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Publication numberUS2741824 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 17, 1956
Filing dateNov 2, 1951
Priority dateNov 2, 1951
Publication numberUS 2741824 A, US 2741824A, US-A-2741824, US2741824 A, US2741824A
InventorsIi Chandler Robbins, George L Mills
Original AssigneeBates Mfg Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apertured fabric and method of making the same
US 2741824 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



assignors to Bates Manufacturing Company, a corporation of Maine Application November 2, 1951, Serial No. 254,532

9 Claims. (Cl. 28-72) This invention relates to fabrics of the type having apertures formed therein and to methods for making such fabrics.

it has been found that fabric sheeting having numerous randomly disposed apertur formed therein may be used cfiectively, for example, as camouflage netting for concealing large objects or areas from observation. One difficulty which has been experienced in the manufacture of apertured fabric, however, is that conspicuous regularity may occur in the aperture patterns. Further, it has been found that such fabric tends to tear at the aperture ends, eventually making it useless. This is especially true in the case of slotted camouflage fabric where weight is added by the presence of a heavy coating used to afford appropriate light reflecting and absorbing characteristics.

It is, accordingly, one object of this invention to provide an improved fabric of the type having a plurality of apertures formed therein.

It is another object of the invention to provide, if desired, fabric having apertures randomly formed therein so as to avoid conspicuous regularity in the overall pattern.

It is still another object of the invention to provide a fabric having apertures in the form'of slots, each of the slots in which may terminate precisely in transverse reinforcing strands.

These and other features and objects of the invention may be attained by weaving a double fabric in which corresponding groups of parallel, adjacent tweaving strands in the top and bottom fabrics are mutually crossed between the fabrics to form a line of crossed strands. This line formed by the parallel crossed strands is disposed at an angle to the strands themselves and its length is determined by the total number of strands which cross. Various numbers of lines may be so formed between the double fabric and their respective length and longitudinal juxtaposition may be varied to form any desired line pattern. The double fabric is then split by severing the lines of strands crossing between the two fabrics in the plane between the fabrics, resulting in the formation of apertures cr slots in each fabric where the lines had been. Since the slot pattern is determined by the line pattern, it follows that there is an almost limitless number of patterns which may be achieved.

In order to reinforce the apertures of the slot type exactly at the slot ends one or more strands forming reinforcing bands may be woven in the two fabrics at the time they are initially made. These strands are interwoven parallel to the crossed strands so that at least one reinforcing strand is disposed at each end of each line of crossed strand. When the slots are formed by cutting the crossed strands in the plane between the double fabric, the strands of the reinforcing bands, which are not crossed, will not be cut and will be disposed exactly at the termini of each slot, running, transversely thereof. Reinforcing bands disposed at these points are of course most effective in preventing tearing.

The invention may be better understood by reference to the drawing illustrating a preferred method of form ing an apertured fabric and in which:

Fig. 1 is a plan view of a randomly apertured fabric having reinforcing strands at the ends of each aperture;

Fig. 2 is a perspective view of a double fabric comprising the first stage in the formation of the fabric shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a. view in transverse section taken on the line 3--3 of Fig. 2 intersecting a line of crossed strands between the upper and lower fabrics and showing two sets of crossed strands in the line prior to severing;

Fig. 4 is a view in .transverse section taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 2 showing interwoven strands disposed at the end of the line of crossed strands for purposes of reinforcement;

Fig. 4A is a view in section taken on the line 4A-4A of Fig. 4 showing typical reinforcing bands;

Fig. 5 is a perspective view showing the two fabrics of Fig. 2 being cut apart by a severing knife to form apertures in each fabric corresponding to the lines of crossed strands; and

Fig. 6 is a view in transverse section taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. 5 showing the severed, crossed strands.

Referring to the d:awing and Fig. l in particular, there is shown a portion of a fabric 10 having a plurality of randomly disposed apertures in the form of slots 11. Such fabric may be used effectively as camouflage netting, as is disclosed in the U. S. patent, No. 2,351,142, to Mitchel.

