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Publication numberUS2739213 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 20, 1956
Filing dateOct 26, 1953
Priority dateOct 26, 1953
Publication numberUS 2739213 A, US 2739213A, US-A-2739213, US2739213 A, US2739213A
InventorsEdward Beckjord William
Original AssigneeEdward Beckjord William
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electric heater units
US 2739213 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 20, 1956 w. E. BECKJORD ELECTRIC HEATER UNITS Filed Oct. 26, 1953 3 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR. WILL/AIM EDhMRD BEC/(JODU TORNEY March 20, 1956 w. E. BECKJORD 2,739,213

ELECTRIC HEATER UNITS Filed 000. 26, l953 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. W/LL/AM EDWARD BECKJOPD TTORNEY March 20, 1956 W. E. BECKJORD ELECTRIC HEATER UNITS Filed Oct. 26, 1953 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 I N V EN TOR. MAL/4M kW/4w flax Jaw BY ,wW

United States Patent ELECTRIC 'HEATER UNITS William Edward'Beckjord, Toms River, N. J. Application October 26,1953, Serial No. 388,319 6 Claims. (Cl. 201-67) This is a continuation in part of the-originally filed application Serial No. 172,203, filed July 8, 1950, now abandoned.

This invention relates to electric resistance heating units and more particularly to a strip resistance heating element having a plurality of blade surfaces constructed and arranged to facilitate the transfer of heat from the element to the air surrounding said blades.

This invention is related to my patent on Electric Unit Heater, No. 2,683,209.

It is an object of this invention to provide a simple and practical heating element of the Convector type that will diffuse heat at a predetermined temperature with a given energy input.

A further object of this invention is to provide a convector heating element having a plurality of heat dissipating blades thereon in which the blades are proportioned with respect to the heating element and spaced with relation to each other to provide a maximum etliciency in the conduction and dissipation of heat.

A further object of this invention is to provide a heating unit which will convert the maximum amount of en orgy in a designed cubical space and circulate the heat converted from electrical energy by naturalmeans within a predetermined area surrounding the heating unit.

A still further object of this invention is to provide a strip heating element having a plurality of cast metal sections that are constructed with a plurality of heat dissipating blades in which means are provided to embed the cast metal sections in a close contact with theheatingelement to provide a rapid transfer of the heat to the cast metal sections.

A further object ofthis invention is to provide a simple efiicient heating unit that may be assembled in multiples of a unit inch and in which the heating element is constructed with a central electrical resistance unit with a plurality of cast metal sections affixed to said element in an integral 'efiicient heat dissipating unit.

Another object of this invention is to provide a heating unit that is comprised of a central electrical heating element and a plurality of cast metal heat'dissip'ating elements and in which the sections are mounted to surround saidheating element and a filler-of high heat transfer efficiency isprovided between the metal section-s and the heating element to combine all components into an-in'tegral heating unit.

A further object of this invention is to provide a heatingunit that may be assembled in multiples of a unit inch and in which the unit is comprised of a plurality of cast metal heat dissipating sections surrounding an electrical heating element and affixed in such a relation that any one or many sections may be removed from said element for the repair of said unit.

Another object of this invention is to provide-an electric heating unit that is a multiple of a designed unit inch and in which the unit is constructed with a-centrally positioned electrical heating element embedded andhaving a plurality of flat spaced apart heat dissipating blades extending outwardly from said electrical element, said blades designed with ample thickness and surface to transfer by convection the'heat to the air surrounding said blades.

Other objects of this invention may be apparent by reference to the accompanying detailed description and the drawings in which Fig. 1 illustrates an electrical strip element,

Fig. 2 illustrates a heating pipe element,

Fig. 3 illustrates a plan view of a complete heating unit,

Fig. 4 is a cross sectional view taken on line 4-4 of Fig.3,

Fig. 5 is a cross sectional view similar to Fig. 4 but pro viding a filler between the heating element and the cast- Fig. 6 is a front elevational view of the heater unit shown in Fig. 3,

Fig. 7 is an isometric view illustrating the cast metal heat dissipating sections,

Fig. 8 is an isometric illustration of a designed unit inch of the heating unit,

Fig. 9 illustrates another embodiment of the heater unit,

Fig. 10 is a further embodiment illustrating a variation of the shape of the heat dissipating sections,

Fig. 11 is a further embodiment illustrating a variation of the shape of the heat dissipating sections,

Fig. 12 is an isometric illustration of a further embodiment of the unit inch of the heating element, and

Fig. 13 is an isometric illustration of a still further embodiment of the unit inch of the heating element.

