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Publication numberUS2741950 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 17, 1956
Filing dateJan 21, 1948
Priority dateJan 21, 1948
Publication numberUS 2741950 A, US 2741950A, US-A-2741950, US2741950 A, US2741950A
InventorsCleveland Smith Grover
Original AssigneeCleveland Smith Grover
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Recoiling barrel firearm with pivoted lock
US 2741950 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

G. c. sMl-rH 2,741,950

RECOILING BARREL FIREARM WITH PIVOTED LOCK April 17, 195s C5 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Jan. 2l, 1948 1 1 1 1&1 1----1-: -1 -;/..1!11111 1 11 .Q 1&1 1 1 1,1%11 QQ Nw aai \1%\ wN buN NQ 31 .m51

G. c. SMITH 2,741,950

RECOILING BARREL FIREARM WITH PIVOTED LOCK pril 1 7, 1956 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 2l, 1948 H/s Arron/vers RECOILING BARREL FIREARM WITH PIVOTED Loox Filed Jan. 21, 1948 G. C. SMITH 3 SheLS-Sheekl 3 April 17, 1956 HIS A TTOR/VEYS RECOILING BARRELIFllIARM WITH PIVOTED Grover Cleveland Smith, Ogden, Utah Application January Z1, 1948, Serial No. 3,530

17 Claims. (Cl. 89-176) This invention relates to a firearm, and more particularly pertains to one having an axially sliding barrel, barrel extension, and breechblock mechanism, which elements in moving actuate or render effective extracting, reloading and semi-automatic operative tiring mechanism.

By my construction, I provide for the reduction of re- 'coil shock through the weight and rearward movement for a short distance together, upon explosion of a cartridge, of the barrel, barrel extension, breechblock, and the associated mechanism, against the resistance of restoring springs. l also provide a breechblock locking means which is positively actuated in such a manner,- by the recoil movement rearwardly of the barrel and barrel extension, that the barrel, barrel extension, and breechblock move rearwardly together for a certain distance before the breechblock is permitted to open. Moreover, I provide a cartridge magazine and firing mechanism which is semiautomatic in action, that is, the firing pin is moved rearward by the breechblock and locked in a cocked position by a control element after each tiring of a cartridge, so that an operator can tire a plurality of cartridges, contained in a magazine, one by one, by merely moving a trigger once for each cartridge to be red. I have provided safety control devices, operated by the sliding barrel and barrel extension, and the breechblock, to prevent the release of the firing pin unless the barrel, and breechblock closing it, are in ring position, that is, in their most forwardly positions, with the breechblock locked in place against the rear end of the barrel.

The barrel and barrel extension, of my firearm, are

l normally supported on a support bar and retained in a receiver in a forward firing position by a barrel-restoring spring. The breechblock, likewise, normally is retained in a forward breech-locking position, to which it is urged by means of a restoring spring, and locked in place. On firing a cartridge, the barrel, barrel extension, breechblock, breechblock lock, and associated mechanisms are moved rearwardly together by the force of the explosion, and as the bullet leaves the barrel, against the returning action of the barrel-restoring spring and the breechblockrestoring spring for a distance, during which time the breechblock Vlock is being positively cammed to an ineffective position so that, when the breechblock is unlocked from the barrel and barrel extension, the breechblock will continue rearwardly, unhindered by the lock, extracting and ejecting the cartridge case, making room for delivery of a new cartridge into loading position, and recocking the firing pin. After the breechblock has moved to a full rearward position as limited by stops in the receiver, the major part of the shock of recoil has been dissipated. On partial return of the barrel and barrel extension, to normal firing position, under action of the barrel-restoring spring, and upon return of the breechblock, by the breechblock-restoring spring, a new cartridge is moved from the magazine into the firing chamber of the barrel, as the breechblock closes, and is locked in place by the camming action on the breech-block lock. When the barrel, barrel extension, and lbreechblocl are following the explosion of a cartridge is reduced by the s.

rearward movement for a short distance, of the barrel, barrel extensionand breechblock mechanism against the action of restoring springs, following which theA breechblock is unlocked positively and permitted tocontinue' its rearward movement to extract and eject the cartridge case and to recock the firing mechanism.

Another novel feature of the invention is an improved semi-automatic firing mechanism which is positively disabled while the barrel and barrel extension are displaced from home firing position. Y

Another novel feature of the invention is the provision of means for positively locking the breechblock in closed position while the barrel, barrel extension and breechlblock are moving rearwardly, for a distance, the lock thereafter becoming positively disabled, permitting the breechblock to move to open position with relation to the barrel.

Another novel feature of the invention is the provision of means preventing return of the barrel and barrel extension to firing position after recoil, until the breechblock is locked in place.`

The invention is not to be deemed limited to the portable rifle firearm shown, as it is susceptible of embodiment in other types of arms.

Further objects, and objects relating to details and economies of construction, will definitely appear from the detailed description to follow. In one instance, I have accomplished the objects of my invention by the devices and means set forth in the following specification. The invention is clearly dened and pointed out intheappended claims. Structures constituting the preferred embodiment of my invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawings forming part of the specification, 'in which: f

Fig. 1 is a right side elevation of the rifle, partly in vertical longitudinal section, and with certain parts broken away. This view shows the barrel and breechblock in home position, a cartridge in the chamber and the firearm ready to fire. v

Fig. 2 shows the substance of Fig. l after a cartridge has been fired, with the barrel and barrel extension in full recoil position, andthe breechblock partly open and extracting the cartridge4 case. vThe trigger mechanism is shown in full in operated condition. f

Fig. 3 is a top plan view of a portion of the firearm showing the parts overlaying the magazine broken away and showing a cartridge casing being ejected.

