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Publication numberUS2739579 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 27, 1956
Filing dateFeb 2, 1951
Priority dateFeb 2, 1951
Publication numberUS 2739579 A, US 2739579A, US-A-2739579, US2739579 A, US2739579A
InventorsMarsden Ware, Witzky Julius E
Original AssigneeStudebaker Packard Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Internal combustion engine cylinder assemblies
US 2739579 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 27, 1956 M. WARE ET AL 2,739,579

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CYLINDER ASSEMBLIES Filed Feb. 2, 1951 3 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR.

March 27, 1956 WARE ET AL 2,739,579

3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.

March 27, 1956 WARE ETAL 2,739,579

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CYLINDER ASSEMBLIES Filed Feb. 2, 1951 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 United States Patent INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CYLHNDER ASSEMBLIES Marsden Ware, Huntington Woods, and Juiius E. Witzky, Royal Oak, Micln, assignors to Studebaker-Packard Corporation, a corporation of Michigan Application February 2, 1951, Serial No. 209,109 8 Claims. (Cl. 123-4131) This invention relates to internal combustion engines and particularly to internal combusition engine cylinder assemblies of the type including means defining a combustion space and a space immediately adjacent the combustion space through which a stream of cooling water may be continually passed.

In the construction of internal combustion engines, particularly engines of the larger type such as diesel engines, it is sometimes found desirable to separately form the several cylinder assemblies and to separately assemble such assemblies in desired relationship on the cylinder block. It is also generally preferred to form each such assembly by permanently uniting a cylinder barrel fabricated by a forging operation to a water space defining structure which is either built of separately formed parts united by welding or which is formed by a casting operation, since each of these parts may then be given the physical characteristics calculated to enable it to most efiiciently perform its functions over a long period of time while, at the same time, the full benefits of an integral structure are realized.

In accordance with the present invention an improved cylinder barrel and head assembly is provided, having material advantages over generally similar structures heretofore designed or suggested. One feature of the invention is the improved means forming portion of this assembly and which defines the space through which cooling water is circulated. The common wall between the combustion space of the assembly and the water space immediately above it is, of course, subjected, in the operation of the engine in which the assembly may be incorporated, to the action of very high temperature gases and also to the rapidly repeated blows resulting from the explosions which occur in'the cylinder. The upper end of the cylinder, and especially this common dividing wall between combustion and fore, be given strong mechanical support and must be maintained sufiiciently cool to prevent the development of structural weaknesses when the engine is in use.

This invention provides a assembly in which the wall which divides the combustion and cooling water spaces is both cooled in a novel and improved manner and is mechanically supported from above in such a way that its resistance to repeated explosions in the cylinder below is all that could be desired. These advantages are realized in a structure of minimum weight, weight being conserved by providing bridging webs so located that the entire member is trusslike in form.

The present invention is particularly related to that type of engine embodying a small pre-combustion chamber formed in the cylinder head and means are provided whereby the wall of this pre-combustion chamber may be adequately cooled. This is done by bringing the water up from the cylinder cooling jacket through a substantially complete annular series of openings adjacent the periphery of the cylinder head and directing all of this water radially inward across the top of the head wall water spaces, must, therecylinder and cylinder head 2,739,579 Patented Mar. 27, 1956 2 of the cylinder head and against the outer wall of the pre-combustion chamber.

The improved cylinder assembly is disclosed in the accompanying drawings, one preferred embodiment being illustrated by way of example. that minor departures may be made in adapting the invention to internal combustion engine cylinder assemblies which vary in dimension and other minor aspects, resulting in variations in engine horse power, all without departure from the teachings of the invention.

In the drawings:

Figure 1 is a transverse section through a portion of an internal combustion engine, the section being taken through the longitudinal axis of one of the novel cylinder assemblies;

Figure 2 is a section taken through the axis of the cylinder assembly in such manner as to shown an inlet and an exhaust valve, with the ports which they control respectively, being taken on the line 2-2 of Figure 3;

Figure 3 is a section on line 3-3 of Figure 2, no portion of the cylinder block being shown;

Figure 4 is a section on line 4-4 of Figure 1, the cylinder block being omitted; and

Figure 5 is a top plan view of portion of an internal combustion engine cylinder block, showing two of the oiftakes for leading cooling water from the water cooling spaces of adjacent cylinder assemblies to the manifold provided for the removal of cooling water from all of the cylinders.