The particular fabric illustrated is formed of relatively light, inexpensive weaving strands such as cotton, for example, and in order to prevent tearing of the slots, traverse reinforcing bands 12 may be disposed at the exact end of each slot. These bands may comprise, for example, interwoven strands comprising groups of yarns of the same material as the weaving strands of the ground fabric, or stronger single or plied yarns, or yarns made of nylon, Orlon, or other material affording filaments of high tensile strength. The me hod whereby these reinforced strands are caused to be disposed at the precise ends of the slots will be described below. Preferably reinforcing bands 12' are also woven in the fabric running parallel to the slots.

As a preferred method of forming the apertures in the form of slots in the fabric, two fabric layers hereinafter called a double fabric may be woven, for example, on a conventional jacquard loom at the same time, this fabric comprising an upper fabric 13 and a lower fabric 14. By virtu: of characteristics of jacquard looms well known to those skilled in'the art, weaving strands may be crossed over wherever desired between the upper and lower fabrics of the double fabric. In the fabric shown in Fig. 2, corresponding strands in the-upper and lower fabrics have been crossed over along preestzrblished lines hereinafter called cross over lines indicated by the numeral 15. Each cross over line 15 comprises a group or series of crossed over strands and in the illustrated fabric the line pattern is random, although it will be understood that regular line or other patterns may also be provided.

The weave characteristics of the crossed over strands are shown in Fig. 3, which comprises a view in section taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 3. adjacent cooperating weaving strands 13a and 13b are shown in the left hand portion of the upper fabric 13. Approaching the center of the figure where a cross over line 15 is encountered, the weaving strands 13a and 13b cross over to the lower fabric 14 and thereafter maybe seen in the lower right hand portion of Fig. 3. In the lower left hand portion of the fabric 14 adjacent, cooperating weaving strands 14a and 14b are shown. In the vicinity of the cross over line 15. the strands 14a and 14b cross over to the upper fabric 13 and thereafter are dis- Patented Apr. 17, 1956 In that figure, a pair ofposed therein until the next cross over line, such as 15', is encountered.

The total number of strands which may cross over between fabrics along a given cross over line may be varied as a function of the desired slot length. To form a straight slot of about 3 inches in length, for example, in a relatively loosely woven fabric, the number of rows of strands which cross over along a straight line would range from 80 to 100.

Referring to Fig. 4, which is a view in transverse section taken on the line 4--4 of Fig. 2, it will be seen that no crossed over strands are evident, this for the reason that the line 4-4 is taken at the precise end of a cross over line 15 looking away therefrom, at which point transverse reinforcing bands 12 and longitudinal reinforcing bands 12' are visible in the upper and lower fabrics. As best seen in Fig. 4A, each band 12 comprises strand groups 16a, 16b, 16c and 16d in the upper fabric l3, and a similar number of strand groups 17a, 17b, 17c and 17:! in the lower fabric 13. Each of the respective groups preferably comprises a multiplicity of picks of the same filaments as are used in the ground yarns. For most cases six strands have been found to be satisfactory for each strand group, these strands being entered in the same shed and followed by a change of positionof the top and bottom shed in turn followed by two groups of six more picks as shown in the figure. For reasons set forth below, the strand groups Ilia-16d and 17a-17d, will be disposed precisely at the ends of the slots which will be formed in the two fabrics after cutting of the cross over lines. The longitudinal bands 12' between slots may be constituted similarly to the transverse bands 12, but

need not be precisely positioned with respect to the slots,

which will be disposed parallel thereto.

It will be understood that instead of using strands of the same material and weight as the ground yarns for the reinforcing bands that 01hr filaments such as stronger cotton or other single or plied yarns, or strands made of such materials as nylon, Orlon, or other materials affording filaments of high tensile strength may be used. It will be understood, however, that the use of reinforcements of the same yarns as the ground yarns enables the fabric to be prepared on a single shuttle loom whereas the use of reinforcing materials of yarns other than those used in the body of the fabric necessitates the use of multi-shuttle looms.