Fig. 4 is a vertical lengthwise section through the firing mechanism showing the breechblock in full recoil position and the barrel and barrel extension returned forward toward home position as far as the breechblock lock will permit it to move while the breechblock is open. The trigger mechanism has been moved from this view so that the action of the breechblock lock may be better understood. A cartridge is ready to be moved into the cartridge chamber.

Fig. is a right side elevation of the receiver and barrel supporting member.

Fig. 5a is a View of the barrel-restoring spring which iits on the forward end of the barrel support member.

Fig. 6 is a partial sectional view on the line 6 6 of Fig. 5.

Fig. 10 is a side elevation of the breechblock lock.

Fig. 11 is a vertical section onI the 1ine'11-`11 of Fig. 3 some parts being shown inj phantom.

Fig. 12 is a horizontal section through the front end of the'breechblock, showing the extractor and ejector elements.

Fig. 13 is a front end elevation of the breechblock.

Fig.' 14 is a section on the line 14-14 of Fig. 13.

Fig. 15 is a side elevation of the feeder blades which hold the topmost cartridge in the magazine.

' Fig. 16 is a rear elevation of the magazine.

Fig. 17 is a right inside elevation of the magazine with the casing and feeder blades in section and the feeding spring in full.

Fig. 18 is a front elevation of the magazine.

Fig. 19 is a side elevation of the front end of the barrel of the firearm showing the front sight.

Fig. 20 is a detail showing, in diagrammatic form, of 'the relation of the sear and tiring pin control element.

Fig. 21 is a bottom plan view of the sear.

Fig. 22 is an exploded view of the trigger and automatic safety trigger.

Fig. 23 is a front elevation of the trigger.

Fig. 24 is a top plan view of .the front portion of the breechblock lock.

The same reference numerals are applied to the same parts throughout the several views and the sections are taken on the section lines looking in the direction of the arrows. l

Stock and supporting bar Referring .to Figs. 1-6, I provide a single piece gun stock 50, made preferably of wood, havingl a streamlined effect and a butt portion 51 (Fig. 1) and a forwardly extending -hand rest or tip portion 52. This stock is of the type in ywhich the barrel support bar, barrel, barrel extension, receiverand tiring mechanism are inserted in or on the top, in apertures provided therefor.

The barrel support bar 53, shown in Figs. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 Vand 7, is secured to the stock by screws 54 and 55. The barrel support bar has a forward portion 56 of cylindrical section and is externally threaded, -as at 57, to receive an Aadjustment nut 58 and is equipped with-a threaded end hole 59 (see Fig. 5) into which a retaining bolt 60 (see Fig. l) may be screwed. A barrel'restoring spring4 61 (Fig. a) is retained on ithe cylindrical portion 56between adjustmentnut 58 and the head of bolt-60. Surrounding portion 56 between the spring and bolt'60 is a cylindrical sleeve 62 (Fig. 1) secured to the mid-section of 'barrel' 63. As will be seen in Fig. 2, as the barrel is moved rearwardly bythe force of an exploding cartridge, in a direction parallel with the axis of the bore '64 of the barrel, the spring `61 will be compressed, checking the rearward'movement of the barrel to a degree determined by the position of nut 58 on thread 57. This adjusting nut 58 is provided to adjust the recoil action of the gun according to the demands of the particular cartridges being used. The recoil movement of the barrel will be described later in detail. lust to the rear of the forward portion of the support bar is an intermediate portion 65 (see Figs. 6 and 7) which has a series of apertures, like aperture 66, therein, to eliminate weight. To the rear of portion 65 of the support bar there is a downwardly extending vertical offset surface 67 (Fig. 4) which acts as a stop against which a stop formation 68 of the barrel comes to rest, on forward movement of the barrel, to limit its movement in that direction. This condition of extreme forwardrorfring position of the barrel is shown in Fig. `1. There is a rearwardstop for limiting 'the rearward'movement of the barrel, which will be described later. Referring again to Figs. 7 and 8, rearwardly `of the vertical offset 67 is a cartridge magazine aperture 69 equipped with a magazine retaining piece 70 (see also Fig. 2)' pivoted on .pivot pin 7 land held in retaining position, resiliently, by spring 72. Immediately to the rear of pivot pin 71 is a vertical offset surface'73 against which a breechblock locking'piece 74,

4 pivoted to the barrel extension, .as will be described, may come to rest to prevent forward movement of the barrel when the breechblock is open and during its closing move- Y ment in loading a cartridge from the magazine into the chamber. The position of the various parts of the gun at the beginning of a reloading action of the breechblock is shown in Fig. 4 with-the breechblock lock piece '74 resting against oifset face 73. Y

Referring to Fig. -6, immediately to the rear of surface 73 is an aperture 75 having'a transverse pin 76 which operates in an S-shaped cam slot-77 (see Fig. 2) in the breechblock locking piece 74, before mentioned, to actuate said breechblocklocking piece ldownwardly, upon rearward movement of the barrel, toan. unlocking position, and upwardly, on Vforward movement of the barrel, to breechblock locking position. To the rear of aperture 75 is an aperture 78 in which is pivoted a locking lever 79 on a pin 80. This locking lever is cammed, by'rearward movement, of the barrel andbarrel extension, to a position lin which a tiringv pin control element-81 is held in effective position, preventing the firing of a cartridge during the time the barrel is out of ring position. Referring to Fig. 2, the tiring pin control element 81, scar 82, trigger 33, and associated mechanism are supported, in whole or in part, in the lower part of aperture 78 (see Fig. 6) on various pins to be described. A trigger guard 84 is provided in the usual manner. Bushings 85 and 86 (Fig. l) are provided in the stock to receive the screws 54 and 55, respectively.