Details of the engine block 10 to which the improved cylinder assembly is to be applied may, of course, vary widely and no attempt has been made to illustrate such a block in full. It may be said that the block is provided with the usual cylindrical bores for the reception of the cylinder assemblies. Each such assembly comprises .essentially a cylinder barrel 11, a cylinder head 12, and means 14 for retaining a shoulder of the cylinder barrel and head in the engine block 10, a shoulder of the cylinder barrel bearing against a shoulder of the cylinder block. This novel retaining means is of the type disclosed in co-pending application Serial No. 179,493 to Julius E. Witzky, filed August 15, 1950, now Patent No. 2,654,357, issued October 6, 1953.

. That portion 13 of the engine block which surrounds the cylinder barrel 11 forms a water jacket 16. The space just below the cylinder head inside the cylinder barrel may be referred to as the main combustion chamber.

The cylinder barrel 11 and the head 12 may be cast or forged separately and welded together. Thus they may be formed as disclosed in co-pending application a Serial No. 157,762 to R. E. Van

Deventer, filed April 24, 1950, now abandoned.

Prior to assembly of the cast member 12 and the barrel 11 a circular series of apertures 15 are formed in the cast member, these apertures or ducts beings either formed as an incident of the casting operation or by drilling after casting. The ducts 15 are distributed largely as shown in Figure 3 and are of such size, when taken together, as to ensure the passage into the water space 1211, of a supply of cooling water quite adequate for all needs during the operation of the engine in which the assembly is used. As shown in the drawings, the lower ends of all of the ports 15 are in open communication with the water space 16, intermediate the cylinder barrel 11 and that portion of the cylinder block 10 which immediately envelops the cylinder barrel. The horizon tally disposed partition or wall 18 of the cylinder head divides the main combustion space of the engine from the webs 19 in the nature of baflies which direct the infiowing It will be appreciated wall, are several streams of cooling" water issuing from ports 15'toward the axis ofthe assembly, causing the cooling water -to -flowthrough the chamber C across the upper surface of the dividing wall 18 and against the wall 20 of the preco'mbustion chamber 20a. Each chambernarrows gradually toward the discharge port C, through' which discharge --portwater from a substantial number of inlet ports --must pass and, as a result of this gradual contraction of the water channel the cooling waterpasses through port C" at increased velocity into the chamber above. The-rate-at which heat-is removedt'rom the wall of- 'thepie-combustion chamber, by causingthe cooling-"water to directly impinge against-that wall-and thereafter fiow rapidly upwardly along the wall*surface of the chamber, is substantially increased; the water streanvrapidly scrubbing away, sotospeak, the heat imparted to the wall by the-combustiOn within the chamber; There is thus conducted away from these walls a sufficient amount of the heat imparted thereto'by the-burning gases to maintain the wall at a desired temperature.

The-cylinder assembly selected for disclosure is -designed'in-such' manner that the fuel will be initially supplied to and .burned'within theme-combustion chamber a and the wall of such'a pre-combustion chamber, which'is generally spherical, is indicated at 20. The webs 19, it will be observechhave upturned portions 19a spaced from the outer surfaces of the wallet the pre combustion chamber so that the upwardly flowing streams of -cooling water sweep overthe outerwall 'surfacesof the pm-combustion chamber before entering the -larger spacelZa above the webs-on baflles 19. The-- pre combustion chamber is supplied from above-with-fuel by means of a fuel injector 22 which is positioned in an upwardly tapering-socket provided for its reception andthegases resulting from combustion in the pro-combustion chamber pass downwardly into the cylinder below through a burner 23; The usual glow plug or ignition device #24 isprovidedand is threaded into a'generally horizontally" disposed passage formed in thecastmember 12 aud'the inner end of-which is in communicationwith the-precombustion chamber.