Referring now to Figs. 5 and 6, it will be seen as the next step in the method for forming the slotted fabric, the two fabrics initially woven on the jacquard loom are cut apart by severing the lines of crossed over strands in the.

plane between the fabrics. When the strands are cut, as by a knife 18, indicated in phantom lines in the drawing, the slots 11 will appear in each fabric where the cross over lines 15 existed. The strands immediately following the last course of crossed over strand: and the strands immediately preceding the first course will comprise the slot ends. Thus the reinforcing strands 16a, 16b and 17a, 17b appear as transverse strands precisely at the slot ends. As seen in Fig. 1, it will be apparent that re nforcing strands will in some cases necessarily intersect other slots between the ends thereof. The slot 19 in Fig. l,

for example, is intersected by a group of reinforcing bands 12. In this case the strands of the reinforcing bands will have been crossed over between the upper and lower fabrics as part of a cross over line 15 in the same manner as the conventional strands and will, therefore, have been severed in forming the slot. The fact that certain reinforcing strands are severed in forming one slot does not in any way affect the usefulness of those strands in rein forcing the ends of other slots.

The arrangement of the strands. delineating the aperturcs in the completed fabric may be best understood by reference to Fig. 3 wherein it will be seen that the upper fabric 13 comprises, at its left hand end. weaving strands 13a, 13b. At the cross over line 15, the strands 13a, 13b

are removed from the upper fabric to be replaced by strands 14a, 14b from the lower fabric. However, at the next following cross o er line 15' the strands 14a, 14b are replaced by the initial strands 13a, 13b, and so on. Thus each slot in the apertured fabric will be delineated by the respective severed ends of two different groups of strands, and the severed strands delineating the left band edge of the slot formed at the line 15 will be the strands delineating the right hand edge of the next aperture 15.

If desired, the fabric may be woven on wide jacquard looms, for example, in the double ply form shown in Fig. 2 so that an open selvage 20 is formed along one edge of the fabric and a fold edge 21 is disposed along the edge parallel thereto. When the two fabric layers 13 and 14 are cut apart by severing the crossed over strands, but without cutting the fold edge, a single-ply, slotted fabric of double width results.

It will be understood, therefore, that novel method and improved fabrics are provided according to the invention and that the method and fabric selected for purposes of illustration may be modified without departing from the scope of the invention. Thus, for example, an almost infinite number of aperture forms and patterns may be provided by selecting appropriate filaments for crossing over between fabric layers. If desired, only selected strands from among a group intersecting a cross over line 1. In a method of forming apertured fabric, the steps I of weaving a double fabric, crossing corresponding strands from each fabric between the two fabrics so that strands from one fabric become strands in the other fabric at the cross over point and corresponding strands from the other fabric become strands in the one fabric, and severing the crossed over strands, thereby to form apertures in the fabric.

2. In a method of forming an apertured fabric, the steps of concurrently weaving two fabrics joined along prcestablished lines by means of one or more groups of mutually crossed weaving strands between the fabrics, and severing the crossed strands between the fabrics, thereby to form one or more apertures in each of the fabrics, each aperture having a length equal, to the length of the corresponding line of grouped, crossed strands.

3. In a method for forming a slotted fabric containing reinforcing strands, each slot being reinforced precisely at its ends, the steps of weaving a double fabric having certain corresponding, parallel weaving strands in each fabric crossed over from one fabric to the other, the crossed over strands comprising groups ofparallel strands forming cross over lines, the lengths of which are determined by the number of cr sed over strands. weaving in each fabric recnforcing strands parallel to and immediately preceding and following each group of crossed over strands, said' reinforcing strands running transversely of said cross over slot lincs, each of said reenforcing strands being disposed in only one fabric, and severing the crossed over strands between the fabrics, thereby to form siots in each of the fabrics, each corresponding in length to the length of a cross over line and each slot terminating at each end in one or more recnforcing strands running transversely with respect to the slots.