The receiver The receiver isfshown in Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 11. The receiver comprises a main body member 90, an enlarged'forward section of which is provided on top with a longitudinal sighting groove 91 (see Figs. 3 and 11) and which has side aprons which are used to fasten the receiver body to the barrel support member by screws 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97 and 98 (Fig. 5), on the right side, and asimilar number of screws on the left-hand side. in the right side apron of the forward part of the receiver is an aperture 99 which opens into the-space around the breech, when the breechblock is open, to permit extracted cartridge casings to be ejected out of the gun.

.In a reduced portion 100'(Figs. 1, 3 yand 5) of the receiver body, in an aperture in the rear end thereof, is a firing pin housing comprising a head portion 101 and an interiorly extending tube 102 (Fig. l) within which, slidably mounted, is a two-section ring pin and a tiring spring 104, the front end of which abuts against collar 105 on the front-section of the tiring pin and the rear end of which rests `against shoulders on the inside of the rear end of tube.102. The rear. end of the firing pin has a shouldered head 106 which may be caught by ring pin control `element 81 when in the up position. On retraction downwardly of firing lpin control element 81 the iiring'pin will be propelled. forwardly by spring 104. On return of the ring pin to the rear it may override the chamferedzportion of the upper end of the tiring pin control elementy 81, in the event it is in raised position, in which it will'be because of the safety devices and the devices giving semi-automatic action to the gun, and will recatch in the cocked position in which it is shown in Fig. l. A'leaf springV 107 is provided to hold the head 106 down after it has passed over the chamfered shoulder on the tiring pin control element 81, thus permitting the firing pin to cock even though firing pin control element 81 is held rigidly inits upper position, such effect being gained by a slight upward deviation of the tiring pin as a whole within the iiring pin tube. Referring lto Fig. l2, the firing pin is shown, in broken section, as having a rear portion 108 in which slides, between limit stops, a forward portion 109, providing a better projection of the pin when released.

A rearwardly extendingplatejllZ (Figs. l and 3), coveringthe-rearv end of the barrel support bar, has,

slidably mounted therein for forward and backward movement, a manual safety thumb piece 113 riveted, through a slot in plate 112, to a slide plate 114 (Fig. 1) on the underside of plate 112 which, when thumb piece 113 is pushed forwardly, engages in a notch on the back edge of the firing pin control element 81 to lock the same in raised position, as such notch is in alignment with the plate 114 when said tiring pin control element is in such raised effective position. This is a mechanical safety latch which may be used at any time the firing pin is in cocked position. "l" he firing pin tube 102 acts as a mounting or guide for the rearward end of breechblock return spring 115, not shown in Fig. 1 but shown in Fig. 4 in compressed condition. The same spring is shown in Fig. 2 with the ring pin tube and ring pin removed to show the function of the spring better. More will be said concerning this spring when an explanation of the tiring action will be described.

Barrel and barrel extension The barrel and barrel extension mechanism including the breechblock lock piece, which is positively operated from a locking to an unlocking position as the barrel and barrel extension move rearwardly, upon recoil due to forces of an exploding cartridge, and which is operated from unlocking position to locking position when the barrel is restored to its normal forward position, by the restoring spring, and which breechlocking piece positively holds the barrel in rearward position when the breechblock is open for cartridge case ejection, and which operates in conjunction with the breechblock to be described in the next section, forms an important novel feature of the invention. The barrel and barrel extension and the breechblock locking element, or locking piece, are shown in full side elevation in Fig. 8, and in top plan view in Fig. 9, both views showing the parts in tiring position, and are shown in vertical longitudinal section in firing position in Fig. l, in vertical longitudinal section in full recoil position in Fig. 2, and in vertical longitudinal section in Fig. 4 in a position where they are partly returned toward normal forward position sufficient to admit a new cartridge, the latter view being stripped of the firing pin control elements in order to make the action clear. The barrel is chambered, as at 125 (Fig. 2) to receive the casing of a` cartridge, as cartridge casing 126, in the usual manner. A cartridge in full loaded position is positioned as is cartridge 127 in Fig. l. The barrel may be equipped with an ordinary rear sight, like sight 128, shown in Figs. l and 3, and with a front sight 129 as shown in Fig. 19, but not shown in the other views because the sights form no part of the novelty of the invention. The barrel extension comprises a rounded top 131, side surfaces 132 and 133 shaped to tit snugly within the top and side portion of the receiver body 90 (Fig. 5) and a bottom surface 134 which slidably rests on the top surface of the barrel support bar 53 which lies within the confines of the receiver body. End surfaces 136 and 137 at the rearward end of the barrel extension come to rest against stop surfaces within the receiver on recoil of the barrel and barrel extension, as will now be described. Referring to Figs. l and 2, end surface 137 of the barrel extension comes to rest against stop surface 138 on the inside of the receiver, when the barrel recoils, as shown in Fig. 2. ln a similar manner end surface 136 comes to rest against stop surface 139, as shown in Fig. 2 under the same condition.