It will-be appreciated that provision is made for valves-,- valve -guides :and ports through which combustion supporting-air may enter the cylinder and products of combustion escape. Two inlet valves and two outlet valves are provided, there beingtwoports in the :wall 18 for the introduction of air and two ports-inthat wallfor the escape ofi products of combustion; Theinlet valves v, OfijWhiChOl'l is shown in sideelevationin Figure-=2; are provided: with: stems 26 and 27; respectively, andthe exhaust valves; one of which -is indicated at 'V 'in Figure 2,5 :are provided with hollow-stems 28 ai1dj29? Valve guides are indicated-at 30 and 31, respectively, in Figure 2,; and each of these sleeve-like members is housed within L a tubular element which forms an integral portion of the-- castzmember- 12, these elements being indicated at 32, 33,

3.4 and-35 '(in Figure 3), the annular upper end surfaces I of. the four valve guides and {the four guide supporting elements-lying within or adjacent acommon plane, shown in Figure 2;

The annular upper end surface ;ofthe=central tubular Part 121) which receives the injector .nozzle: is'klikewise disposed in the same ;plane,=- WhiChQPlBHC -iS-gfi slight distance :above the bevelled upper edge of the cyli'ndrical, shell ofcast member 12." The supper-end ofthe water Spacedcfined by this member -is-closed by :a circular: plate 4 36,-; the =bevelled periphery of this plate*being attached td theibevelled upper, edge of the cylin'drical wall" otcasting- 12 bya;:weld ing operation, the Weld metal being indicated at;3l; Apertures are provided in platef36-through which the, -.cylindrical1.upper ;-end. o "the tubular injection nozzle receivinggpart' 12b projects, as shown-in Figure '1; and the-upper annularedges of -thescyli'ndrical 'elements 32,-

33," 34' and 35, which house -theffour -valve guides, also i project through apertures in plate 36 provided for that purpose.-= The edges-of- -the -apertures--thus provided plate 36 are bevelled, as shown in Figure 2, to facilitate welding and, encircling each of the tubular parts just mentioned, and sealing and securing the upper end of each to plate 36, are bands of weld material, indicated at 38, 39 and 40 in Figure 2,- the space 12a contained within the casting 12 and provided for the receptionof cooling water being thus, sealed off at its top and the cooling water chamber beingthus rendered Water-tight, A further aperture 42- formed in the plate 36 constitutes-- a port for the escape oiJcooling water,- water passing upwardly through this port entering the lower end of a tubular duct 43 firmly attached to'the plateby one. or more bolts such as indicated at 44.

The discharge port of the ofit'ake duct 43 is in register with a port 46 formed in the wall of an ofitake manifold 47 into which the cooling water froma number of cylinders may pass and by which such water, whichghas become relatively warm in passing through the water cooling f space of the cylinder assembly, may be-conductedto a cooling means prior to recirculation;

For the purpose of rigidly supporting the wallg18," which is subjected to the heavy, repeated andsudden pressures of the explodingcharges in the engine, a circular series of webs 50 are provided, foursuch webs being utilized in the ,form of the cylinder assembly; shown. These webs are radially disp,osed,'as maybe seen froman inspection of Figure 4," and are essentiallyftri angular, the relativelylong base of each web being -cast--' integral with-the dividing wall'18 and the outer edge bcing cast integralgwith thecylindrical wall; These webs; transmitforces, applied to wall'18j to .the cylindrical; wall, j which" is closely backed by the cylinder block 10, andjhence the applied forces are widely distributed and, the wall 18 rigidly supported. The reinforcing websfiflf donot interfere with the upward flOW'Df the cooling wa ter.- To facilitate castingof the head 12 the channelsjCIj intermediate webs 19' and dividing wall 18, into'which" water passing upwardly through the circular series of ports 15 pass, and which empty into the upwardlyjdi j rectedchannels or ports C"'pr eviously-; referred tor are. left, open at their outer ends-and, as a finalstep inlthe completion ofjthe assembly, these ends are closed by means of acircular band 52,. secured in position by welds 53 and 54;

It will be understood that any suitable ,valveoperat s-m c s yb mpl yedJ at llu trated by was, ofexam'ple including the telescoping jyalve spring hg ings-SG, am shafts5-57, and'cams .58, and that, theij- Q parts-of the enginefand cylinder ;blo ck,, not specifieallyg. referredjo, maybe oi conventionaldesign,