Referring to Fig. 1 there is illustrated one of the various forms of strip heater elements that maybe utilized with this invention. In this particular form there is a nickel chromium alloy resistor embedded in a special refractory that has been compacted to maximum density and the refractory fired at 1500' F to semi-vitrify and the complete unit enclosed in a metal sheath.

Fig. 2 illustrates a length of heating pipe. In this instance we have illustrated a steam or hot water supply pipe 10 connected to a valve 11, the valve in turn connected to a length of pipe 12, the pipe 12 in turn being connected by an elbow 13 to a return pipe 14. In this type of installation, the pipe 12 would be utilized as the central core of a heating unit which will be explained futther with reference to another embodiment of this invention.

Fig. 3 illustrates a complete heater unit 15 mounted about an electrical strip heater element 16. It is to be noted that the heater unit is comprised of a plurality of cast metal sections 18 and as illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5 the cast metal sections 18 are constructed in halves 13A and 183. Each section is provided with a plurality of heat dissipating blades 19, the blades 19 being integral with a hub section 26. The hub section is provided with a pair of apertures 21 and a pair 22 and with a central cutout core section 23. In the assembly of the heater unit, it is'apparent referring to Figs. 3 and 4 that the strip element 16 is positioned between a pair of mating cast sections 18A and 1813. With the components in this relationship a pair of bolts 24 and a pair 25 are passed through the apertures 21 and 22 and the sections 18A and 18B are tightly clamped about the strip element 16 and according to Fig. 3 a plurality of similar sections 18A and 18B are similarly clamped to completely enclose the strip 16 over the full length of the element 16.

Referring to Fig. 5 in which we have similarly illustrated the sections 18A and 18B clamped about a strip element 16, in this embodiment we have provided a filler 26 of high heat conducting qualities. In reducing this invention to practice we have found that a thick paste consisting of lead monoxide and glycerin and tartaric acid provided the desired characteristics. With this mixture we may apply the paste freely to the cavity or core of the cast sections and by clamping the sections 18A and 18B in their desired relationship about the strip 16, the paste will by means of its own chemical action solidify and in fact we may control the length of time in which the paste will take to solidify by the amount of tartaric acid added to the mixture. This paste when solidified provides a solid conductive pack for the flow of heat from the strip to the heat dissipating surfaces of the cast metal sections. One of the advantages to this form in which a filler is utilized is that no matter what shape the cross section of the strip may be, with the core of the cast metal sections large enough to encompass the strip, the paste will completely fill any space and provide a completely filled integral set up for the finished assembly. The segments or sections 18' may be made of aluminum or any of its alloys or of magnesium, cast iron, copper, glass or any other suitable heat conducting material. Many variations maybe obtained, that is, a unit such as that illustrated in Fig. 6 may be made up of two different materials, one half of the section comprised of aluminum and the other half of cast iron. In such combination the aluminum section will provide the faster conducting material to bring the blade temperature more rapidly to the predetermined heat dissipating ternperature, whereas the cast iron section will come up to the predetermined temperature slowly. However when the strip element is turned off and the heat is no longersupplied to the sections, the reverse condition would exist, that is, the aluminum sections will cool quickly whereas the cast iron sections will retain their heat for a longer period. This condition tends to level the heat fluctuation in the space heated. It is to be noted that the blade structure must be thick enough at its root so that we may provide sufiicient capacity in the blade structure to conduct the heat generated in the strip to the blade surfaces without restriction.

Referring to Fig. 7 in which we illustrate an isometric view of two halves of a cast metal section 13, the hub structure 20 and blades 18A and 18B are clearly shown in the preferred form. In this form the blades are generally rectangular in shape and the cross sectional dimension of the blade is slightly greater at its base 30 tapering toward the outer edge 31 of the blade 18A or 1813. This form simplifies the removal of the casting from its mold.

As in our prior application the form of blade structure illustrated in this application lends itself to the construction of a unit inch'for a heating element as defined. With a relatively thick A3 plus aluminum plate with an area approximately 8" high and 6" wide and with a pair of sections clamped as an integral unit and with the unit inch designed to encompass two elements, one standard unit inch of a heater will combine 50 plus or minus 20 watts of electrical resistance with 96 plus or minus 15 square inches of heat dissipating surface.

Referring to Fig. 9 in which we illustrate a further embodiment of this invention it is apparent that we have combined a heating type structure similar to that illustrated in Fig. 2 with a pair of heat dissipating cast metal sections similar to that illustrated in Fig. 6 and of course the blades 19A will provide the necessary heat dissipating surface and as already described with relation to Fig. 6 these sections may be constructed of various materials according to the desired heat dissipating qualities.