Front end surface 140 (Fig. 8) on the barrel extension comes to rest against the vertical offset surface 67 (see Fig. l) when the barrel and barrel extension are in their forward position ready to lire. Referring to Fig. 9, a

cartridge aperture 141 is provided in the bottom of the barrel extension to admit cartridges from the magazine 142 (see Fig. 4) into the breechblock cavity 143 of the barrel extension, when the breechblock is inrecoil .position, so thatforward movement of the breechblock will load the next cartridge into the chambered part'of the barrel. l

In a rearwardly extending tongue 144 (Figs. 8 and 9) of the barrel extension, in a vertical aperture therein provided, is pivoted, by pin the breechblock locking piece 74, having therein the S-shaped cam slot 77. This breechblock locking piece is positively operated to upward locking position for the breechblock on forward movement of the barrel, and to downward unlocking movement for the breechblock ou rearward movement of the barrel, by the action of pin 75 (see Fig. l) working in the S-shaped lslot duringfsuch movement. Fig. 1 shows breechblock lock piece 74 in the upper locking position and Figs. 2 and 4 show the piece 74 in downward unlocking position. The action of pin 75 (see Fig. 1)-working in the S-shaped slot positive locking and unlocking action, of the breechblock, which is an important feature of the invention. The breechblock locking piece 74, as shown in Fig. 4, accomplishes anotherobjective and that is, when the gun barrel.

and barrel extension are being returned to forward position from recoil position by the barrel restoring spring and at which time the breechblock is still open, as will be described, for the purpose of introducing a new cartridge into the barrel, the barrel s prevented from moving forwardly by reason of locking piece 74 abutting against stop surface 73. At this period, when the breechblock is not yet returned to forward position lower surfaces thereof rest on upper surfaces of locking piece 74 to hold the same in down position.

After the breechblock has passed forwardly beyond the forward end of locking piece 74, the force of the barrel restoring spring 61 will cause the locking piece to be cammed upwardly by the surface 73, which is sloped to produce such effect, such being possible because the pin is, at that time, in that portion of the cam slot 77 which permits the locking piece to rise as the barrel and barrel exten sion move forwardly.

On the underside of tongue 144 of the barrel extension, to the rear of the locking block 74, is a cavity 146 (see Figs. l and 2) which cooperates with the forward upper surface of locking lever 79 so that when the barrel and barrel extension are in forward firing position the lever 79 is permitted to rock counterclockwise, slightly, on its supporting pivot, because the cavity 146 gives clearance for the upward movement of the forward end of it. This condition is shown in Fig. l. The first movement rearwardly of the barrel and barrel extension cams lever 79 clockwise so the rearward end of it engages in a notch in the forward edge of firing pin control element 81 holding it in up position preventing any tiring movement of the tiring pin after it has been cocked. Only when the barrel and barrel extension has moved forward again, to home position, is tiring pin control element 81 permitted to be lowered through action which will be described.

Breechblock and associated mechanism Breechblock 147, a front elevationof which is shown in Fig. 13, is hollowed out longitudinally on the bottom` surface thereof to form a channel 148 which stops at surface 149 near the rear end of the block. The front:

face of the breechblock is slightly counterbored as at 150 wherein the rear endvof a cartridge may be seated. In

the middle of this counterbore 150 is a firing pin hole 151 through which the tiring pin is ejected to strike the cap` An ejector pin 152` in the center of the cartridge base. (see also Fig. 12) forced, by a spring 153, outwardly against stop pin 154 ejects, sidewardly, a cartridge case: extractor 156 as the 15S extracted from the chamber by breechblock is forced rearwardly by the explosion forces a spring 157. Extractor mounted in slide 159 (see Fig. 14) ldovetailed into the right side ofthe-breechblock'as 'shown in Fig. 13. The rear end 160 (Figs. 12 and 14) of the slide is formed to engage -a notch 161 in the breechblock side to hold the slide in place. The slide may be pulled out of the breechblockiby unhooking part 160 from notch 161 and sliding the slide forwardly. Thefhook on extractor 156 is chamfered, of course, so that it may engage the base of a cartridge case as it moves against it in the chamber of the barrel, the chamber giving clearance for such purpose. Spring 157 is held in a recess 162 in a'handle 163 which extends through aperture 164 (see Fig. 8) in the barrel extension, when the breechblock is in place in the barrel extension. The bottom surfaces of'the breechblock slide back and forth on the inside bottom surface of the barrel extension and on-the tongue thereof, as it moves axially in response to recoil forces rearwardly, as it moves forwardly in response to restoring spring forces or to forces applied to handle A163 by which the breechblock may be opened manually. Opening on the rear 'of the breechblock is a large cylindrical axial hole 165 (seeFigs. ll and l2) which, at a shoulder 166 (Fig. l2) tapers down to a firing pin retracting-spring ring seat 167 to end inthe small firing pin hole 151. As best seen in Fig. 1, the ring pin retracting-spring 168 is seated on retaining ring seat 167 at its forward end and its rearward end meets collar 105 on the firing pin asit is projected forwardly, compressing the spring 168 as the firing pin strikes the cartridge cap, whereupon the spring 168 forces the tiring pin backwardly. The cylindrical hole opening on the rear end of the breechblock and extending forwardly the greater part of the length of the breechblock receives breechblock restoring spring y115 (Fig. 2) which seats against shoulder 166. As before mentioned, the rear end of breechblock restoring spring 115 is supported onring pin tube 102 (see Fig. l) which also enters cylindrical hole 165, when the breechblock is moved to its rearmost position. Referring to Figs. 3 and 1l, a catch pin 172, resiliently held outwardly in an aperture by a spring 174 in the receiver 90 can be pushed, when the breechblock is pulled open by hand, into a hole 1173- in the breechblock to retain the breechblock in open position. v