4. In a method of forming apertured fabric of double width, the steps of weaving a double fabric having an open scivage at one edge and a fold at the opposite edge, crossing over between the fabrics, during the weaving, corresponding strands whereby strands from one fabric become strands in the other fabric and strands from said other fabric become strands on said one fabric at a common cross over point, severing the crossed over strands between the fabrics, and unfolding the fabrics, thereby to form apertured fabric of double width.

5. A fabric comprising first and second sets of mutually perpendicular interwoven strands and having a plurality of apertures formed therein whereby a given line parallel to one set of strands intersects at an angle a plurality of said apertures, said apertures being delineated at their edges by the severed ends of groups of parallel weaving strands, the first edge of the first aperture intersected by said line comprising the severed ends of a first group of weaving strands','a second group of weaving strands aligned with said first group and having severed ends at one terminus delineating another edge of the first aperture, said second group of strands having severed ends at their other terminus delineating at least a. part of a first edge of a second aperture, a third group of weaving strands aligned with the second group and having severed ends delineating another edge of the second aperture, at least a portion of the strands of said first and third groups being part of the same initial weaving strands and having cut therefrom a length corresponding to the distance between the first and second apertures.

6. A fabric according to claim 5, including reinforcing strands interwoven in the fabric parallel to said one set of strands and disposed respectively at the termini of each aperture, each reinforcing strand passing unsevered across a terminus of at least one aperture.

7. A fabric according to claim 6, including reinforcing strands interwoven in fabric disposed parallel to said apertures and substantially perpendicular to the reinforcing strands at the termini of the apertures.

8. A slotted fabric comprising a body of interwoven parallel warp and parallel filling strands, each slot in the fabric being defined by the opposed severed ends of a series of parallel strands disposed side by side and severed within the body of the fabric, and interwoven reinforcing strands of substantially greater strength than the strands forming the body of the fabric disposed parallel to and immediately before and after each series of severed strands, reinforcing strands thereby passing unsevered across the precise termini of each slot. v

9. A fabric according to claim 8, including second reinforcing strands interwoven in the fabric parallel to said slots and perpendicular to the first reinforcing strands.

No references cited.

Non-Patent Citations
1 *None
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4479994 *May 18, 1983Oct 30, 1984The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyWide band energy absorbing camouflage blanket
US4554953 *Feb 2, 1984Nov 26, 1985Hermann Wangner Gmbh & Co.Composite fabric for use as clothing for the sheet forming section of a papermaking machine
US4853269 *Mar 30, 1988Aug 1, 1989Asahi Kasei Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaFabric form consisting of multilayer fabric and composite structure made by using fabric form
US4958663 *Aug 15, 1988Sep 25, 1990HitcoWoven multi-layer angle interlock fabrics having fill weaver yarns interwoven with relatively straight extending warp yarns
US5077101 *Sep 1, 1989Dec 31, 1991The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyThree color infrared camouflage system
US5080141 *Feb 16, 1990Jan 14, 1992Vorwerk & Co. Interholding GmbhMultiply fabric having center portion with delicate warp threads and lateral portions with robust threads
US5857497 *Jul 9, 1993Jan 12, 1999Wangner Systems CorporationWoven multilayer papermaking fabric having increased stability and permeability
US5865219 *Jul 31, 1997Feb 2, 1999Asten, Inc.Double layer papermaking fabric having a high stability weave
US8074330 *Dec 13, 2011Goodrich CorporationMethod and system for enabling z fiber transfer in needled preform
US20100037441 *Aug 6, 2009Feb 18, 2010Goodrich CorporationMethod and system for enabling z fiber transfer in needled preform
U.S. Classification428/131, 139/408, 28/158, 139/384.00R, 428/919, 28/170, 28/163
International ClassificationF41H3/02
Cooperative ClassificationY10S428/919, F41H3/02
European ClassificationF41H3/02