2200 denier tow consisting of 1466 untwisted viscose-rayon continuous-filaments of high tenacity (3.1 grams per denier). The sizing bath consisted of a 15% solution of a 87:13 copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate in a solvent mixture of equal parts of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene. The bath contained a dye to impart the desired shade and intensity of color (for example, 0.5% of Grasol yellow dye, sold by Geigy Company, lne). The spinneret had five lineally aligned extrusion holes spaced 1/s inch apart, cach hole had a diameter of 0.006 inch (6 mils), the spinneret reciprocation distance was 0.2125 inch, the frequency was 2145 complete cycles per minute, and the spinneret was positioned to provide a vertical distance of inch to the belt. (It will be noted that this reciprocation distance is less than the width of tbe ribbon, which is accounted for by the fact that the rapidly oscillating spinneret throws the extruded viscous mono-fibers an additional distance.) The carrier belt moved at a speed of 73.5 feet per minute. The cellulose acetate solution was extruded at the rate of 10.5 cc. per minute (all five holes). The unpigmented cellulose acetate solution consisted of 21.1% by weight of cellulose acetate (38% acetyl content, viscosity range of 45 to 55 seconds by A. S. T. M. method DSH-48 formula A), 6.32% of' triphenyl phosphate (plasticizer), 65.6% of acetone, and 6.95% of ethyl alcohol. This solution was thoroughly mixed with pigment to produce the desired coloration. For making yellow fibers, the composition consisted of pounds.
100 parts by weight of the cellulose acetate solution, 0.17 part of titanium dioxide pigment paste (36.4% pigment milled with `63.6% tricresyl phosphate), and 0.57 part of yellow pigment paste (50% chrome yellow pig ment milled with 50% tricresyl phosphate). The ribbon product had a weight of 35.8 grams per 100 lineal yards (10.1 grams duetto the cellulose acetate mono-fiber network, 22.4 grams due to the viscose-rayon filaments and 3.3 grams due to the sizing). The caliper thickness was 5.0 to 5.5 mils. The caliper thickness of the mono-bers was 2.6 Vto 2.9 mils. The lineal tensile strength was 19 The ribbon structure permitted an easy crosswise collapse in tying knots so as to permit of tying small hard knots; this property beingy due to the combinative or cooperative effect of several factors present in the structure.
Fig. 2 shows a modication of the picot ribbon of Fig. 1, which is made in the same way except that eight continuous-lament twisted yarns 20, uniformly spaced from each other and lineally aligned, are employed to provide the lament base layer upon which the sinuous mono-fibers 21 are extruded. An example of a suitable yarn is a 300 denier, 60 filament, 2%/2 turns per inch, mediumtenacity viscose-rayon yarn.
Fig. 3 illustrates still another type of picot ribbon, which is especially adapted for fashioning ornamental bows and pompons. This ribbon has a combination striped and elaborate ligree pattern and is 7/s inch wide. The three lineal stripes 22 (two marginal stripes and a central stripe) are spaced well apart and each stripe consists of several twisted continuous-lament yarns in shoulder-to-shoulder relation (for example, eight 150 denier, 40 filament, 2V; turns per inch, viscose yarns). The ligree network 23 bonded thereto is formed from 13 pairs of mono-bers, extruded from a spinneret having 13 pairs of holes, each pair being lineally aligned, and the series of pairs of holes extending transversely (relative to ribbon travel direction). The lineal-direction distance between the holes of each pair is M1 inch, and the transverse-direction distance between successive pairs of holes is )is inch. The spinneret travels through a transverse stroke of g inch, and the speed of oscillation is coordinated with the speed of the carrier web so that the wave patterns of the bers extruded from each pair of holes are 180 out of phase (the peaks of one ber being thus transversely aligned with the valleys of the other ber). The adjacent pairs of mono-bers overlap across the width of the ribbon to form a unitary composite network composed of 13 pairs of lineally-directed sinuous mono-bers bonded together to provide the full 'Mz inch width of the ribbon product, the marginal ber loops extending beyond the marginal lament yarn stripes to make a picot type ribbon.
An example of an attractive combination of color eects in this form of construction, is one obtained by coloring the lineal yarns green (by using a green dye in the sizing bath solution), using clear uncolored mono-bers, and subjecting the completed ribbon to aluminum metallizing on the ber network side. The front side of the ribbon is the side carrying the exposed green stripes, which are opaque and conceal the metallic back. The ber network appears silvery from this front side because the bers are transparent and, owing to an optical illusion, appear as though made of aluminum. Thus the front side of the ribbon exhibits green stripes against a silvery filigree is fashioned into a bow and the differing appearances provide an attractive contrast.
A variety of other similar filigree ribbons can be made by varying the details. Preferred constructions have a width of approximately 1 to 2 inches, two or more spacedapart stripes of lineally aligned laments (twisted or untwisted), and 8 to 24 pairs of the mono-bers per inch width of the ribbon.
What we claim is as follows:
1. A non-woven decorative picot ribbon of the character described, essentially consisting of a fiat lament layer formed of a large number of lineally-aligned viscose-rayon continuous-filaments, and a superimposed open-mesh layer bonded thereto and formed of a plurality of continuous lineally-directed sinuous mono-bers which are mutually offset and are fused together at their crossing points to form a unitary network having a lineally repetitive pattern, the network having loops extending beyond the sides of the lament layer to provide the ribbon with pearledges, said mono-bers being composed of cellulose .acetate and having a thickness in the range of about 1 to 4 mils, and the ribbon having a lengthwise tensile strength of at least 10 pounds.
2. A non-woven decorative picot ribbon essentially consisting of a flat lament layer formed of a large number of lineally-aligned viscose-rayon continuous-filaments coated with a colored water-resistant organic-polymer binder sizing and, autogenously bonded thereto, a superimposed open-mesh layer formed of a plurality. of continuous lineally-directed sinuous mono-bers which are mutually offset and are fused together at their crossing points to form a unitary network having a lineally repetitive pattern, the network having loops extending beyond the sides of the filament layer to provide the ribbon with pearl-edges, said mono-bers being composed of cellulose acetate and having a thickness in the range of about 1 t0 4 mils, and the ribbon having a lengthwise tensile strength of at least 10 pounds.
3. A ribbon according to claim 2 wherein the lament layer is uniform across its width and composed of untwisted and unspaced laments forming a single strip nearly as wide as the total width of the ribbon, and each mono-ber winds across the full width of the tape, the ribbon having a width of. less than one-half inch.
4. A non-woven decorative picot ribbon having a width of approximately l to 2 inches and essentially consisting of a at lament layer formed of a plurality of spacedapart lineal stripes each consisting of a large number of lineally-aligned viscose-rayon continuous filaments, and a superimposed open-mesh layer bonded thereto and formed of from 8 to 24 pairs, per inch of ribbon width, of lineally-directed sinuous mono-bers, the mono-bers of each pair having wave patterns out of phase, and the pairs being laid down side by side with adjacent pairs fused together at mono-ber crossing points to provide a unitary ligree design having a lineally repetitive pattern and having loops extending beyond the stripes to provide the ribbon with pearl-edges, said mono-bers being composed of cellulose acetate and having a thickness in the range of about 1 to 4 mils, and the ribbon having a lengthwise tensile strength of at least 10 pounds.
References Cited inthe le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Great Britain 1898