It will be apparent from an examination of Figs. l and 2, with reference to the breechblock and breechblock lock piece, that the breechblock cannot move rearwardly in the barrel extension until the barrel and barrel extension have moved rearwardly a short distance so that breechblock lock piece is cammed downwardly by reason of the action of pin 76 in the S-shaped slot. Moreover, the barrel and barrelextension cannot move forwardly tok ring position until the breechblock is in place against the cartridge, at which time the breechblock locking piece 74 is in upward position' so that the barrel and barrel extension can move forward to ring position, and at which point the tiring pin control element 81 is free of the action of locking lever 79 thus enabling the tiring of the cartridge by the trigger mechanism, next to be described.

Trigger mechanism The firing pin control element 81 (Figs. l and 2) is normally urged to its uppermost position, as seen in Fig. l, by a spring 174 extending between it and the barrel-support bar 53. The extent of movement of 'the firingpin control element Slis-determined by the length of a slot in which a pin 175, secured in the barrel support bar, rides. On the forward lower edge of firing pin control element 81 is a shoulder 176, best seen in Fig. 2, against which a rearward lip 177 of the sear 82 pushes downwardly as the trigger 83 is pulled clockwise around its pivot 178, which isa pin supported bythe barrel support bar. Sear 82 is normallyheld so-its supporting pin 180 (Fig. l) is in thefront of an oblong slotiin thesear, such. being caused bythe action of compression spring 181 extending from the rear edge of the triggerto the rear end yofthe scar, resting on a seat 179"(Fig. 2l). As the triggeris' pulled, causing a clockwise movement of it, the sear is caused to make a counterclockwise movement on its supportlpin 180 sufficient to depress the lip and the firingpin control element 81 so as to vrelease the firing pin, after which the scar moves forwardly so the pin is in the rear of the oblong slot, sliding 01T the-shoulder 176 as seen in Fig. 2, thus permitting the return of firing pin control element 81 to its upper effective position under the influence of spring 174. Upon release of the trigger which is returned by spring 181, the sear, by a by-pass action permitted by the oblong slot, is again restored to its normal resting place on shoulder 176.

A finger-grip safety device comprises an auxiliary trigger 184 pivoted to the forward portion of the trigger on a pin 185, the finger portion ofthe auxiliary trigger resting or lying within a slot 186 (see Fig. 23') of the trigger 83. The upper end of the auxiliary trigger 184 has a rearward hook 187 positioned to engage surface 188 (see (Fig. 2l) on. the forward end of the sear 82 when theparts are positioned as shown in Fig 1. The auxiliary trigger 184 is urged counter-clockwise by a spring 189 best seen inFig. 22 which bears against the back of the slot cut in the trigger. When the forward end of the sear is caught by the hook 187,'the sear cannot be rocked counterclockwise around pin to release the firing pin nor can trigger 83 be pulled, but, as soon as a finger grips the trigger 83 the auxiliary trigger is also gripped and moved clockwise to release the forward end of the sear. When the forward end of the sear is released the trigger 83 can be operated and the firingpin released. When the yfinger releases the trigger 83 the parts resume the position in Fig. l, the hook 187 being chamfered as at 192 (see Fig. 22), to enable it to re-hook itself under the action of spring 189.

It will be apparent that ,the rifle cannot be fired until the manual safety 113 is in ineffective position, unless the barrel and barrel extension are in firing position, which position assures the positive locking of the breechblock against the cartridge, and unless the trigger is gripped so as to render hook 187 ineffective, by pressure exerted against the auxiliary trigger 184.

The magazine The magazine 142 (Figs. l5-l9) is of the type which is introduced from a bottom-opening aperture in the barrel support bar and has on its interior a zigzag spring 19S secured at 194 to the bottom inside of the magazine and extending upwardly therein. On either upper side of the magazine at the rear end is pivotally riveted the rearwardly extending arms, or fins, of a U-shaped cartridge feeding-or retaining, device, restrained in its pivotal action by meansof a stud 196 working in slot 197 in the front wall of the magazine. The fins of the feeder device are bent slightly toward each other as shown in Fig. 16, and

are made of spring material, with sufficient spring action i to keep the topmost cartridge in position in the magazine against the ejecting action of the spring 195,- thus allowing the breechblock to force a cartridge forwardly out of the feeding-device by contact of the front upper edge of counterbore 148 of the breechblock therewith, on the return of the breechblock to home position. Upon a firing of va cartridge, the forces of explosion throw back the breechblock and cartridge case to the position shown in Fig. 3, whereupon the empty cartridge case is ejected. As the breec-hblock reaches its rearmost position the topmost cartridge in the magazine is permitted to rise pointing upwardly at'its forward end to where it is pointed into the chamber, as shown in Fig. 4, whereupon, on the return of the breechblock forwardly, under action of the breechblock restoring spring, the cartridge is forced into the chamber ready ,for firing. It will be seen that during this period, the barrel and barrel extension are being held slightly rearwardjoffiring position, as shown in Fig. 4, vbecause =the breechblockllock piece 74 abuts against surface 73. Under such circumstances the firing pin is positively locked against accidental release through jar.