In Figs. 10 and 11 we have illustrated a different external blade periphery, that is, we may take the section illustrated in Fig. 9 and instead of the rectangular form of blade we may provide a circular form as shown. It is conceivable that the element in one of the many installations may be inserted in a space, with this form we may provide the proper positioning of the heat dissipating surfaces with relation to the wall structure of the space. Fig. 11 provides a similar demarcation from the form of blade illustrated in the various figures utilizing the elecell) trical resistance element. The blades may be formed of circular or elliptical or any similar form to provide the proper positioning and heat dissipating distribution according to the space in which the element may be inserted, that is, in the form illustrated in Fig. ll the surrounding space will approximately follow but be spaced from the periphery of the blades as shown.

Referring to Figs. 12 and 13 which are similar to Fig. 8 except that the defined unit inch includes two elements in Fig. 8 while the embodiments illustrated in Figs. 12 and 13 include one element. The reason for simplifying the structure to a single element is to assist in the simplified production of the unit. The single element illustrated in Fig. 12 will provide a blade 198 with a relatively thick /s" plus aluminum plate with an area approximately 16" high and 6" Wide and a pair of blades 193 being designed to be clamped about two elements 16 that are spaced slightly apart. In this embodiment the elements'l6 are of the same capacity as the elements illustrated in Pig. 8. Thus it is apparent that m'th this construction there will be a single element or composite unit utilized in the pre determined unit inch. In Fig. 13 there is illustrated a similar pair of blades 19B of the same area as those illustrated in Fig; 12 to make up a unit inch for a heater. However in this embodiment instead of utilizing two heating elements 16 there is provided a single heating element 16A which is double the capacity of a single element 16 thus the element 16A will provide the same power consumption and heat distribution as two elements 16 as shown in the prior embodiment.

In this invention it is to be noted that regardless of the central heating element whether electrical, steam, water or any other form of heat there is provided a central core in the heat dissipiating sections that are clamped about the central heating element. in order that the assembly of these units may be very flexible, the sections or heat dissipating elements have been divided into halves sothat they may be easily bolted together and in addition the sections have been provided in a plurality of segments. As in Fig. 3, instead of dividing the heat dissipating sections into two halves the unit is much more flexible and much easier to assemble and disassemble when we break the halves into a plurality of segments. Also the manufacture of these small segments is so much simpler and cheaper, yet when the unit is completely assembled the same results are obtained as if the unit were made as one or as two halves. t is also to be noted'that with the assembly of the unit as illustrated in Fig. 5 using a filter between the heating element and the heat dissipating sections that it is not important to provide a carefully cored section. The section as it comes from the poured mold will be ready for use without any machining whatsoever. Thus the cost of manufacture is reduced yet the filler provided produces exactly the same heat conducting quality as if the cored section had been carefully machined to provide a perfect tight contact relation with the sheath of the heater element or if the whole unit had been cast in one piece. A further advantage of this unit is to be noted and that is with a heater completely assembled for a given location wherein a certain voltage or range of voltage is supplied in the event that the heater is moved to a ditferent location Where a different voltage is supplied it becomes necessary to change the internal strip element and similarly where the utility company supplying electricity makes a change in their electrical distribution and in changing the distribution alsochanges the voltage supplied, it is necessary to change the internal electrical strip unit in order that the heater may supply the exact designed wattage consumed to produce thc predetermined blade temperature. in such instance with the construction as described it is a simple matter to remove the heating unit to unbolt the sections and remove the internal strip element and replace with the proper strip element for the new voltage and as in Fig. 5 the filler is easily cracked and chipped from the sections and a new filler provided to reassemble the units.

Although we have shown this invention as applied to a heating device wherein the sections comprised of blades are used to dissipate heat to the surrounding air, this invention, that is, the sections comprised of a plurality of blades may be similarly used to absorb heat from the surrounding air and by conduction dissipate this heat into a coolant or heat absorbing medium that will be positioned in the core similar to the heating elements illustrated in this embodiment.

Although we have shown a preferred embodiment of this invention and some of the variations from this embodiment we may make various changes in the sections, that is, as to the number of blades provided in a section and in the shape of the blades and in the cross sectional area of the blades without departing from the spirit of this invention and this invention shall be limited only by the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. In a heater, a heating element, a casting formed with heat radiating blades, said casting formed in two mating halves with a hub section, one of the halves of said casting being or" a luminum and the other half being of iron, the aluminum half of said casting conducting heat rapidly to the surface of said blades to be dissipated, the iron half of said casting conducting heat to the surface of said blades and retaining a predetermined blade dissipating temperature for a longer period of time than the aluminum half, said hubs provided with bolts to secure said castings in pairs to said heating element, and means for selectively connecting as many pairs of castings independently as the length of the heating element provides for.