Having thus described the inventiqn, what is claimed,- as new and desired to be secured 'by Letters Patentisa l. An;- internal combustion engine, cylinder assembly comprising coaxial barrel; and head portions and. halt n a common ;wall disposedgtransversely to their common axis,- means defining with said common .wall a chamber for a cooling fiuid,,a are-combustion,chambercentrallypositionedwithin'th'e cooling fluidchamber and integral; with 'saidcommomwall; the said means having fluid, v n u l portsra d a fics hereby flui ..lenteriiisrv the-chamber is caused'to ,fiow'inwardlytoward .Said pre combustion chamber and'thennpvvardly away frolnsaidt common-wall;

2:An' internal combustion engine cylinder,, assembly, comprising a ,wall to. separate the, combustidmfifidiwa ter --spaces of such assembly, 1 coaxial j, cylinders, of un,- equal diameter integral with ;said 'wall,j thirs ,p vidin'gj; an--- annular shoulder of substantial cross section,; said ,i shoulder having formed therein :a circular series oi -wag; ter *inlet ducts through whichgwater may, be passed, tctv coacfi" shoulderand-th'e outer marginofmedividing, w i

n internal.- .c m usti n... sinezcyl dersasse comprising a water jacketed cylinder barrel, a cylinder head for said barrel, said head having a central precombustion chamber communicating witih the interior of the cylinder barrel and having a cooling chamber formed around said pre-combustion chamber, means defining a circular series of cooling fluid channels adjacent the periphery of said head, said channels extending from the cylinder water jacket to the water jacket of the head, means receiving the cooling fluid entering said head from said fluid channels and forming therefrom a plurality of streams which pass upwardly in contact with the walls of said pre-combustion chamber, each such stream being closely confined laterally in the vicinity of the precombustion chamber, and outlet means for said cooling fluid.

4. An internal combustion engine cylinder assembly comprising a water jacketed cylinder barrel, a cylinder head for said barrel, said head having a central precombustion chamber communicating With the interior of the cylinder barrel and having a cooling chamber formed around said pre-combustion chamber, means defining a circular series of cooling fluid channels adjacent the periphery of said head, said channels extending from the cylinder water jacket to the water jacket of the head, means directing the cooling fluid from said channels in a series of streams of gradually narrowing cross section radially inward across the head wall of said cylinder head to upwardly opening ports of discharge formed in part by the wall of said pre-combustion chamber, and outlet means for said cooling fluid.

5. An internal combustion engine cylinder assembly comprising coaxial barrel and head portions and having a common wall disposed transversely to their common axis, means defining with said common wall a chamber for a cooling fluid, said chamber having fluid inlet ports adjacent the periphery of said common wall and a fluid outlet port communicating therewith, and baffle means generally parallel with said common wall within said chamber for directing inflowing streams of fluid toward the axis of the assembly, said streams of fluid thereby sweeping over the surface of said common wall before moving into said chamber and thence to said outlet port, said chamber defining means including a wall which defines a pre-combustion chamber positioned centrally in the cooling fluid chamber and said baffle means being positioned to direct fluid against the said pre-combustion chamber wall.

6. An internal combustion engine cylinder assembly comprising coaxial barrel and head portions and having a common wall disposed transversely to their common axis, means integral with said head and barrel portions for defining with said common wall a chamber for a cooling fluid, said means including a cylindrical outer wall centered on said common axis, and a plurality of strengthening webs disposed radially of said axis and having a generally fluid tight and supporting engagement with said common Wall and cylindrical outer wall, said Webs being generally triangular in radial section, becoming smaller as the distance from said common wall increases.

7. An internal combustion engine cylinder assembly 7 comprising coaxial barrel and head portions and having a common wall disposed transversely to their common axis, means defining with said common Wall a chamber for a cooling fluid, said chamber having a circular series of fluid inlet ports adjacent the periphery of said common wall and a fluid outlet port communicating therewith, and bafile means generally parallel with said common wall within said chamber for directing inflowing streams of fluid from said inlet ports toward the axis of the assembly, said streams of fluid thereby sweeping over the surface of said common wall before moving into said chamber and thence to said outlet port, and a plurality of strengthening webs disposed radially of said axis and having a generally fluid tight and supporting engagement with said common wall and said baflle means, said Webs becoming smaller as the distance from said common wall increases.