Operation To prepare the gun for operation, assuming that manual safety 113 (Fig. l) is in effective position, and the firing pin is cocked, a loaded magazine is inserted into the bottom aperture and locked in place by catch 70, Athe breechblock is drawn back by the handle 163 (see Fig. 3 also) and if desired held in open position by pin 172. If it is desired to enter the cartridge into the barrel chamber the catch pin 172 is released by action of spring 174 as the tension of the breechblock has been released a little, if it has been used, under the restraint of breechblock restoring spring, which will close the breechblock to home position and lock it in place. If the catch pin 172 has not been used the breechblock is moved back and forth in a continuous cycle. It will be understood that when the rearward movement of the breechblock is made the barrel and barrel extension must necessarily move rearwardly because of the action of breechblock lock piece '74 locking the two together until the S-shaped cam cams down the locking piece permitting relative movement between the breechblock and the barrel extension. As the breechblock is unlocked from the barrel and barrel extension, it will move rearwardly to stop position while the forward surface of the lock piece engages surface 73. As the breechblock moves forward sufficiently to allow the breechblock lock piece to rise the barrel and barrel extension will go to home position and the rifle will be ready to fire, with the breechblock locked in place. The manual safety is then rendered ineffective and the trigger is pulled. The forces of explosion drive back the breechblock barrel and barrel extension until breechblock lock piece 74 is unlatched and then the breechblock continues rearwardly extracting and ejecting the cartridge case, recocking the firing pin, while in the meantime the barrel and barrel extension have been returning, to the position shown in Fig. 4, awaiting the forward movement of the breechblock to the position where the lock piece 74 can rise again. During this time the trigger mechanism has been restored to effective position, ready for refiring. The movement of the mass of the barrel, barrel extension and breechblock, by their inertia, spreads over a relatively long period, the shock of recoil transmitted to the stock, or the operator, is proportionately small due to the counterbalancing effect caused by the weight of the barrel, barrel extension, breechblock lock and its associated mechanism, against the resistance of the barrel restoring spring producing a cushioning effect together, avoiding all the sharp shock that otherwise would be transmitted to the stock and the operator.

The firing pin mechanism being rectilinear in action, in axial alignment with the barrel, and the trigger mechanism being of a nature in which no turning force or forces are created, the rifle is easy to hold on a target while the trigger is being operated and the firing pin projected. This firearm is so supplied with positive operating safeties that a cartridge will not be accidentally discharged during the action of the firing mechanism, or during reloading of a cartridge.

The breech action remains in a definite locked position on the explosion of a cartridge, and until the bullet has left the barrel, does any rearward movements take place until the barrel and its associated parts can move rearward for a short distance together, releasing the breechblock. This being done so soon after the bullet has left the barrel, the gases following it create a heavy vacuum through the barrel due to the opening of the chamber. This all has its advantages in helping to keep the gas from being blown back into the receiver.

I am aware that the device illustrated and described herein is susceptible of considerable variation Without de-` parting from the spirit of my invention and, therefore, I

claim my invention broadly as indicated by the appended claims.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and useful, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:

1. In a firearm, the combination of a barrel and barrel extension, said barrel having an axial bore ending in a cartridge chamber opening into the barrel extension; a breechblock slidably mounted in the barrel extension, on a line parallel to the axial bore for movement to.- ward and away from the chambered end of the barrel; a breechblock locking piece movably mounted in the barrel extension, said piece being movable, when the breechblock is against the chambered end of the barrel, to a position where it blocks movement of the breechblock, and movable away from such blocking position, said locking piece having a cam slot formation; a support on which the barrel and barrel extension together with the breechblock are slidably mounted for recoil movement parallel to the axis of the bore, from a normal firing position to a full recoil position, said support having a member which interlocks with the cam slot formation of the breechblock locking piece so the locking piece must move to unlocking position after the barrel and barrel extension have moved to a certain point in a recoil direction, and so the locking piece must move to a locking position when the barrel reaches and passes said point, on movement back to normal firing position; and said breechblock locking piece having, in unlocking position, a stop portion in abutting relation with a stop portion of the barrel and barrel extension support for preventing return of the barrel and barrel extension to firing position.

2. The structure of claim 1 in which the breechblock locking piece when in unlocking position is held in such position by the breechblock when moved in a recoil direction.

3,-The structure of claim 1 which the cam formation is a transverse S-shaped slot and in which the member on the support which interlocks withthe cam formation is a transverse pin traversing the slot.