2. In a heater, a heating resistor core, a plurality of measured sections, each section comprising a unit inch, each unit inch including two elements of the heater, each element comprised of a casting formed of two mating halves with a hub structure, said hubs provided with bolts to secure together about the heating resistor core, said mating halves including radiating blades that taper from their root to the tip of the blade and are approximately A5" in thickness, said blades formed with an area approximately 8" high and 6" wide, said blades spaced sulficiently apart so that the next adjoining blade will fall within the next unit inch of the heater, means for securing said castings in pairs independently of each other to said heating resistor core, and means to combine a given electrical resistance in each unit inch of said heater.

3. In a device according to claim 2 said hubs positioned adjacent to the lower edge of said blade when said blades are secured to said heating elements.

4. In a heater, a heating resistor core, a plurality of measured sections, each section comprising a unit inch, each unit inch including two elements of the heater, each element comprised of a casting formed of two mating halves with a hub structure, said hubs provided with bolts to secure together about the heating resistor core, said mating halves including radiating blades that taper from their root to the tip of the blade, said blades formed with a substantial size area, said blades spaced sufficiently apart so that the next adjoining blade will fall within the next unit inch of the heater, means for securing said castings in pairs independently of each other to said heating resis tor core, and means to combine a given electrical resistance in each unit inch of said heater.

5. In a heater, a heating resistor core, a plurality of measured sections, each section comprising a unit inch, each unit inch including one element of the heater, each element comprised of a casting formed of two mating halves with a hub structure, said hubs provided with bolts to secure together about the heating resistor core, said mating halves including radiating blades that taper from their root to the tip of the blade, said blades formed with a substantial size area, said blades spaced sufficiently apart so that the next adjoining blade will fall within the next unit inch of the heater, means for securing said castings in pairs independently of each other to said heating resistor core, and means to combine a given electrical resistance in each unit inch of said heater.

6. In a heater, a heating resistor core, a plurality of measured sections, each section comprising a unit inch, each unit inch including one element of the heater, each element comprised of a casting formed of two mating halves with a double hub structure, a resistance heating unit in each hub, said hubs provided with bolts to secure together about the heating resistor core, said mating halves including radiating blades that taper from their root to the tip of the blade, said blades formed with a substantial size area, said blades spaced sufficiently apart so that the next adjoining blade will fall within the next unit inch of the heater, means for securing said castings in pairs independently of each other to said heating resistor core, and means to combine a given electrical resistance in each unit inch of said heater.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 253,413 Mixer Feb. 7, 1882 1,475,162 Abbott Nov. 27, 1923 2,007,838 Scott et a1. July 9, 1935 FOREIGN PATENTS 399,995 Great Britain Oct. 19, 1933 409,783 Great Britain May 10, 1934 708,609 France May 4, 1931

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US253413 *Dec 14, 1881Feb 7, 1882THE DE LA VERGNE a MIXEE EEFEIGEEATING COMPANYWilliam m
US1475162 *Mar 5, 1921Nov 27, 1923Gen ElectricElectric heater
US2007838 *Nov 8, 1934Jul 9, 1935Roy J ScottHeat transfer apparatus
FR708609A * Title not available
GB399995A * Title not available
GB409783A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3438436 *Nov 25, 1966Apr 15, 1969Tauno KoponenHeat exchanger
US3632987 *Feb 20, 1970Jan 4, 1972Harley J OrrHeating and radiating unit for electrical heaters
US4335417 *Apr 7, 1980Jun 15, 1982General Electric CompanyHeat sink thermal transfer system for zinc oxide varistors
US5228460 *Dec 12, 1991Jul 20, 1993Philip Morris IncorporatedLow mass radial array heater for electrical smoking article
US5309982 *Jun 21, 1991May 10, 1994Sal AlianoHeat exchanger for exposed pipes
US5402100 *Dec 6, 1993Mar 28, 1995General Electric CompanyOvervoltage surge arrester with means for protecting its porcelain housing against rupture by arc-produced shocks
US5828810 *Apr 26, 1996Oct 27, 1998Nine Lives, Inc.Positive temperature coefficient bar shaped immersion heater
US20110315361 *Jun 24, 2010Dec 29, 2011Huff Timothy MCooling system having fins
Classifications
U.S. Classification219/540, 392/354, 165/181, 338/51, 338/333
International ClassificationH05B3/50, H05B3/42
Cooperative ClassificationH05B3/50
European ClassificationH05B3/50