8. An internal combustion engine cylinder assembly comprising coaxial barrel and head portions formed as an integral structure, said structure having a common wall transverse to said axis which constitutes the upper end of the combustion space and the bottom of a cooling fluid chamber, said wall having four ports formed therein through which gases may pass, a gas duct leading from each port, said head portion including means defining with said wall a chamber for cooling fluid, said means including a cylindrical outer wall integral at one end with said common wall and having four ports formed therein, one of said gas ducts connecting each port of the common wall to a port in the cylindrical wall respectively, and said means including also a closure plate spaced somewhat from and disposed generally parallel to said common wall, the other end of said cylindrical wall and the periphery of said plate being joined to form an integral unit, the said chamber having a circular series of ports therein, including ports directly below said ducts, for introducing cooling fluid through said comon wall, and a port for permitting the escape of cooling fluid through said closure plate.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,097,850 Day et al. May 26, 1914 1,107,946 Hesselman Aug. 18, 1914 1,180,983 Daiber et a1 Apr. 25, 1916 1,915,104 Ruehl June 20, 1933 2,234,780 Rippingille Mar. 11, 1941 2,493,532 Foden et al. Jan. 3, 1950 FOREIGN PATENTS 191,774 Great Britain Jan. 19, 1923 591,380 Great Britain Aug. 15, 1947

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3081755 *Nov 29, 1960Mar 19, 1963Gen Motors CorpCylinder head for internal combustion engine
US3115126 *Jun 8, 1961Dec 24, 1963Boyd L SpencerRemovable insert for internal combustion chambers
US3155084 *Mar 28, 1962Nov 3, 1964Caterpillar Tractor CoCooling means for internal combustion engines
US3405696 *Jun 1, 1966Oct 15, 1968Gen Motors CorpIndividual cylinder head for internal combustion engine
US3420215 *Nov 29, 1966Jan 7, 1969Maybach Mercedes Benz MotorenbLiquid-cooled cylinder head for internal combustion engines
US3491731 *Dec 27, 1967Jan 27, 1970Daimler Benz AgLiquid-cooled cylinder head of an internal combustion engine
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US4291650 *Jan 3, 1980Sep 29, 1981Fiat Veicoli Industriali S.P.A.Cylinder head for compression-ignition internal combustion engine
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US4440117 *Mar 30, 1982Apr 3, 1984Volkswagenwerk AgEngine block for a water-cooled internal combustion engine
US6817322 *Sep 3, 2002Nov 16, 2004Caterpillar Inc.Cylinder head
US8813716 *Jun 22, 2011Aug 26, 2014Caterpillar Motoren Gmbh & Co. KgPre-combustion chamber tip
US8899207 *Oct 14, 2009Dec 2, 2014Southwest Research InstituteCylinder head for an engine
US20040040521 *Sep 3, 2002Mar 4, 2004Caterpillar Inc.Cylinder head
US20110083624 *Oct 14, 2009Apr 14, 2011Southwest Research InstituteCylinder Head For An Engine
US20120325179 *Dec 27, 2012Caterpillar Inc.Pre-combustion chamber tip
CN102840024A *Jun 21, 2012Dec 26, 2012卡特彼勒发动机有限责任两合公司Pre-combustion chamber tip
CN102840024B *Jun 21, 2012May 25, 2016卡特彼勒发动机有限责任两合公司预燃室末端
EP1571323A2 *Feb 18, 2005Sep 7, 2005General Motors CorporationCylinder head with improved heat transfer and valve seat cooling
Classifications
U.S. Classification123/41.31, 123/41.82R, 123/41.79
International ClassificationF02F1/02, F02F1/16, F02B3/00, F02B3/06
Cooperative ClassificationF02B3/06, F02B2275/18, F02F1/16
European ClassificationF02F1/16