4. In a firearm,` the combination of a barrel and barrel extension, said barrel having an axial bore ending in a cartridge chamber opening into the barrel extension; a breechblock slidably mounted in the barrel extension, in a line parallel to the axial bore, for movement toward and away from the chambered end of the barrel; a locking piece movably mounted in the barrel extension, said piece being movable when the breechblock is against the chambered end of the barrel, to a position where it blocks movement of the breechblock, and movable away from such blocking position, said locking piece having a cam slot formation; a support and receiver on and in which the barrel and barrel extension together with the breechblock are slidably mounted for recoil movement, parallel to the axis of the bore, from a normalfiring position to a full. recoil position, said support having a member which interlocks with the cam slot formation of the locking piece so the locking piece must move to unlocking position after the barrel and barrel extension have moved to a certain point in a recoil direction and so the locking piece must move to a locking position when the barrel reaches and passes said point on movement back to a normal firing position; a spring which is compressed when the barrel and barrel extension move in a recoil direction, said spring restoring the barrel and barrel extension to normal firing position, when the recoil forces have subsided, and holding said barrel and barrel extension in such position, said spring operating between the support and the barrel; and a compression spring located between the receiver and the rear end of the breechblock which normally holds the breechblock against thechambered end of the barrel.

5. In a firearm, the combination of a barrel and barrel extension, said barrel having an axial bore ending ,in a cartridge chamber opening into the barrel extension; aI

breechblock slidably mounted in the barrel extension, in a line parallel to the axial bore, for movement .toward and away from the chambered end of the barrel; a locking piece movably mounted in the barrel extension, said piece being movable, when the breech-block is against the chambered end of the barrel, to a position where it blocks movement of the breechblock, and movable away from such blocking position, said locking piece having a cam formation and a stop abutting portion; a support and receiver on and in which the barrel and barrel extension together with the breechblock are slidably mounted for recoil movement parallel to the axis of the bore, from a normal firing position to a full recoil position, said support having a stop surface and a member which interlocks with the cam formation of the locking piece so the locking piece must move to unlatching position as the barrel and barrel extension move to a certain point in a recoil direction and so the locking piece must move to a locking position when the barrel passes said point on movement back to a normal firing position, said brcechblock when moved rearwardly in a recoil direction after the locking member has moved to unlocking position preventing movement of said locking piece to a locking position and consequently preventing return of the barrel and barrel extension to normal tiring position until the breechblock has been returned in a position where it blocks the cartridge chamber.

6. in a tirearxn, the combination of a barrel and barrel extension, said barrel having an axial bore endingin a cartridge chamber opening into the barrel extension; a breechblock slidably mounted in the barrel extension, in a line parallel to the axial bore, for movement toward and away from the chambered end of the barrel; a locking piece movabiy mounted in the barrel extension, said piece being movable, when the breechblock is against the chambered end of the barrel, to a position where it blocks movement of the breechblock, and movable away from such blockingy position, said locking piece having a cam formation; a support and receiver on and in which the barrel and barrel extension together with the breechblock is slidably mounted for recoil movement parallel to the axis ot the bore from a normal firing position to a recoil position, said support having a member which interlocks with thel cam formation of the locking piece so the locking piece must move to unlocking position after the barrel and barrel extension have moved to a certain point in a recoil direction and so the locking piece must move to a locking position when the barrel reaches and passes said point of movement back to a normal firing position, said support having a formation against which the locking piece comes into contact on movement of the barrel and barrel extension from recoil position toward normal position if sai-d locking piece is in unlocking position.

7. [n a firearm, the combination of a barrel support member; a barrel receiver secured to the barrel, support member; a barrel and barrel extension slidably mounted on and in the barrel support and barrel receiver, said barrel having an axial bore ending in a chambered breech, the direction of movement of said barrel and barrel extension in the receiver and on the support being in a -direction parallel to the axis of the bore, and said movement being from a normal ringposition to a recoil position, said barrel and barrel extension being held in a normal firing position by a spring, and said barrel and barrel extension moving between limits determined by formations in the'receiver and barrel support; a breechblock slidably mounted in the barrel extension for movement in a direction parallel to the axis of the bore, said breechblock being normally retained against the chambered end of the barrel by a spring; a locking piece pivotally mounted on the barrel extension and movable to a locking position behind the breechblock when the breechblock is against the chambered end of the barrel, to prevent the breechblock-'moving out of blockingposition, and said locking piece lIbeing movable away-'from locking position to an unlockingposition to permit movement of the breechblock'in a Arecoil direction,said'locking piece having an S-shaped cam slot therein and a rstop portion abutting, .in unlocking position, a stop portion on the barrel and barrel extension support for preventing the return of the barrel and barrelextension to tiring position; a pin running transversely across an aperture in the barrel support in which the locking piece nests and through the S-shaped cam slot,` the `parts being so positioned that when the barrel and barrel extensionare in normal tiring position the locking piece is in breechblock blocking position, and when said barrel and Vbarrel extension have moved a portion of the distance in the recoil direction the locking piece is moved to unlocking position, permitting the breechblock to move away from the chambere-d end of the barrel; and means to fire a cartridge placed in the chambered end of the barrel, whereby, upon the tiring of a cartridge, the forces of explosion drivel the barrel, barrel extension and breechblock backwardly to a point where the unlocking of the locking piece occurs, whereupon the breechblock moves in a recoil direction relative to the barrel extension.

8. The structure of claim 7 in which the breechblock is equipped with cartridge case extracting and ejecting mechanism.

9. The structure of claim 8 in which the firing mechanism is automatically recocked by the recoil of the breechblock. "l0, The structure of claim 9 in which the rearm is equipped with a cartridgeY magazine from which a cartridge is fed on eachreturn of the breechblock from recoil position.

ll. In a firearm having a support; a receiver; a barrel and barrel extension slidably mounted in the receiver and on the support; and cartridge tiring mechanism, the cornbination of a .breechblock slidable in the barrel extension; a breechblock locking piece pivotally mounted on the barrel extension and sai-d locking piece having a cam slot and a stop portion abutting, in unlocking position, a stop portion on the barrel and barrel extension support for preventing the vreturn of the barrel and barrel extension to firing position; a pin supported by the support and working in said cam slot,whereby, upon recoil movement of the barrel and barrel extension, the breechblock lock piece will be'moved to unlocking position after the barrel and barrel extension have moved a certain distance in a recoil direction.

12. In a semi-automatic firearm, the combination of` a support; a receiver; a barrel and barrel extension slidably mounted for movement, on and in the support and receiver, in a recoil direction parallel to the barrel axis, from a normal tiring position to full recoil position; means resiliently urging'the barrel and barrel extension to tiring position; a breechblock slidable in the barrel extension toward and away from a cartridge chamber vin an axial bore of the barrel; means resiliently urging the breechblock against the cartridge chamber; a breechblock lock comprising a member pivotally mounted on the barrel extension and'positively cammed to locking position as the barrel and-barrel yextension pass a certain point in travel from the full recoil position toward normal tiring position, and` positively cammed to an unlocking position at such point on recoil movement of the barrel and barrel extension, .said breechblock lock, when in unlocking position, being held. there by the breechblock when the breechblock .is moved away from the cartridge chamber, and said breeehblock lock when in such unlocking position being in line with a surface of the support which prevents return ofthe barrel and barrel extension to normal firing position, sai-d surface being sloped so that when said breechblock is returned to blocking position the breechblock lock may be cammed to lockingposition; a cartridge tiring mechanism cocked by recoil movement of the breechblock;alever cammed to'a locking position by the barrel extension-whenever'the barrel and barrel extension are away from tiring position preventing the release of the cartridge ring mechanism; trigger means operable for releasing the ring mechanism unless the lever is in locking position; and a cartridge magazine from which a cartridge is fed on each return movement of the breechblock from recoil position.

13. The structure of claim 12 wherein the trigger means, after operation, remains Idisabled until the trigger is allowed to resume a normal position.

14. In a firearm, in combination, a support; a receiver; a barrel and barrel extension slidable for recoil movement in said receiver and on said support; a firing pin springurged toward nng position, said firing pin having a notch by which it may be caught in cocked position; a firing pin control element normally urged to a position to catch the tiring pin in cocked position, but movable to release the n'ng pin; a lever operated by movement of the barrel and barrel extension away from normal tiring position to a position wherein the lever engages the tiring pin control element to prevent it from being moved in a firing pin releasing movement.

15. The combination of claim 14 in which the firing pin control element is moved to releasing position by a trigger-operated sear.

16. The combination of claim 15 in which the sear after causing a releasing movement of the tiring pin control element by-passes it and will remain in ineffective position until the trigger is allowed to return to normal.

17. The structure of claim 7 in which the means to tire the cartridge comprises a tiring pin which is springurged toward ring position and is provided with a notch to be caught in cocked position, a tiring pin control element normally urged to a position to catch the rng pin in cocked position, but movable to release the tiring pin, and a lever operated by movement of the barrel and barrel extension away from normal ring position to a position wherein the lever engages the tiring pin control element to prevent it from being moved in a firing pin releasing movement.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 870,719 Freeman Nov. 12, 1907 918,760 Mauser Apr. 20, 1909 1,452,123 McCrudden Apr. 17, 1923 2,078,155 Pelo Apr. 20, 1937 2,361,519 Williams Oct. 31, 1944 2,366,823 Williams Jan. 9, 1945 2,409,733 Browning Oct. 22, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS 314,320 Great Britain June 24, 1929

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US870719 *Aug 17, 1905Nov 12, 1907Charles FreemanAutomatic firearm.
US918760 *May 6, 1907Apr 20, 1909Paul MauserRecoil-loading rifle.
US1452123 *Jun 19, 1920Apr 17, 1923 mccrudden
US2078155 *Mar 1, 1933Apr 20, 1937Carl PeloAutomatic rifle
US2361519 *Apr 21, 1942Oct 31, 1944Western Cartridge CoFiring mechanism for firearms
US2366823 *Jan 29, 1943Jan 9, 1945Western Cartridge CoFiring mechanism for firearms
US2409733 *Jul 18, 1945Oct 22, 1946J M & M S Browning CompanyRepeating firearm
GB314320A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3404480 *May 23, 1967Oct 8, 1968Zd Y Jana SvermyBreech bolt assemblies for firearms
US4126079 *Sep 1, 1977Nov 21, 1978Perrine Walter EBolt actuating mechanism useable with floating firing pin
Classifications
U.S. Classification89/176, 89/190, 42/70.6, 42/69.2, 89/168, 89/150, 89/139
International ClassificationF41A3/00, F41A3/38, F41A5/02, F41A17/56, F41A17/00, F41A5/00
Cooperative ClassificationF41A17/56, F41A3/38, F41A5/02
European ClassificationF41A3/38, F41A17/56, F41A5/02